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Harmonising the invasiveness concept The EPPO prioritization scheme as a tool to identify the most invasive plant species in Europe Etienne Branquart,

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Presentation on theme: "Harmonising the invasiveness concept The EPPO prioritization scheme as a tool to identify the most invasive plant species in Europe Etienne Branquart,"— Presentation transcript:

1 Harmonising the invasiveness concept The EPPO prioritization scheme as a tool to identify the most invasive plant species in Europe Etienne Branquart, Mark Hill, Cathy Maguire, Uwe Starfinger, Johan van Valkenburg & Sarah Brunel

2 Des mesures préventives contre les espèces invasives 2 /15 ? Apparent dichotomy between scientific questions and societal and motivational issues (see e.g. Richardson et al. 2000, Davis & Thomson 2001, Larson 2007 & Colautti & Richardson 2009) ; Impact often perceived by scientists as not clearly associated to any specific ecological process and linked to subjective intepretation!

3 Des mesures préventives contre les espèces invasives 3 /15 Stage III (localized + numerically rare) Stage IVa (widespread + numerically rare) Stage IVb (localized + dominant) Stage V (widespread + dominant) ENVI filter SPREAD filter DISP filter Standardization of terminology The stage-based approach of Colautti & McIsaac (2004) EARLY WARNING DISP = local dispersal ENVI = environment and community suitability

4 Des mesures préventives contre les espèces invasives 4 /15 Data : Hejda et al. 2009, Journal of Ecology 97: at the stand scale at the landscape scale Standardization of the impact definition Loss in native species through competitive interactions

5 Des mesures préventives contre les espèces invasives 5 /15 Standardization of the impact definition Species loss is density dependent Data : Hejda et al. 2009, Journal of Ecology 97:

6 Des mesures préventives contre les espèces invasives 6 /15 Three main questions Harmonising the invasiveness concept To compare the invasiveness status of non-native plant species based on national definitions and a standardized terminology inspired by the stage-based approach of Colautti & McIsaac (local spread potential + plant capacity to dominate native vegetation); To see if the use of this standardized terminology allows to reduce subjective interpretation and to define plant invasiveness in an unambiguous way; To look how the use of standardized terminology may help in the development of early warning systems.

7 Des mesures préventives contre les espèces invasives 7 /15 1. The EPPO prioritization process 2. Testing the EPPO process 3. Early warning outcomes 4. Conclusion & perspectives

8 Des mesures préventives contre les espèces invasives 8 /15 The process is designed: to produce a reference list of Invasive Alien Plants (IAP) that are established or could potentially establish in the EPPO region, to determine which IAP have the highest priority for an EPPO pest risk analysis (= screening tool to identify quarantine organisms). The EPPO proritization process for IAP General principles Plant species invasiveness: (potential for establishment), local spread capacity, environmental impact

9 Des mesures préventives contre les espèces invasives 9 /15 Local spread capacity Natural dispersion + unintentional human assistance Assessed through a combination of plant life-history traits and field dispersion data. CategoryDispersion distancesDispersion agents Low< a few meters/year - Medium< 100 meters/year ants High>> 100 meters/yearwind, water vertebrates.

10 Des mesures préventives contre les espèces invasives 10 /15 Environmental impact Dominance & colonization of semi-natural habitats Proxy = plant species dominance. Ability to make large, dense and persistent populations. Cover > 80 %. Exclusion of native plant species. Species occurrence in semi-natural habitats is also taken into account. Non-native species dominance LowHigh Habitats Man-made habitats Natural habitats LowMedium Medium High

11 Des mesures préventives contre les espèces invasives 11 /15 Invasiveness categories Combination of spread and impact data Low Medium High Spread capacity High Medium Low Impact (dominance)

12 Des mesures préventives contre les espèces invasives 12 /15 Invasiveness categories Combination of spread and impact data Invasiveness High (V) Medium Low Low Medium High Spread capacity High Medium Low Impact (dominance)

13 Des mesures préventives contre les espèces invasives 13 /15 1. The EPPO prioritization process 2. Testing the EPPO process 3. Early warning outcomes 4. Conclusion & perspectives

14 Des mesures préventives contre les espèces invasives 14 /15 EPPO vs national definitions The European Atlantic region set of 27 non-native plant species established in Europe before 1950; independent assessments using the EPPO process by experts of 5 countries within the European Atlantic region: BE, DE, GB, IE and NL; comparison of plant invasiveness status based on national and EPPO definitions.

15 Des mesures préventives contre les espèces invasives 15 /15 EPPO vs national definitions National invasiveness categories Protocol Assessor Spread Impact BE DE GB IE NL ISEIA E. Branquart * *** GABLIS U. Starfinger ns *** ISEIA M. Hill ns *** ISI C. Maguire ns *** - J. van Valkenburg *** *

16 Des mesures préventives contre les espèces invasives 16 /15 National definitions Invasiveness High Medium Low Mean stdev 0.58

17 Des mesures préventives contre les espèces invasives 17 /15 EPPO definition Invasiveness High Medium Low Mean stdev 0.31

18 Des mesures préventives contre les espèces invasives 18 /15 EPPO vs national definitions EPPO invasiveness categories / high Low Medium High Spread capacity High Medium Low Impact (dominance) Crassula helmsii Fallopia japonica Heracleum mantegazzianum Impatiens glandulifera Ludwigia grandiflora Prunus serotina Rosa rugosa

19 Des mesures préventives contre les espèces invasives 19 /15 EPPO vs national definitions EPPO invasiveness categories / medium Low Medium High Spread capacity High Medium Low Impact (dominance) Cornus sericea Lysichiton americanus Robinia pseudacacia Spiraea spp.

20 Des mesures préventives contre les espèces invasives 20 /15 EPPO vs national definitions EPPO invasiveness categories / medium Low Medium High Spread capacity High Medium Low Impact (dominance) Buddleja davidii Mimulus guttatus Oenothera spp. Senecio inaequidens

21 Des mesures préventives contre les espèces invasives 21 /15 EPPO vs national definitions EPPO invasiveness categories / medium Low Medium High Spread capacity High Medium Low Impact (dominance) Duchesnea indica Quercus rubra

22 Des mesures préventives contre les espèces invasives 22 /15 1. The EPPO prioritization process 2. Testing the EPPO process 3. Early warning outcomes 4. Conclusion & perspectives

23 Des mesures préventives contre les espèces invasives 23 /15 Sounding the early warning bell Relevant EPPO invasiveness categories? Low Medium High Spread capacity High Medium Low Impact (dominance)

24 Des mesures préventives contre les espèces invasives 24 /15 Country Habitat Amelanchier lamarkii Cornus sericea Cotoneaster horizontalis Helianthus tuberosus Lupinus polyphyllus Lysichiton americanus Rhododendron ponticum Spiraea spp. NLHeathlands BE, IEDamp woodlands BEChalk grasslands BE, DERiver banks DE Acidic grasslands DEDamp woodlands GB, IEHeaths and woodlands BERiparian areas Sounding the early warning bell 1. Crossing of the environmental barrier (nat. habitats)

25 Cornus sericea Spread capacity: medium Dominance: high

26 Spread capacity: high Dominance: high Cotoneaster spp.

27 Spread capacity: medium to high Dominance: high Rhododendron ponticum

28 Des mesures préventives contre les espèces invasives 28 /15 Giant Rhubarb Purple Dewplant Redvein Maple Gunnera tinctoria Disphyma crassifolium Acer rufinerve Sounding the early warning bell 2. New detrimental incomers

29 Gunnera tinctoria Spread capacity: high Dominance: high

30 Spread capacity: high Dominance: high Disphyma crassifolium

31 Acer rufinerve Spread capacity: high Dominance: medium to high

32 Des mesures préventives contre les espèces invasives 32 /15 1. The EPPO prioritization process 2. Testing the EPPO process 3. Early warning outcomes 4. Conclusion & perspectives

33 Des mesures préventives contre les espèces invasives 33 /15 Three main questions Harmonising the invasiveness concept To compare the invasiveness status of non-native plant species based on national definitions and a standardized terminology inspired by the stage-based approach of Colautti & McIsaac >>> strong differences between national and standardized terminologies (national defintions are often impact-oriented) To see if the use of this standardized terminology allows to define plant invasiveness in an unambiguous way >>> strong reduction of data heterogeneity and improvement of the repeatability within a biogeographic region To look how the use of standardzed terminology may help in the development of early warning systems >>> provides an objective framework to document detrimental effects of newcomers and to detect behavioural shifts of established populations of non-native plant species.

34 Des mesures préventives contre les espèces invasives 34 /15 Independent assessments by national experts Data integration at national level (national consensus) Country 1Country 2 Country 3 Data integration at a regional level (regional consensus under the umbrella of a European organization) Data integration for early warning based on standardized definitions and protocols

35 Des mesures préventives contre les espèces invasives 35 /15 Monitoring by Member States Field data needed to assess spread and impacts


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