Presentation on theme: "Objectives Describe characteristics common to animals"— Presentation transcript:
1Objectives Describe characteristics common to animals Describe the characteristics of major animal phylaIdentify on sight members of major animal phylaDefine animal, chordate, vertebrate, invertebrate
2Characteristics of animals MulticellularEukaryoticHeterotrophicSexual reproduction with some hermaphroditesNo cell wallMotile at some stageRapid response to environmentNerve cellsMuscle cellsBoth
5Classification 27 Phyla – discuss major ones Grouped as: Invertebrates: NO backbone/vertebral columnVertebrates: backbone/vertebral columnWhat is a backbone and what is a chordate?Backbone: supportative bone structureChordate: has nerve chordWe will cover:6 phyla5 invertebrate phyla8 classes within the chordate phyla
6Classification Domain Kingdom Phylum Eukarya Animalia Sponges CnidariansFlatwormsRoundwormsSegmented wormsMolluscsArthropodsEchinodermsChordates
7Classification: Invertebrate (no backbone) Domain Kingdom PhylumEukarya Animalia SpongesCnidariansFlatwormsRoundwormsSegmented wormsMolluscsArthropodsEchinodermsChordates
8Classification Domain Kingdom Phylum Eukarya Animalia Sponges CnidariansFlatwormsRoundwormsSegmented wormsMolluscsArthropodsEchinodermsChordates
9Sponges Sponges (Porifera) Sac-like body Cellular level of organization2 cell layersFilter feederRudimentary nervous systemCAN regenerateFigure: 16-28bTitle:Sponges.Caption:(b) Tiny appendages attach this tubular sponge to rocks.(b)
10PORIFERA Includes all types of sponges. Essential life functions are performed at the level of cellsWater flows through sponge serving as respiratory, excretory, and internal transport system at same timeBudding serves as asexual reproduction.
11Classification Domain Kingdom Phylum Eukarya Animalia Sponges CnidariansFlatwormsRoundwormsSegmented wormsMolluscsArthropodsEchinodermsChordates
12Cnidaria (Coelenterata) MarineRadial symmetryTwo cell layers with differentiation; one body openingAlternating body forms (polyp & medusa)Stinging cells
15CNIDARIANS Includes jellyfish, sea anemones, hydras and coral. Soft-bodied animals with stinging tentacles arranged in circles around their mouth.Life cycles contain sessile flowerlike polyp and the motile bell-shaped medusaLack centralized nervous system and general brain.
16Classification Domain Kingdom Phylum Eukarya Animalia Sponges CnidariansFlatwormsRoundwormsSegmented wormsMolluscsArthropodsEchinodermsChordates
17Flatworms (Platyhelminthes) 3 cell layersAcoelomateMany parasitic and/or pathogenicOne way digestive system
18PLATYHELMINTHES Includes flatworms, flukes, and planarians. Simplest animals with bilateral symmetry.Perform life functions at the level of organ systems.Aquatic and free living parasites.Lack usual circulatory and respiratory systems.
21Classification Domain Kingdom Phylum Eukarya Animalia Sponges CnidariansFlatwormsRoundwormsSegmented wormsMolluscsArthropodsEchinodermsChordates
22Roundworms (Nematoda) Moist environmentsMost free-living; many parasiticPseudocoelomateTube-like digestive systemWell-developed senses in free-living
23NEMATODA Includes all roundworms. Simplest animals to have a digestive system with two openings-mouth and anus.Most numerous of all multicellular animals.Free living-found in virtually all parts of the Earth.Have simple nervous systems and reproduce sexually.
31POLYCHAETES Includes sandworms and bloodworms. Characterized by paired paddlelike appendages on body segments.Appendages are tipped with bristles that give this class its name.Live in cracks in coral reefs, sand, mud, piles of rocks, and open water.
32Classification Domain Kingdom Phylum Eukarya Animalia Sponges CnidariansFlatwormsRoundwormsSegmented wormsMollusksArthropodsEchinodermsChordates
33Molluscs (Mollusca) Soft bodied with protective shells Aquatic/Marine Often mucus feedersBody partsVisceral massFootMantle (secretes shell)
34MOLLUSKS Includes clams, mussels, squids, octopi, slugs, and snails. Soft-bodied animals with external or internal shell.Body consists of: foot, mantle, shell,+ visceral mass.Utilizes both open and closed circulatory systems.Use nephridia to remove ammonia from blood.
36GASTROPODS Class including slugs and snails. Move by means of large foot on ventral side.Most have one-piece shell for protection.Defenses from predators include: bad-taste, poison, stinging, nocturnality, and quickness.Bright colors are warnings of danger.
37CEPHALOPODSClass includes squids and octopi, cuttlefish, and nautiluses.Eight flexible tentacles are equipped suction cups for grabbing fish.Lack protective shell but have developed form of jet propulsion for defense.Able to squirt dark, foul-tasting ink into water and octopi can change colors to those of its surroundings.
38Classification Domain Kingdom Phylum Eukarya Animalia Sponges CnidariansFlatwormsRoundwormsSegmented wormsMolluscsArthropodsEchinodermsChordates
39Arthropods 3 types: Major characteristics: 1 Crustaceans 2 Insects 3 ArachnidsMajor characteristics:1 Exoskeleton (chitin)ProtectionAttachment for musclesMovementPrevent drying out2 Segmented bodies Head, thorax, abdomen, w/ jointed appendages3 Well developed brains and nervous systems
66Order: Primates Traits: Family: Hominidae Genus: Homo 1 opposable thumb2 learned behavior3 big brainFamily: HominidaeGenus: HomoSpecies: Homo sapiens
67Hominids H.habilis H.sapiens Homo ergaster H. heidel- bergensis AustralopithecusafarensisH. neanderthalensisH. erectusA. robustusArdipithecusramidusFigure: 15-13Title:A possible evolutionary tree for humans.Caption:This hypothetical family tree shows skulls and facial reconstructions of representative specimens. Although many paleontologists consider this to be the most likely human family tree, there are several alternative interpretations of the known hominid fossils.. Fossils of the earliest hominid, Ardipithecus ramidus, are too fragmentary to enable reconstruction of a skull; the photo inset is of teeth, which reveal much about the specimen’s relationship to other hominids.A. africanusA. boisei
69New member of Homo genus repo Homo florensiensisSmall island in Indonesia: FlorensShort statureGrapefruit sized skullIsland evolutionIsolationInbreedingReduced resourcesLimited competitionGet smallerCo-existed with modern humans until 18,000 years ago.
70Who are you? Domain: Eukarya Eukaryote Kingdom: Animalia Animal Phylum: Chordata ChordateClass: Mammalia MammalOrder: Primata PrimateFamily: Hominidae HominidGenus: Homo HumanSpecies: sapiens modern