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Objectives Describe characteristics common to animals Describe the characteristics of major animal phyla Identify on sight members of major animal phyla.

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Presentation on theme: "Objectives Describe characteristics common to animals Describe the characteristics of major animal phyla Identify on sight members of major animal phyla."— Presentation transcript:

1 Objectives Describe characteristics common to animals Describe the characteristics of major animal phyla Identify on sight members of major animal phyla Define animal, chordate, vertebrate, invertebrate

2 Characteristics of animals Multicellular Eukaryotic Heterotrophic Sexual reproduction with some hermaphrodites No cell wall Motile at some stage Rapid response to environment –Nerve cells –Muscle cells –Both

3 Taxonomy

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5 Classification 27 Phyla – discuss major ones Grouped as: –Invertebrates: NO backbone/vertebral column –Vertebrates: backbone/vertebral column –What is a backbone and what is a chordate? Backbone: supportative bone structure Chordate: has nerve chord We will cover: –6 phyla 5 invertebrate phyla 8 classes within the chordate phyla

6 Classification DomainKingdomPhylum EukaryaAnimalia Sponges Cnidarians Flatworms Roundworms Segmented worms Molluscs Arthropods Echinoderms Chordates

7 Classification: Invertebrate (no backbone) DomainKingdomPhylum EukaryaAnimalia Sponges Cnidarians Flatworms Roundworms Segmented worms Molluscs Arthropods Echinoderms Chordates

8 Classification DomainKingdomPhylum EukaryaAnimalia Sponges Cnidarians Flatworms Roundworms Segmented worms Molluscs Arthropods Echinoderms Chordates

9 Sponges (b) Sac-like body Cellular level of organization 2 cell layers Filter feeder Rudimentary nervous system CAN regenerate Sponges (Porifera)

10 Includes all types of sponges. Essential life functions are performed at the level of cells Water flows through sponge serving as respiratory, excretory, and internal transport system at same time Budding serves as asexual reproduction.

11 Classification DomainKingdomPhylum EukaryaAnimalia Sponges Cnidarians Flatworms Roundworms Segmented worms Molluscs Arthropods Echinoderms Chordates

12 Cnidaria (Coelenterata) Marine Radial symmetry Two cell layers with differentiation; one body opening Alternating body forms (polyp & medusa) Stinging cells

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14 Cnidaria Examples

15 Includes jellyfish, sea anemones, hydras and coral. Soft-bodied animals with stinging tentacles arranged in circles around their mouth. Life cycles contain sessile flowerlike polyp and the motile bell-shaped medusa Lack centralized nervous system and general brain.

16 Classification DomainKingdomPhylum EukaryaAnimalia Sponges Cnidarians Flatworms Roundworms Segmented worms Molluscs Arthropods Echinoderms Chordates

17 Flatworms (Platyhelminthes) 3 cell layers Acoelomate Many parasitic and/or pathogenic One way digestive system

18 Includes flatworms, flukes, and planarians. Simplest animals with bilateral symmetry. Perform life functions at the level of organ systems. Aquatic and free living parasites. Lack usual circulatory and respiratory systems.

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21 Classification DomainKingdomPhylum EukaryaAnimalia Sponges Cnidarians Flatworms Roundworms Segmented worms Molluscs Arthropods Echinoderms Chordates

22 Roundworms (Nematoda) Moist environments Most free-living; many parasitic Pseudocoelomate Tube-like digestive system Well-developed senses in free-living

23 Includes all roundworms. Simplest animals to have a digestive system with two openings-mouth and anus. Most numerous of all multicellular animals. Free living-found in virtually all parts of the Earth. Have simple nervous systems and reproduce sexually.

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27 Classification DomainKingdomPhylum EukaryaAnimalia Sponges Cnidarians Flatworms Roundworms Segmented worms Molluscs Arthropods Echinoderms Chordates

28 Annelids Segmented Coelomate Hydrostatic skeleton Brain + solid nerve cord Three main types –Marine Worms 1 Clam worms (predators) 2 Fan worms (prey) –Earthworms –Leeches

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30 Annelids

31 Includes sandworms and bloodworms. Characterized by paired paddlelike appendages on body segments. Appendages are tipped with bristles that give this class its name. Live in cracks in coral reefs, sand, mud, piles of rocks, and open water.

32 Classification DomainKingdomPhylum EukaryaAnimalia Sponges Cnidarians Flatworms Roundworms Segmented worms Mollusks Arthropods Echinoderms Chordates

33 Molluscs (Mollusca) Soft bodied with protective shells Aquatic/Marine Often mucus feeders Body parts –Visceral mass –Foot –Mantle (secretes shell)

34 Includes clams, mussels, squids, octopi, slugs, and snails. Soft-bodied animals with external or internal shell. Body consists of: foot, mantle, shell,+ visceral mass. Utilizes both open and closed circulatory systems. Use nephridia to remove ammonia from blood.

35 Mollusks

36 Class including slugs and snails. Move by means of large foot on ventral side. Most have one-piece shell for protection. Defenses from predators include: bad-taste, poison, stinging, nocturnality, and quickness. Bright colors are warnings of danger.

37 Class includes squids and octopi, cuttlefish, and nautiluses. Eight flexible tentacles are equipped suction cups for grabbing fish. Lack protective shell but have developed form of jet propulsion for defense. Able to squirt dark, foul- tasting ink into water and octopi can change colors to those of its surroundings.

38 Classification DomainKingdomPhylum EukaryaAnimalia Sponges Cnidarians Flatworms Roundworms Segmented worms Molluscs Arthropods Echinoderms Chordates

39 Arthropods 3 types: –1 Crustaceans –2 Insects –3 Arachnids Major characteristics: –1 Exoskeleton (chitin) Protection Attachment for muscles Movement Prevent drying out –2 Segmented bodies Head, thorax, abdomen, w/ jointed appendages –3 Well developed brains and nervous systems

40 Arthropods: Crustaceans

41 Arthropods: Insects

42 Arthropods: Arachnids

43 Classification DomainKingdomPhylum EukaryaAnimalia Sponges Cnidarians Flatworms Roundworms Segmented worms Molluscs Arthropods Echinoderms Chordates

44 Echinoderms Marine animals Internal skeleton Spiny skin Radially symmetrical

45 Echinoderms

46 Classification DomainKingdomPhylum EukaryaAnimalia Sponges Segmented worms Molluscs Arthropods Echinoderms Chordates

47 Phylum Chordata

48 Chordates have during some time in their development: 1 notochord 2 hollow nerve cord in the back 3 pharyngeal pouches (embryonic structures) 4 tail

49 Classification DomainKingdomPhylumClass EukaryaAnimalia Sponges Segmented worms Molluscs Arthropods Echinoderms ChordatesLancets Tunicates Jawless Fish Cartilaginous Fish Bony Fish Amphibians Reptiles Birds Mammals

50 Lancets (invertebrate)

51 Tunicates (invertebrate)

52 Classification DomainKingdomPhylumClass EukaryaAnimalia Sponges Segmented worms Molluscs Arthropods Echinoderms ChordatesLancets Tunicates Jawless Fish Cartilaginous Fish Vertebrates Bony Fish Amphibians Reptiles Birds Mammals

53 Vertebrates 1 living internal skeleton 2 closed circulation 3 paired appendages 4 efficient breathing and excretion 5 highly developed brains

54 Jawless Fishes-Agnatha (lampreys)

55 Cartilaginous Fishes-Chondrichthyes 3 Types –Sharks –Rays –Skates 3 Well developed senses –electrical –pressure –smell

56 Bony Fishes-Osteichthyes Claim to fame: (most numerous vertebrate) 3 Types –Perch –Trout –Salmon 3 Traits –Bony skeleton –Scales –Jaws

57 Amphibia 4 types –Frogs –Toads –Newts –Salamanders 3 traits –Usually 4 legs –Usually metamorphose –Smooth, moist skin

58 Amphibian Metamorphosis

59 Reptilia 4 types: –Turtles –Alligators –Snakes –Lizards 3 traits –Usually 4 legs –Egg with a shell –Dry, scaly skin

60 Aves Traits: –Feathers –Hard-shelled egg –Usually wings for flying Classification –Beak type –Foot type

61 Birds Adaptations for flying –Wings –Hollow, light bones –Feathers –Sternum –Well-developed heart –Well-developed lungs

62 Mammalia 4 traits –Mammary glands –Body hair –Warm-blooded –Infant dependency 3 types: –1 Monotremes –2 Marsupials –3 Placental

63 Mammals: Monotremes 2 types –1 spiny anteater –2 duckbilled platypus Reproduction: –Eggs

64 Mammals: Marsupials Location: Australia, 4 types: –1 opossum (here) –2 koala –3 kangaroo –4 Tasmanian wolf Reproduction: –Born very early –Crawl into a pouch –Attach to a mammary gland

65 Mammals: Placental Mammals

66 Order: Primates Traits: –1 opposable thumb –2 learned behavior –3 big brain Family: Hominidae Genus: Homo Species: Homo sapiens

67 Ardipithecus ramidus Australopithecus afarensis H. heidel- bergensis A. boisei A. africanus A. robustus H.habilis H.sapiens H. erectus Homo ergaster H. neanderthalensis Hominids

68 Neanderthals vs. Cro-Magnons

69 New member of Homo genus repo Homo florensiensis Small island in Indonesia: Florens Short stature Grapefruit sized skull Island evolution –Isolation –Inbreeding –Reduced resources –Limited competition –Get smaller Co-existed with modern humans until 18,000 years ago.

70 Who are you? Domain:EukaryaEukaryote Kingdom:AnimaliaAnimal Phylum:ChordataChordate Class:MammaliaMammal Order:PrimataPrimate Family:HominidaeHominid Genus:HomoHuman Species:sapiensmodern


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