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Classification of Living Things. Tools Used to Classify Organisms 1. Comparative Morphology Compares Physical Structures, Traits 2. Evolutionary Relationships.

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Presentation on theme: "Classification of Living Things. Tools Used to Classify Organisms 1. Comparative Morphology Compares Physical Structures, Traits 2. Evolutionary Relationships."— Presentation transcript:

1 Classification of Living Things

2 Tools Used to Classify Organisms 1. Comparative Morphology Compares Physical Structures, Traits 2. Evolutionary Relationships Related Organisms with common ancestors, Derived Characters 3. DNA/RNA comparison

3 Timeline of Classification – 322 B.C. Aristotle – 2 Kingdom Broad Classification Carl Linnaeus – 2 Kingdom Multi-divisional Classification – Kingdom, Phylum, Class, Order, Family Genus, Species 3. Evolutionary Classification – (After Darwin) – Group By lines of Evolutionary Descent 4. 5 Kingdom System – 1950s 5. 6 Kingdom System – 1990s 6. 3 Domain System – 1990s

4 Linnaeus Divisions Still Used in Modern Classification 1. Kingdom – largest group 2. Phylum 3. Class 4. Order 5. Family 6. Genus 7. Species (Most Closely Related)

5 Mnemonic Device – To help remember categories and order Kingdom - King Phylum - Phillip Class – Came Order – Over Family - For Genus - Ginger Species - Snaps

6 Taxons Within each category, a particular group is called a Taxon Many Taxons for each category Ex: Mammalia is the Taxon for the Class category in Humans Ex: Homo is the Taxon for the Genus category in Humans Carnivora is the Taxon for the Order category in Lions

7 Linnaeus Introduced Scientific Naming Binomial Nomenclature is the 2 word scientific name of an organism – Uses Genus and Species Genus is capitalized, not species, all italicized In writing the name, cant italicize, so underline – Homo sapien (Genus and species of Human) – Panthera leo (Genus and species of Lion)

8 Example Classification Lion 1. Kingdom – Animalia (all Animals) 2. Phylum – Chordata (All vertebrate animals) 3. Class – Mammalia (All Mammals – mammary glands) 4. Order – Carnivora (Meat eaters) 5. Family – Felidae (includes all Cats) 6. Genus – Panthera (Includes all roaring Cats) 7. Species – leo (Lions)

9 From Kingdom to Species

10 6 Kingdom System Animalia Plantae Fungi Protista Eubacteria Archaeabacteria

11 Now, using the sheet like the chart below, fill in the pertinent dataas described in the titleGET FROM ME!

12

13 3 Domains – write this in the domain name box. Eubacteria – Common Bacteria Archea Bacteria – ancient Bacteria Eukarya – Includes everything else, Protist, Fungi, Plants, and Animals

14 4. Three Domain System 1. Domain Bacteria – Corresponds to Eubacteria Kingdom (Characteristics) – Unicellular Prokaryotic Organisms No Nucleus Ecologically Diverse – live everywhere! Metabolically Diverse – Cell Walls contain substance called Peptidoglycan – special protein and sugar Target of many Antibiotics

15 Three Domain System 2. Domain Archaea – Ancient Bacteria – Corresponds to Kingdom Archaeabacteria – Unicellular, Prokaryotes Metabolically Diverse No nucleus Live in Extreme environments like those of early Earth Cell walls without Peptidoglycan – A trait used to distinguish between Archaea and Bacteria Domains

16 Three Domain System 3. Eukarya Contains Kingdoms: Protista, Fungi, Plantae, Animalia Eukaryotic, single or multi-cellular Organisms Nucleus Most visible life Humans are in Domain Eukarya

17 BEFORE BEGINNING THIS SECTION, YOULL NEED ANOTHER SHEET FROM ME!

18 Invertebrate Overview: Kingdom Animalia Phylum Porifera -sponges Phylum Cnidaria -jellyfish, sea anemones Phylum Platyhelminthes -tapeworms, flukes Phylum Nematoda -pinworms, Ascaris Phylum Mollusca -clams, squid, octopi Phylum Annelida -earthworms, leeches Phylum Arthropoda-insects, crayfish Phylum Echinodermata-starfish, sand dollars

19 Phylum Porifera Ex. Sponges Multicellular WITHOUT TISSUES Heterotrophic filter feeders Asymmetrical No cephalization present No coelom Basic body parts: ostia, spongocoel, osculum, choanocytes with flagella

20 Figure 33.2 Sponges

21 Figure 33.3 Anatomy of a sponge

22 Porifera Sponges are aquatic animals that represent a transition from unicellular to multicellular life. Of the 10,000 species of sponges, only about 150 species live in fresh water. Adult sponges are sessile, meaning that they attach themselves to a surface and do not move. Because they are sessile, sponges are filter feeders, screening food out of the water that flows through their body.

23 Porifera / Sponges

24 Phylum Cnidaria Ex. Jellyfish Two germ layers: ectoderm and endoderm No cephalization No coelom Soft, sac-like body plan, two way digestion (with one opening – mouth) Two body forms: sessile polyp and free-swimming medusa Basic body parts: bell, cnidocytes with nematocysts, tentacles, gastrovascular cavity, gonads

25 Figure 33.4bx Jelly medusa

26 Table 33.1 Classes of Phylum Cnidaria

27 Figure 33.4 Polyp and medusa forms of cnidarians

28 Figure 33.5 A cnidocyte of a hydra

29 Cnidaria Freshwater hydra, jellyfish, and corals go through a transition in body forms. The medusa stage (bell- shaped) is specialized for swimming and the polyp stage (vase-shaped) is specialized for a sessile life. All members of the phylum have these two stages at one time in their life, even though the medusa stage may be found only as an embryo. All cnidarians have tentacles containing cnidocysts and nematocysts, specialized stinging cells for defense and capturing food.

30 Cnidaria / Hydra

31 Cnidaria / Coral

32 Cnidaria / Jellyfish

33 Phylum Platyhelminthes Ex: tapeworms Three germ layers: ectoderm, mesoderm, endoderm Bilateral symmetry Cephalization is present No coelom – acoelomates!!!! Use diffusion to transport materials through body Mouth forms first – protostomes Basic body parts: mouth, pharynx, intestine, ganglia, flame cells

34 Figure 33.9x A flatworm

35 Figure Anatomy of a planarian

36 Figure Anatomy of a tapeworm

37 Phylum Nematoda Ex. Pinworms Three germ layers present – ectoderm, mesoderm, endoderm unsegmented Bilateral symmetry Cephalization present Pseudocoelom present Mouth forms first – protostome Basic body parts: mouth, anus, intestines

38 Figure 33.25a Free-living nematode

39 Figure 33.25ax Nematode, C. elegans

40 Nematoda Roundworms have a long, slender body that tapers at both ends. They range in length from 1 millimeter to 4 feet in length. This phylum is the first to have a digestive tract with two openings, which is a major advancement over the phyla up to this point. The vast majority of these animals are free-living, but there are about 150 species that are plant and animal parasites. Nematoda

41 Nematoda / Roundworms

42 Phylum Mollusca Ex. Clam, squid Three germ layers present: ectoderm, mesoderm, endoderm Have an external or internal shell for support Bilateral symmetry Cephalization present Has a TRUE COELOM Mouth develops first – protostome Basic body parts: gills, specialized foot

43 Table 33.3 Major Classes of Phylum Mollusca

44 Figure 33.18x Garden snail

45 Figure A bivalve: Scallop

46 Figure Cephalopods: Squid (top left and bottom left), nautilus (top right), octopus (bottom right)

47 Mollusca Gastropoda: most members of this class have a one-piece, external shell. Gastropods include snails and slugs. Bivalvia: members have an external shell divided into two halves that are connected by a hinge. Bivalves include clams, oysters, and scallops. Cephalopoda:these marine mollusks are the most advanced group in the phylum. Their nervous and circulatory systems are highly advanced and they have an internal shell supporting the body. Octopus and squids are cephalopods, including the giant squid - the world's largest known invertebrate. Mollusca - Snails, Clams, Squid and Octopus are the first animals with a true coelom, a hollow, fluid-filled cavity completely surrounded by the mesoderm. The phylum is divided into three classes.

48 Mollusca / Octopus

49 Mollusca / Squid

50 Mollusca / Clams

51 Mollusca / Snails

52 Phylum Mollusca

53 Body Plan Different shapes of Mollusks (clam, octopi) are evolution of Basic Body Plan Basic Plan: 4 Specific Mollusk Parts – Foot – many shapes, parts; movement – Mantle – tissue that covers body – Shell – made by glands in mantle, covers body – Visceral Mass – contains internal organs

54 Shell Mantle cavity Foot Gills Digestive tract Early mollusk Clam Squid Figure 27–21 The Mollusk Body Plan Snail

55 FOOT MANTLE SHELL VISCERAL MASS

56 Feeding All types of diets Radula: Flexible, tongue like part with hundreds of teeth attached – Scrape algae, soft tissues of plants or drill through shells, tear soft tissue Sharp Jaws used by Octopi,Sea,Slugs – Can also contain poison Clams, Oysters, Scallops filter feed through Siphon – Food trapped on sticky Gills

57

58 Respiration and Circulation Aquatic: Gills inside Mantle Cavity O2 Blood Vessels Land: Mantle Cavity O2 Blood Vessels – Require moist lining Open Circulatory System – carries O2, nutrients – Heart pumps Blood to vessels – Vessels to Sinuses – Sinuses to Gills O2 picked up, CO2 released – Blood Back to Heart

59 Excretion Cells Release Nitrogen Waste Blood Nephridia Remove Nitrogen Waste Out of Body Nephridium

60 Response Complexity of Nervous System Varies 2 Shelled Mollusks – Ganglia, Nerve Cords, Simple Sense Organs – Clams Octopi – Brains; Memory! Chromatophores – Skin Cell ability to change skin color and texture to match surroundings – Most Intelligent Invert Animal – Can be trained to perform tasks

61 Movement Many Different Ways Snails – S L O W…. – Secrete Mucus on Foot; Ripple Foot Octopi – FAST – Draws Water into Mantle, Forces out through Siphon

62 Reproduction Snails and 2 Shelled – Sexually, External – Release high # of Eggs and Sperm in water – Develop into free swimming larvae – Larvae called Trochophore Some Hermaphroditic Tentacled Mollusks – Internal Fertilization

63 Class Gastropoda Stomach Footed Nudibranchs, Slugs, Snails Ventral Muscular Foot to Move 1 or no Shell Can secrete toxins, ink Ex: Nudibranchs can eat Cnidarians; Hijack Nematocysts for Protection

64 Snail External Anatomy

65 Nudibranch with spiny tentacles

66 Class Bivalvia 2 Shelled Mollusks Oysters, Clams, Mussels, Scallops 2 Shells Held By 1 or 2 Muscles Flap Shells, Burrow to Move Filter Feed – Cilia on Gills Current Can use Muscles near Mouth to get Food

67 Section 27-4 Mouth Shell Stomach Coelom Heart Nephridium Adductor muscle Anus Excurrent siphon Incurrent siphon Gills Mantle cavity Foot Intestine Mantle cavity Adductor muscle Anatomy of a Clam

68 Class Cephalopoda Intelligent Mollusks Octopi, Squid, Cuttlefish, Nautiluses Head attached to Foot Complex Eyes Foot -- Divided into Tentacles 8+ with Suckers Small Internal Shell – adapted or lost Only Nautiluses have External Shell

69 Cephalopod Examples

70 Phylum Annelida Ex: earthworm Three germ layers present Bilateral symmetry present Cephalization present True coelom present Mouth develops first – protostome Basic body parts: mouth, anus, specialized intestine, segments

71 Figure 33.23x External anatomy of an earthworm

72 Anneilda Segmented worms are more advanced than roundworms and have several visible characteristics that distinguish them. They are named for the many body segments that make an annelid look like it is composed of a series of "rings". Unlike roundworms, the segmented worms have an obvious head and tail. All segmented worms have one of two types of structures extending from their bodies that are used for locomotion. Most annelids have hair-like bristles known as setae

73 Segmented Worms

74 Figure Anatomy of an earthworm

75 Phylum Arthropoda Ex. Insects, spiders, crayfish, millipedes, centipedes Three germ layers present Exoskeleton present that requires molting (shedding) Jointed appendages Bilateral symmetry Cephalization present True coelom present Mouth forms first Basic body parts: head, thorax, abdomen, (or cephalothorax and abdomen), spiracles and tracheae, open circulatory system

76 Table 33.5 Some Major Arthropod Classes

77 Figure External anatomy of an arthropod

78 Figure 33.30b Spider anatomy

79 Figure Anatomy of a grasshopper, an insect

80 Phylum Arthropoda Jointed Foot Largest Animal Phylum

81 feed on respire using reproduce using Section 28-1 have well-developed Concept Map Anthropods Internal fertilization All types of foods External fertilization HeartBrainMuscles Tracheal tubes Book lungsBook gills

82 Phylum Overview Most successful Phylum of All Time 750,000 species identified Ex: Shrimp, Butterflies, Crabs, Spiders Covered in hard Exoskeleton made of Chitin – Gives Support – Adapted to environment – water loss/protect Jointed Appendages – Legs, Antennae – Increased Muscle Need for Joint Movement

83 Evolution of Arthropods 600 MYA – Appeared in Sea Moved into all Environments – Air, Water, Land Body plan modified from many segment origin Trilobite Fossil 500MYA Modern Arthropods – fewer segments, more specialized appendages – Cephalothorax, Thorax, Abdomen, Head

84 The Exoskeleton Provides Protection, Support Adapted to Environment, Lifestyle – Fruit flies versus Lobsters Exoskeleton – environment specific – Specific to Oxygen requirements – O2 level has changed, insect size has changed – Molting – shedding of exoskeleton to accommodate for growth

85 Figure A trilobite fossil

86 Appendages Jointed and attached to body segments Evolved over time – Wings, Legs, Antennae, Claws, Mouthparts, Tails, Flippers Adaptive Radiation – new characteristics can introduce arthropods to new habitats – Ex: Wing Evolution New Habitat (Sky)

87 Feeding All Types of Diet Evolution – Mouthpart Adaptation and Diversity – Extreme range of mouthparts – biting, sucking, piercing, etc – Mandible – chewing jaw joint

88 Excretion Malpighian Tubules – Sac like organs –Extract wastes from Blood, add to feces Aquatic – Tubules excrete directly into water Compromise between exoskeleton protection with exchange of materials and gases

89 Respiration and Circulation 1. Terrestrial Insects Breath through Tracheal Tubes 2. Spiders – Book Lungs – Stacked Layers of Respiratory Tissue 3. Aquatic Arthropods – Feather-like Gills Open Circulatory System

90 Class Insecta 3 Body Segments: Head, Thorax, Abdomen One/Two Pairs of Wings attached to Thorax 3 Pairs of Legs Antennae Present Metamorphosis – 2 Types

91 Figure Anatomy of a grasshopper, an insect

92 Metamorphosis – Development Stages Incomplete – Immature Stage looks like smaller Adult Stage – Nymph Adult - Grasshopper Complete – Larval Stage specialized for growing – Look Different – Caterpillar/Butterfly

93 Section 28-3 Incomplete Metamorphosis Complete Metamorphosis Eggs Larva Pupa Adult Nymph Adult Eggs Larva Adult Immature Metamorphosis

94 Figure Metamorphosis of a butterfly

95 Class Crustacea Lobsters, Shrimp, Crabs 2 Body Segments – Abdomen Cephalothorax Swimmerets –for swimming 4 pairs of Walking Legs Chelipeds - Pinchers Gills Mandible Antennae

96 Figure External anatomy of an arthropod

97 Class Arachnida One/Two Main Body Parts – Cephalothorax, Abdomen 6 Pairs of Appendages – 2 Feeding, 4 walking Fangs – Secrete digestive juices and poisons Book Lungs No Antennae Web-making –predation and mating behaviors

98 Figure 33.30b Spider anatomy

99 Figure 33.30x Lycosid spider: female with offspring

100 Ecology of Arthropods Compete with Humans for food Pollinators Provide food for Humans, food chain Pesticide Pollution to Combat Arthropods Carry Disease – Malaria

101 Arthropoda Three-fourths of all animal species, including spiders, crayfish, and insects, are arthropods. This phylum is composed of a very diverse group of animals that are bilaterally symmetrical. The following characteristics have allowed arthropods to adapt to almost every environment on Earth: Jointed appendages: the phylum name means "jointed foot". All the appendages (body extensions) of arthropods are jointed, giving them a wide range of controlled motions.Jointed appendages: the phylum name means "jointed foot". All the appendages (body extensions) of arthropods are jointed, giving them a wide range of controlled motions. Exoskeleton: the exoskeleton provides support and protection. It is composed of three layers that are secreted by the epidermis.Exoskeleton: the exoskeleton provides support and protection. It is composed of three layers that are secreted by the epidermis. Segmented body: the segments in the arthropod body make movement possible, even with the hard exoskeleton.

102 Arthropod / Spiders

103 Arthropod / Crayfish

104 Phylum Echinodermata Ex: starfish 3 germ layers present Biradial symmetry in adults No cephalization in adults True coelom present Anus forms first – deuterostome!!! Basic body parts: spiny skin, endoskeleton, water vascular system, tube feet

105 Figure Echinoderms: Sea star (top left), brittle star (top right), sea urchin (bottom left), sea lily (bottom right),

106 Figure Anatomy of a sea star

107 Echinodermata Starfish, sand dollars, and sea urchins are found in marine environments ranging in depth from shallow tide pools to 10,000 meters. Most of the 7,000 species of echinoderms have a type of radial symmetry called pentaradial symmerty, in which the body parts extend from the center along five spokes. They have a water-vascular system - a network of water-filled canals inside their body. They have many small, movable extensions of the water-vascular system called tube feet, which aid in movement, feeding, respiration, and excretion

108 Echinodermata / Starfish

109 Echinoderms / Sand dollars and Sea Urchins

110 Phylum Echinodermata Spiny Skin Starfish, Sea Cucumbers, Sea Urchins, Sand Dollars

111 Figure Echinoderms: Sea star (top left), brittle star (top right), sea urchin (bottom left), sea lily (bottom right),

112 Phylum Overview Sessile/Slow Moving Animals 5 Spines typical Radial Symmetry Thin ENDOSKELETON Water Vascular System Tube Feet External Sexual Reproduction

113 Closest Relation to Chordates Develop from Bilateral Larvae Deuterostomes – Developmental Pattern Radial Cleavage Mouth End Forms opposite of Anus End

114 Functions Water Vascular System -- Network of Hydraulic Canals – Radiate from center Tube Feet – Tube Feet – locomotion – Gas Exchange - Gills Feeding – Mouth on Bottom Short Digestive Tract Anus on Dorsal Side

115 Figure Anatomy of a sea star


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