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Flowers with 1 petal (very rare) White Calla Lily Lilies have 6 petals; Fusing of petals

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Flowers with 2 petals (very rare) Euphobia

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Flowers with 2 petals (very rare) Can still be found in Singapore: photo taken outside a HDB flat

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Flowers with 3 petals (quite rare) WaterplantainTrillium

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Flowers with 5 petals (very common) Taken in Singapore Hibiscus

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Bougainvillea: which one is the flower? Pink flower: 3 bracts or modified leaves; light-yellowish flower in centre has 5 petals; actually there are 3 flowers in centre

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Columbine: How many petals? 5 petals & 5 sepals (modified petals) Most of the times, sepals look exactly like petals

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Daffodil: How many petals? 3 petals & 3 sepals (modified petals)

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Flowers with 8 petals (quite rare) Bloodroot Yellow Moonbeam Coreopsis

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Daisies with 13 petals (quite rare) Black-eyed Susan Orange Zinnia

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Daisies with 21 petals (quite rare) Shasta Daisy Petals are bracts or modified leaves; 100-200 flowers in centre; Composite Flower

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Daisies with 34 petals (quite rare) Field DaisyWhite Daisy

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Flowers with 34 petals (quite rare) Sunflower Petals are bracts or modified leaves; 100-200 flowers in centre; Composite Flower

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Exceptions Ixora Daylily

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Exceptions Starflower Passion Flower

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Exception Type 1 Some flowers follow Lucas Sequence: 2, 1, 3, 4, 7, 11, 18, 29, … Like Fibonacci sequence except first 2 terms are 2 and 1, instead of 1 and 1 Fibonacci: 1, 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, 13, 21, 34, … E.g. 4 petals and 7 petals

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Flowers with 4 petals Ixora: Taken in Singapore

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Flowers with 7 petals Starflower

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Exception Type 2 Doubling of the petals: e.g. from 3 to 6 petals; from 5 to 10 petals

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Flowers with 6 petals Daylily 3 petals & 3 sepals We just use laymans term: 6 petals. Why? Or else problem with daisies and sunflower

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Flowers with 6 petals Iris 3 petals & 3 sepals

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Orchid: 6 petals Vanda Miss Joaquim Singapore National Flower 2 petals, 3 sepals, 1 lip (modified petal)

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www.nparks.gov.sg/ plants/van/pla-van- van.shtml Orchid: 6 petals Learn more about Singapore National Flower:

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Orchid: 6 petals NTUs own flower: Dendrobium Nanyang

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Orchid: How many petals? 2 petals & 3 sepals? Lip not obvious or no lip (hybrid)

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Flowers with 10 petals Passion Flower Probably 5 petals & 5 sepals

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Exception Type 3 Mutations and hybrids that have been created artificially also account for exceptions

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Marsh Marigold: 5 or 6 petals? The 6-petal flower is a mutant

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4 or 5 petals? Taken in Singapore The 4-petal flower is a mutant

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Roses: How many petals? Hybrids: many petals

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Wild Roses: How many petals? 5 petals

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Are you sure there is a pattern? Fibonacci: 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, 13, … Lucas: 4, 7, 11 (we havent seen 11 petals) Doubling (even nos.): 6, 10, 12, 14, 16, … (we havent seen 12, 14, 16, … petals) Petals: 1-8, 10-14 (cover most numbers!) If can find 9 or 15 petals, this is rubbish!

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So where is the Fibonacci pattern? The Fibonacci pattern comes mainly from daisies: 13, 21, 34, 55 or 89 Botanists may disagree because some petals are actually sepals or bracts But we go by what we laymen see. Why?

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So where is the Fibonacci pattern? E.g. if nature has fused the 3 petals and the 3 sepals of the White Calla Lily into 1 petal, why call it 3 petals?

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The Internet Search for 9 Petals… Marsh Marigold: 5-9 deep yellow petals But mostly 5 petals 6-petal is a mutant 5-9 sepals; no petals Website can be wrong

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The Internet Search for 9 Petals… Lesser Celandine: 5-9 yellow petals But mostly 8 petals Website can be wrong or the rest are mutants

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The Internet Search for 9 Petals… Mayapple: 6-9 petals But mostly 6 petals Website can be wrong or the rest are mutants

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The Internet Search for 9 Petals… Royal Ramparts: 9 deep red-purple petals Japanese Iris Nursery Probably a hybrid

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The Internet Search for 9 Petals… Áashild Kalleberg: 8-9 petals & 3 sepals Website says it is a hybrid Some sites on dried flower arrangements Conclusion: Flowers with 9 petals are either mutants or hybrids Websites are not always reliable

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Websites on Fibonacci Numbers ccins.camosun.bc.ca/~jbritton/fibslide/jbfibslide. htm (contains other patterns as well) ccins.camosun.bc.ca/~jbritton/fibslide/jbfibslide. htm library.thinkquest.org/27890/applications5.html

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How many ridges in a banana? Hint: It is a Fibonacci number ridge

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