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Invasive Aquatic Workshop: Taxonomic Group Michael Moody, Donald Les, Joe DiTomaso.

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Presentation on theme: "Invasive Aquatic Workshop: Taxonomic Group Michael Moody, Donald Les, Joe DiTomaso."— Presentation transcript:

1 Invasive Aquatic Workshop: Taxonomic Group Michael Moody, Donald Les, Joe DiTomaso

2 Focus Topics Include Advances In: 1)Classical and molecular taxonomy of aquatic plants 2)Issues in invasive plant identification 3)Future role in invasive plant management

3 Recent Advances In Invasive Aquatic Plant Identification And Recognition 1)Official recognition of invasive species (by definition) by United States government -Executive order ) Information technology - The World Wide Web: Invasive Plant Sites - Regional field guides describing invasive flora 3) Advances in tools for identification of invasive aquatic plants (species to genotypes)

4 1) Official Working Definition of Invasive Species: USDA, USGS(Executive Order ). An "invasive species" is defined as a species that is: 1) non-native (or alien) to the ecosystem under consideration and 2) whose introduction causes or is likely to cause economic or environmental harm or harm to human health. (a)"Alien species" means, with respect to a particular ecosystem, any species, including its seeds, eggs, spores, or other biological material capable of propagating that species, that is not native to that ecosystem. (b)"Native species" means, with respect to a particular ecosystem, a species that, other than as a result of an introduction, historically occurred or currently occurs in that ecosystem.

5 Invasive Species: USDA, USGS(Executive Order ). An "invasive species" is defined as a species that is: 1) non-native (or alien) to the ecosystem under consideration and 2) whose introduction causes or is likely to cause economic or environmental harm or harm to human health. (a)"Alien species" means, with respect to a particular ecosystem, any species, including its seeds, eggs, spores, or other biological material capable of propagating that species, that is not native to that ecosystem. (b)"Native species" means, with respect to a particular ecosystem, a species that, other than as a result of an introduction, historically occurred or currently occurs in that ecosystem.

6 2) INFORMATION TECNOLOGY WWW. descriptions of invasive species: -Global Invasive Species Database-Global Invasive Species Database - Apr 18, Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk-Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk - USDA Forest Service -Federal Noxious Weed Disseminules of the U.S.-Federal Noxious Weed Disseminules of the U.S. - USDA-APHIS - Apr 29, Invasive Plant Atlas of New England-Invasive Plant Atlas of New England - University of Connecticut - Apr 18, Biological Control of Invasive Plants in the Eastern United States -Biological Control of Invasive Plants in the Eastern United States - USDA Forest Service 31, Southeast Exotic Pest Plant Council Invasive Plant Manual - Mar 31, Element Stewardship Abstract-Element Stewardship Abstract - The Nature Conservancy - Mar 31, Identification and Biology of Non-Native Plants in Florida's Natural Areas-Identification and Biology of Non-Native Plants in Florida's Natural Areas - University of Florida - Apr 18, Plant Invaders of Mid-Atlantic Natural Areas-Plant Invaders of Mid-Atlantic Natural Areas - National Park Service and U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service - Apr 18, Weeds Gone Wild: Alien Plant Invaders of Natural Areas-Weeds Gone Wild: Alien Plant Invaders of Natural Areas - Plant Conservation Alliance - Apr 18, http://www.ecy.wa.gov/programs/wq/plants/weeds/index.htm-http://www.ecy.wa.gov/programs/wq/plants/weeds/index.html -www.biology.usgs.gov/invasive/link.htm -http://www.weedcenter.org/management/weed_id.html -www.invasivespeciesinfo.gov/ -http://nature.org/initiatives/invasivespecies/index.html -http://www.newfs.org/conserve/invasive.htm -http://www.newfs.org/conserve/IPANE.htm -http://www.se-eppc.org/weeds.cfm -http://www.fws.gov/invasives/ -http://www.wapms.org/plants/ -http://www.cal-ipc.org/ -http://www.invasiveplants.net/invasiveplants/biologicalcontrol/default.asp

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8 2)Information on invasive species: Centralize a Peer Reviewed international database of aquatic genera (C.D. Cook, Aquatic Plant Book) - All aquatic genera (early detection) - Interactive key - Native distribution -Where reported invasive - Photos and high quality voucher specimen scans - DNA profiles when available

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10 2)Information on invasive species: Centralize a Peer Reviewed international database of aquatic genera (C.D. Cook, Aquatic Plant Book) - All aquatic genera (Early detection) - Native distribution -Where reported invasive - Photos and high quality voucher specimen scans - DNA profiles when available

11 Where technology bites us in the *** !

12 -Mail Order: Buying invasive taxa on the internet. (Kay and Hoyle 2001) -Azolla*, Egeria, Eichornia, Hygrophila*, Lagarosiphon*, Limnophila*, Lythrum, Myriophyllum, Phragmites, Salvinia*, Sparganium*, Trapa -All found sold online by multiple dealers -Things have changed?

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14 All For Sale Online! -Not prohibited in all states -Water lettuce prohibited sale in Florida (not Georgia) -Mis-labeled taxa [Anacharis=Egeria; M. mattagrossense=[M. aquaticum (or M. heterophyllum)]

15 3) Aquatic Plant Identification : A)Evolutionary tree reconstruction has created a renewed interest in systematics B) Molecular markers used in evolutionary tree reconstruction can quickly evaluate plant identity C) Several aquatic taxa with species variable DNA sequence markers (e.g. ITS, ETS, trnL, etc.)

16 3) Evolutionary tree reconstruction with species variable genetic markers (ITS, ETS, trnL, etc.) EXAMPLES: -Duckweeds (Les et al. 2002) -Hydrocharitaceae (Elodea, Hydrilla, Egeria); Les et al. 2005;-genotypes (Hydrilla; Madeira et al. 2004) -Spartina (Baumel et al. 2002) -Watermilfoil (M. aquaticum, M. heterophyllum, M. spicatum, hybrids) Moody and Les 2001; Moody 2005

17 4) Genetic types or genotypes (the genetic makeup, as distinguished from the physical appearance of an organism or a group of organisms) - Caulerpa (Durand et al. 2002) -Egeria (Carter and Sytsma 2001) -Hydrilla (Madeira et al. 1997; Albrecht et al. 1994) -Phragmites (Saltonstall 2003) -Reed Canary Grass (Phalaris arundinacea; Gifford et al. 2002) -Sarcocornia (Figueroa et al. 2003) EU.; hybrids -Tamarix (Gaskin & Schaal 2003; Gaskin 2003) -Typha (Keun et al. 1999) -Watercress (Nasturtium; Hurka et al. 2003)

18 4) Genetic types or genotypes (the genetic makeup, as distinguished from the physical appearance of an organism or a group of organisms) - Caulerpa (Durand et al. 2002) -Egeria (Carter and Sytsma 2001) -Hydrilla (Madeira et al. 1997; Albrecht et al. 2004) -Phragmites (Saltonstall 2003) -Reed Canary Grass (Phalaris arundinacea; Gifford et al. 2002) -Sarcocornia (Figueroa et al. 2003) -Tamarix (Gaskin & Schaal 2003; Gaskin 2003) -Typha (Keun et al. 1999) -Watercress (Nasturtium; Hurka et al. 2003)

19 4) What we have learned from genotype data: - hybridization common - specific invasive genotypes - herbicide resistance - genotype by environment interaction - low or high diversity (multiple introductions)

20 Phragmites (Common Reed): Saltonstall (2003) 1)Samples from North America before 1910 and after ) Samples from around the world

21 Phragmites (Common Reed): Saltonstall (2003) 1) Before % invasive; After % are invasive 2) 11 native types in N.A.; 1 invasive type (Europe) 3) Markers cant identify the potential for hybridization.

22 Molecular Methods Now: -Early detection from small fragments -Identify a taxon within 24 hrs. -Currently using DNA to identify watermilfoil in ME, NH, WA, WI -Non-native Vallisneria in Texas; mistaken for native Vallisneria americana Watermilfoil

23 DNA BARCODING: 1)Use a gene such as ITS to assess species (> 36,000 sequences) 2)Successful trials in: animals (Hebert PNAS 2004); plants (Kress et al. PNAS 2005) 3)Centralized facility (currently in Guelph) 4)Handheld sequencing?

24 DNA BARCODING: 1)Use a gene such as ITS to assess species (> 36,000 sequences) 2)Successful trials in: animals (Hebert PNAS 2004); plants (Kress et al. PNAS 2005) 3)Centralized facility (currently in Guelph) 4)Handheld sequencing?

25 Future Directions: 1)Continue developing tools to understand genetic structure (genotypes to species) - better molecular markers (microsatellites, ISSRs, AFLPs) - NOW more practical in both time and cost 2) Use the genotype data available - Differential response to herbicides and herbivores - life history traits, physiology, growth responses, seed set, mating systems -PRIORITIZE Also………

26 Future Directions: 1)Continue developing tools to understand genetic structure (genotypes to species) - better molecular markers (microsatellites, ISSRs, AFLPs) - NOW more practical in both time and cost 2) Use the genotype data available - Differential response to herbicides and herbivores - life history traits, physiology, growth responses, seed set, mating systems - PRIORITIZE Also………

27 Also……….. 1)Basic life history traits invasive aquatic species - identification of habitat characteristics could help managers determine which portions of their preserve would be most susceptible to establishment of a particular species. 2) Basic monographic/revisionary work -Many aquatic groups remain poorly know taxonomically. 3) Basic education in plant taxonomy (i.e. using a key, collecting a voucher specimen) for undergraduate in Biology and Natural Resource Management.

28 Exciting Discussion Shall Follow


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