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Objectives Describe characteristics common to animals

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1 Objectives Describe characteristics common to animals
Describe the characteristics of major animal phyla Identify on sight members of major animal phyla Define animal, chordate, vertebrate, invertebrate

2 Characteristics of animals
Multicellular Eukaryotic Heterotrophic Sexual reproduction with some hermaphrodites No cell wall Motile at some stage Rapid response to environment Nerve cells Muscle cells Both

3 Taxonomy

4 Taxonomy

5 Classification 27 Phyla – discuss major ones Grouped as:
Invertebrates: NO backbone/vertebral column Vertebrates: backbone/vertebral column What is a backbone and what is a chordate? Backbone: supportative bone structure Chordate: has nerve chord We will cover: 6 phyla 5 invertebrate phyla 8 classes within the chordate phyla

6 Classification Domain Kingdom Phylum Eukarya Animalia Sponges
Cnidarians Flatworms Roundworms Segmented worms Molluscs Arthropods Echinoderms Chordates

7 Classification: Invertebrate (no backbone)
Domain Kingdom Phylum Eukarya Animalia Sponges Cnidarians Flatworms Roundworms Segmented worms Molluscs Arthropods Echinoderms Chordates

8 Classification Domain Kingdom Phylum Eukarya Animalia Sponges
Cnidarians Flatworms Roundworms Segmented worms Molluscs Arthropods Echinoderms Chordates

9 Sponges Sponges (Porifera) Sac-like body
Cellular level of organization 2 cell layers Filter feeder Rudimentary nervous system CAN regenerate Figure: 16-28b Title: Sponges. Caption: (b) Tiny appendages attach this tubular sponge to rocks. (b)

10 PORIFERA Includes all types of sponges.
Essential life functions are performed at the level of cells Water flows through sponge serving as respiratory, excretory, and internal transport system at same time Budding serves as asexual reproduction.

11 Classification Domain Kingdom Phylum Eukarya Animalia Sponges
Cnidarians Flatworms Roundworms Segmented worms Molluscs Arthropods Echinoderms Chordates

12 Cnidaria (Coelenterata)
Marine Radial symmetry Two cell layers with differentiation; one body opening Alternating body forms (polyp & medusa) Stinging cells

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14 Cnidaria Examples

15 CNIDARIANS Includes jellyfish, sea anemones, hydras and coral.
Soft-bodied animals with stinging tentacles arranged in circles around their mouth. Life cycles contain sessile flowerlike polyp and the motile bell-shaped medusa Lack centralized nervous system and general brain.

16 Classification Domain Kingdom Phylum Eukarya Animalia Sponges
Cnidarians Flatworms Roundworms Segmented worms Molluscs Arthropods Echinoderms Chordates

17 Flatworms (Platyhelminthes)
3 cell layers Acoelomate Many parasitic and/or pathogenic One way digestive system

18 PLATYHELMINTHES Includes flatworms, flukes, and planarians.
Simplest animals with bilateral symmetry. Perform life functions at the level of organ systems. Aquatic and free living parasites. Lack usual circulatory and respiratory systems.

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21 Classification Domain Kingdom Phylum Eukarya Animalia Sponges
Cnidarians Flatworms Roundworms Segmented worms Molluscs Arthropods Echinoderms Chordates

22 Roundworms (Nematoda)
Moist environments Most free-living; many parasitic Pseudocoelomate Tube-like digestive system Well-developed senses in free-living

23 NEMATODA Includes all roundworms.
Simplest animals to have a digestive system with two openings-mouth and anus. Most numerous of all multicellular animals. Free living-found in virtually all parts of the Earth. Have simple nervous systems and reproduce sexually.

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27 Classification Domain Kingdom Phylum Eukarya Animalia Sponges
Cnidarians Flatworms Roundworms Segmented worms Molluscs Arthropods Echinoderms Chordates

28 Annelids Segmented Coelomate Hydrostatic skeleton
Brain + solid nerve cord Three main types Marine Worms 1 Clam worms (predators) 2 Fan worms (prey) Earthworms Leeches

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30 Annelids

31 POLYCHAETES Includes sandworms and bloodworms.
Characterized by paired paddlelike appendages on body segments. Appendages are tipped with bristles that give this class its name. Live in cracks in coral reefs, sand, mud, piles of rocks, and open water.

32 Classification Domain Kingdom Phylum Eukarya Animalia Sponges
Cnidarians Flatworms Roundworms Segmented worms Mollusks Arthropods Echinoderms Chordates

33 Molluscs (Mollusca) Soft bodied with protective shells Aquatic/Marine
Often mucus feeders Body parts Visceral mass Foot Mantle (secretes shell)

34 MOLLUSKS Includes clams, mussels, squids, octopi, slugs, and snails.
Soft-bodied animals with external or internal shell. Body consists of: foot, mantle, shell,+ visceral mass. Utilizes both open and closed circulatory systems. Use nephridia to remove ammonia from blood.

35 Mollusks

36 GASTROPODS Class including slugs and snails.
Move by means of large foot on ventral side. Most have one-piece shell for protection. Defenses from predators include: bad-taste, poison, stinging, nocturnality, and quickness. Bright colors are warnings of danger.

37 CEPHALOPODS Class includes squids and octopi, cuttlefish, and nautiluses. Eight flexible tentacles are equipped suction cups for grabbing fish. Lack protective shell but have developed form of jet propulsion for defense. Able to squirt dark, foul-tasting ink into water and octopi can change colors to those of its surroundings.

38 Classification Domain Kingdom Phylum Eukarya Animalia Sponges
Cnidarians Flatworms Roundworms Segmented worms Molluscs Arthropods Echinoderms Chordates

39 Arthropods 3 types: Major characteristics: 1 Crustaceans 2 Insects
3 Arachnids Major characteristics: 1 Exoskeleton (chitin) Protection Attachment for muscles Movement Prevent drying out 2 Segmented bodies Head, thorax, abdomen, w/ jointed appendages 3 Well developed brains and nervous systems

40 Arthropods: Crustaceans

41 Arthropods: Insects

42 Arthropods: Arachnids

43 Classification Domain Kingdom Phylum Eukarya Animalia Sponges
Cnidarians Flatworms Roundworms Segmented worms Molluscs Arthropods Echinoderms Chordates

44 Echinoderms Marine animals Internal skeleton Spiny skin
Radially symmetrical

45 Echinoderms

46 Classification Domain Kingdom Phylum Eukarya Animalia Sponges
Segmented worms Molluscs Arthropods Echinoderms Chordates

47 Phylum Chordata

48 Chordates have during some time in their development:
1 notochord 2 hollow nerve cord in the back 3 pharyngeal pouches (embryonic structures) 4 tail

49 Classification Domain Kingdom Phylum Class Eukarya Animalia Sponges
Segmented worms Molluscs Arthropods Echinoderms Chordates Lancets Tunicates Jawless Fish Cartilaginous Fish Bony Fish Amphibians Reptiles Birds Mammals

50 Lancets (invertebrate)

51 Tunicates (invertebrate)

52 Classification Domain Kingdom Phylum Class Eukarya Animalia Sponges
Segmented worms Molluscs Arthropods Echinoderms Chordates Lancets Tunicates Jawless Fish Cartilaginous Fish Vertebrates Bony Fish Amphibians Reptiles Birds Mammals

53 Vertebrates 1 living internal skeleton 2 closed circulation
3 paired appendages 4 efficient breathing and excretion 5 highly developed brains

54 Jawless Fishes-Agnatha (lampreys)

55 Cartilaginous Fishes-Chondrichthyes
3 Types Sharks Rays Skates 3 Well developed senses electrical pressure smell

56 Bony Fishes-Osteichthyes
Claim to fame: (most numerous vertebrate) 3 Types Perch Trout Salmon 3 Traits Bony skeleton Scales Jaws

57 Amphibia 4 types 3 traits Frogs Toads Newts Salamanders Usually 4 legs
Usually metamorphose Smooth, moist skin

58 Amphibian Metamorphosis

59 Reptilia 4 types: 3 traits Turtles Alligators Snakes Lizards
Usually 4 legs Egg with a shell Dry, scaly skin

60 Aves Traits: Classification Feathers Hard-shelled egg
Usually wings for flying Classification Beak type Foot type

61 Birds Adaptations for flying Wings Hollow, light bones Feathers
Sternum Well-developed heart Well-developed lungs

62 Mammalia 4 traits 3 types: Mammary glands Body hair Warm-blooded
Infant dependency 3 types: 1 Monotremes 2 Marsupials 3 Placental

63 Mammals: Monotremes 2 types Reproduction: 1 spiny anteater
2 duckbilled platypus Reproduction: Eggs

64 Mammals: Marsupials Location: Australia, 4 types: Reproduction:
1 opossum (here) 2 koala 3 kangaroo 4 Tasmanian wolf Reproduction: Born very early Crawl into a pouch Attach to a mammary gland

65 Mammals: Placental Mammals

66 Order: Primates Traits: Family: Hominidae Genus: Homo
1 opposable thumb 2 learned behavior 3 big brain Family: Hominidae Genus: Homo Species: Homo sapiens

67 Hominids H.habilis H.sapiens Homo ergaster H. heidel- bergensis
Australopithecus afarensis H. neanderthalensis H. erectus A. robustus Ardipithecus ramidus Figure: 15-13 Title: A possible evolutionary tree for humans. Caption: This hypothetical family tree shows skulls and facial reconstructions of representative specimens. Although many paleontologists consider this to be the most likely human family tree, there are several alternative interpretations of the known hominid fossils.. Fossils of the earliest hominid, Ardipithecus ramidus, are too fragmentary to enable reconstruction of a skull; the photo inset is of teeth, which reveal much about the specimen’s relationship to other hominids. A. africanus A. boisei

68 Neanderthals vs. Cro-Magnons

69 New member of Homo genus repo
Homo florensiensis Small island in Indonesia: Florens Short stature Grapefruit sized skull Island evolution Isolation Inbreeding Reduced resources Limited competition Get smaller Co-existed with modern humans until 18,000 years ago.

70 Who are you? Domain: Eukarya Eukaryote Kingdom: Animalia Animal
Phylum: Chordata Chordate Class: Mammalia Mammal Order: Primata Primate Family: Hominidae Hominid Genus: Homo Human Species: sapiens modern


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