Presentation on theme: "Objectives Describe characteristics common to animals Describe the characteristics of major animal phyla Identify on sight members of major animal phyla."— Presentation transcript:
Objectives Describe characteristics common to animals Describe the characteristics of major animal phyla Identify on sight members of major animal phyla Define animal, chordate, vertebrate, invertebrate
Characteristics of animals Multicellular Eukaryotic Heterotrophic Sexual reproduction with some hermaphrodites No cell wall Motile at some stage Rapid response to environment –Nerve cells –Muscle cells –Both
Classification 27 Phyla – discuss major ones Grouped as: –Invertebrates: NO backbone/vertebral column –Vertebrates: backbone/vertebral column –What is a backbone and what is a chordate? Backbone: supportative bone structure Chordate: has nerve chord We will cover: –6 phyla 5 invertebrate phyla 8 classes within the chordate phyla
Sponges (b) Sac-like body Cellular level of organization 2 cell layers Filter feeder Rudimentary nervous system CAN regenerate Sponges (Porifera)
Includes all types of sponges. Essential life functions are performed at the level of cells Water flows through sponge serving as respiratory, excretory, and internal transport system at same time Budding serves as asexual reproduction.
Cnidaria (Coelenterata) Marine Radial symmetry Two cell layers with differentiation; one body opening Alternating body forms (polyp & medusa) Stinging cells
Includes jellyfish, sea anemones, hydras and coral. Soft-bodied animals with stinging tentacles arranged in circles around their mouth. Life cycles contain sessile flowerlike polyp and the motile bell-shaped medusa Lack centralized nervous system and general brain.
Flatworms (Platyhelminthes) 3 cell layers Acoelomate Many parasitic and/or pathogenic One way digestive system
Includes flatworms, flukes, and planarians. Simplest animals with bilateral symmetry. Perform life functions at the level of organ systems. Aquatic and free living parasites. Lack usual circulatory and respiratory systems.
Roundworms (Nematoda) Moist environments Most free-living; many parasitic Pseudocoelomate Tube-like digestive system Well-developed senses in free-living
Includes all roundworms. Simplest animals to have a digestive system with two openings-mouth and anus. Most numerous of all multicellular animals. Free living-found in virtually all parts of the Earth. Have simple nervous systems and reproduce sexually.
Annelids Segmented Coelomate Hydrostatic skeleton Brain + solid nerve cord Three main types –Marine Worms 1 Clam worms (predators) 2 Fan worms (prey) –Earthworms –Leeches
Includes sandworms and bloodworms. Characterized by paired paddlelike appendages on body segments. Appendages are tipped with bristles that give this class its name. Live in cracks in coral reefs, sand, mud, piles of rocks, and open water.
Molluscs (Mollusca) Soft bodied with protective shells Aquatic/Marine Often mucus feeders Body parts –Visceral mass –Foot –Mantle (secretes shell)
Includes clams, mussels, squids, octopi, slugs, and snails. Soft-bodied animals with external or internal shell. Body consists of: foot, mantle, shell,+ visceral mass. Utilizes both open and closed circulatory systems. Use nephridia to remove ammonia from blood.
Class including slugs and snails. Move by means of large foot on ventral side. Most have one-piece shell for protection. Defenses from predators include: bad-taste, poison, stinging, nocturnality, and quickness. Bright colors are warnings of danger.
Class includes squids and octopi, cuttlefish, and nautiluses. Eight flexible tentacles are equipped suction cups for grabbing fish. Lack protective shell but have developed form of jet propulsion for defense. Able to squirt dark, foul- tasting ink into water and octopi can change colors to those of its surroundings.
Arthropods 3 types: –1 Crustaceans –2 Insects –3 Arachnids Major characteristics: –1 Exoskeleton (chitin) Protection Attachment for muscles Movement Prevent drying out –2 Segmented bodies Head, thorax, abdomen, w/ jointed appendages –3 Well developed brains and nervous systems
Mammals: Marsupials Location: Australia, 4 types: –1 opossum (here) –2 koala –3 kangaroo –4 Tasmanian wolf Reproduction: –Born very early –Crawl into a pouch –Attach to a mammary gland
Mammals: Placental Mammals
Order: Primates Traits: –1 opposable thumb –2 learned behavior –3 big brain Family: Hominidae Genus: Homo Species: Homo sapiens
Ardipithecus ramidus Australopithecus afarensis H. heidel- bergensis A. boisei A. africanus A. robustus H.habilis H.sapiens H. erectus Homo ergaster H. neanderthalensis Hominids
Neanderthals vs. Cro-Magnons
New member of Homo genus repo Homo florensiensis Small island in Indonesia: Florens Short stature Grapefruit sized skull Island evolution –Isolation –Inbreeding –Reduced resources –Limited competition –Get smaller Co-existed with modern humans until 18,000 years ago. http://www.nature.com/news/specials/flores/index.html
Who are you? Domain:EukaryaEukaryote Kingdom:AnimaliaAnimal Phylum:ChordataChordate Class:MammaliaMammal Order:PrimataPrimate Family:HominidaeHominid Genus:HomoHuman Species:sapiensmodern