Presentation on theme: "Antonio E. Puente, Ph.D. (with assistance of Carlos Ojeda)"— Presentation transcript:
1 Testing Spanish Speaking Individuals: Challenges, Practices and Ethical Concerns Antonio E. Puente, Ph.D.(with assistance of Carlos Ojeda)University of North Carolina WilmingtonAmerican Psychological Association, Washington, DC
2 Expected Growth Hispanics in the U.S. Source: U.S. Census Bureau, 20082
11 Clinical and Neuropsychological Test Usage Camara, Nathan, and Puente (2000) surveyed test usage.Five most frequently used tests were: MMPI (I&II), WAIS R, WMS-R, WISC-R-III, TMT.None of them were in Spanish.Consistent in other studies like Rabin et al (2005).
12 Standards for Psychological and Educational Testing Validity = Fairness.Validity is defined: “the degree to which evidence and theory support the interpretations of tests scores entailed by proposed uses of tests” (AERA, 1999; p.9).Fundamental question of validity:Are psychological tests available unfair?
13 Standards for Educational and Psychological Testing Testing standards have been developed by a joint committee for the last 50 years.The Joint Committee was formed to oversee the accuracy with Standardized testing in the U.S.
14 Chapter 9: Testing Individuals of Diverse Linguistic Backgrounds It is important to consider language background when developing, selecting, administering, and interpreting test performances(AERA, 1999; p. 91).
15 Chapter 9: Testing Individuals of Diverse Linguistic Backgrounds According to the Standards, tests for Spanish speakers individuals should meet the following criteria:Test in SpanishHispanic norms (US)Non-US Hispanic normsInstructions and manuals in Spanish
16 Neuropsychological Testing Spanish Speakers Approximately 83% of neuropsychologists felt inadequately prepared to work with Hispanic individuals (Echemendia et al., 1997).Salazar, Perez-Garcia, Puente (2007) listed 60 Spanish test.Hispanic Neuropsychological Society includes over 170 tests (in progress).Judd et al (2009) published recommendations when evaluating Hispanics. (NAN)
17 Questions?What tests are available in Spanish to assess Spanish speakers? (Phase 1)What tests in Spanish are neuropsychologists who are members of the HNS using to evaluate Spanish speakers? (Phase 2)Do these tests meet the testing standards criteria ? (Phase 3)
18 Method: Phase 1 Obtained UNCW IRB Approval. Developed comprehensive list of Spanish tests by reviewing the following:Prior literature ( Camara et al., 2000; Salazar et al ; etc.)Buros Mental Measurement Yearbook (Website & Online Database).Hispanic Neuropsychological Society Test DatabasePsych Info & World Cat.Spanish Test Publishers (TEA & Manual Moderno)
19 Method: Phase 1After searches, tests in the list were recorded and organized in alphabetical order.Acronym and test edition was included next to Spanish test if available.
20 Method: Phase 2After completing the list of tests, an online survey was conducted to assess usage.Created using Survey MonkeyIRB approval and HNS BoD approval were obtained.
21 Method: Phase 2 Pilot testing was conducted. Data collection started December 15th and ended on March 4th 2010.A total of three reminders were sent.
22 Method: Phase 2Included electronic informed consent & nine demographic questions.Participants endorsed whether they did or did not use the test listed.Survey was sent to participants’ s and only one response was allowed for eachaddress registered.
23 Method: Phase 256 participants out of 83 HNS members (67%) participated in the study.Participants received contact s for faculty supervisor and student investigator if they had questions and concerns.Participation was voluntary and their responses were confidential.
24 Method: Phase 3Survey were results were matched to the criteria of the Standards. One point was given if the following criteria were met.Test in Spanish?Hispanic Norms (U.S.)?Non U.S. Hispanic Norms?Test Manual in Spanish (including instructions)?Each test was rated using a rating scale of: 0(not at all) to 4(all)
25 Results: Phase 1Found 555 tests in Spanish out of a total of approximately 3,500 tests.These are both psychological and neuropsychological tests.
26 Results: Phase II Demographics GenderMale %Female %Race/EthnicityCaucasian/White %Hispanic/Latino %DegreePh.D %Psy.D %Other %Board CertifiedNo %Yes %Use Technicians/TranslatorsCertified Translators %Uncertified Technicians %Uncertified Translators %None of the Above %
27 Results: Phase II Demographics Primary Work SettingHospital %Outpatient Clinic %Private Practice %University %Level Spanish ProficiencyNo Proficiency %Limited Proficiency %Some Proficiency %Extensive Proficiency %Cultural Context KnowledgeLimited Knowledge %Some Knowledge %Extensive Knowledge %Spanish Speaking ClientsLess than 25% %More than 25% %More than 50% %More than 75% %100% %
28 Results: Phase 2 Test Results A total of 56 (67%) HNS members participated.Participants reported using 216 (39%) tests.Approximately 25 tests that were used for most of the participants.There were 69 tests used by only one participant .
29 Results: Frequency & Test Rank Rank OrderTest Namen%1Trail Making Test3576.1%2Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II)3371.7%3Boston Naming Test2963.0%4Test of Memory Malingering (TOMM)2860.9%5Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI)2758.7%6Inventario Multifásico de Personalidad de Minnesota-2 (MMPI 2)2656.5%Stroop Test de Colores y Palabras7Bateria III Woodcock Muñoz (BATERIA III)2452.2%8Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales2350.0%9Color Trails Test (CLT)2247.8%
30 Results: Frequency & Test Rank Rank OrderTest Namen%9Escala de Inteligencia de Wechsler para Adultos III (EIWA III)2247.8%Raven Matrices Progresivas (RAVEN)10Escala Wechsler de Inteligencia para Niños IV (WISC IV).2145.7%Evaluación Neuropsicológica Breve en Español (NEUROPSI)11Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale Third Edition (WAIS III)2043.5%12Wechsler Memory Scale 3rd Edition (WMS III)1941.3%13California Verbal Learning Test (CVLT)1839.1%
31 Results: Frequency & Test Rank Rank OrderTest Namen%13Examen Cognoscitivo Mini-Mental (MMSE)1839.1%Test de Copia de una Figura Compleja de Rey14Escala de Inteligencia Wechsler para Adultos (EIWA)1737.0%15Test de Vocabulario en Imagenes Peabody1634.8%Test de Clasificación de Tarjetas de Wisconsin (WCST)Bateria Woodcock Muñoz32.6%Adaptive Behavior Assessment System (ABAS-II)30.4%Prueba Beery Buktenica del Desarrollo de la Integración Visomotriz (VMI)
32 Results: Phase 3Of the top 25 most frequently used tests, almost none meet the criteria of the Standards for testing Spanish speakers.
33 Results 3: Table of top 25 tests X criteria Test NameNumber of Times Test SelectedTest in SpanishHispanicNorms(U.S.)Hispanic Norms(Non-U.S.)Test ManualSpanishTotal1) Trail MakingTest350 (No)2) Beck Depression Inventory II (BDI-II)331 (Yes)1 (Yes) (MX) (SP)1(Yes)33) Boston Naming Test2924) Test of Memory Malingering (TOMM)280 )No)5) Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI)27
34 Results 3: Table of top 25 tests X criteria Test NameNumber of Times Test SelectedTest Name in SpanishHispanicNorms(U.S.)Hispanic Norms(Non-U.S.)Test ManualSpanishTOTAL6) Inventario Multifásico de Personalid. de Minnesota-2 (MMPI 2)261 (Yes)47 ) Stroop Test de Colores y Palabras0 (No)38)Bateria III Woodcock Muñoz (Bateria III)241 ( Yes)9) Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales23Color Trails Test (CLT)22
35 Results 3: Table of top 25 tests X criteria Test NameNumber of Times Test SelectedTest Name in SpanishHispanicNorms(U.S.)Hispanic Norms(Non-U.S.)Test ManualSpanishTOTAL11) Escala de Inteligencia Wechsler para Adultos III (EIWA III)221 (Yes)412) Raven Matrices Progresivas (RAVEN)0 (No)313) Escala Wechsler de Inteligencia para Niños IV (WISC IV)2114) Evaluación Breve Neuropsicologica (NEUROPSI)15) Wechsler Adult Inteligence Scale Third Edition (WAIS III)20
36 Results 3: Table of top 25 tests X criteria Test NameNumber of Times Test SelectedTest Name in SpanishHispanicNorms(U.S.)Hispanic Norms(Non-U.S.)Test ManualSpanishTOTAL16) Wechsler Memory Scale 3rd Edition (WMS III).191 (Yes)1 (No)317) California Verbal Learning Test (CVLT)180 (No)118) Examen Cognoscitivo Mini-Mental (MMSE)419) Test de Copia de una Figura Compleja de Rey20) Escala de Inteligencia Wechsler para Adultos (EIWA)17
37 Results 3: Table of top 25 tests X criteria Test NameNumber of Times Test SelectedTest Name in SpanishHispanicNorms(U.S.)Hispanic Norms(Non-U.S.)Test ManualSpanishTOTAL21) Test de Vocabulario en Imagenes Peabody161 (Yes)422) Test de Clasificacion de Tarjetas de Wisconsin (WCST)1(Yes)0 (No)0(No)123)Bateria Woodcock Muñoz15324) Adaptive Behavior Assessment System (ABAS-II)1425)Prueba Beery Buktenica del Desarrollo de la Integracion Visomotriz (VMI)
38 Overall Study SummaryFew tests available in Spanish (555 out of 3,500)Fewer tests being used (216).Approximately tests that are used frequently, a few are infrequently used and most tests are never used.Most of the tests available do not meet the criteria of the testing Standards.
39 Discussion: Phase 1The number of Spanish tests found in our list exceeds previous reports from Camera et al. (2000); Salazar et al. (2007); Lazarus and Puente (2009); HNS (in press); & Renteria (2010).However, the number of tests represent only 16% of the 3,500 tests in Buros.
40 Discussion: Phase 2 Participants use 216 (39%) of 555 tests. Only TMT is consistent with the top five most frequently used tests. (Camara et al., 2000; Rabin et al. 2005; Lazarus & Puente, 2009).Differences in tests usage might be due to differences in availability of tests (ENG >SPA).
41 Discussion: Phase 3Most, if not all, of the tests met criteria of the Standards.Lack of norms were common.Test manual in Spanish for 17 out of 25 tests….etc.If the Standards are not followed, such assessments are considered potentially invalid and their use potentially unethical (Vilar-Lopez & Puente, 2010).
43 Translators Typical “Qualified” Problems Family Non-psychological staff member“Qualified”Certified translators and psychological knowledgeProblemsSignificant error (both false positives and negatives)
44 Translation Problems Customized Translations Official Translations Linguistic equivalenceCultural equivalenceCustomized TranslationsTranslate as you goOfficial TranslationsApproachesBack translationTranslation check by expertsThe case of the Spanish WAIS III
45 Norms Sample Statistical Manipulation Case of the Spanish WAIS III Samples of convenienceRural Vs. City dwellers (community?)Country of OriginParental Origin & Educational AttainmentLanguage spoken at home/schoolSocio-economic statusStatistical ManipulationCommunity Vs. Statistical GoalsCase of the Spanish WAIS III
46 Expertise Personnel Linguistic Cultural Country of Origin Using neuropsychology as an example, 01%LinguisticLiteral Vs. Cognitive EquivalenceCulturalBi-cultural?Country of OriginBure, et al (unpublished)
47 Conclusion There are increasing and large number of Spanish speakers There are relatively few tests.Of those few tests, very few are being regularly used.Those being used do not appear to meet the Standards criteria.Serious ethical challenges face as demographics, science and practice do not match