16Tradescantia fluminensis Introduced to New Zealand 1910 from South AmericaEstablished in many native forests in the North IslandForms a dense matt on the forest floorSuppresses growth and regeneration of native plantsCan regenerate from a single 1cm nodeAlso known as wandering jew
17Tradescantia Leaf Beetle Neolema ogloblini-introduced November 2010Released at 5 sites between Auckland & Northland
18Imported Beetles Not Yet Released Neolema abbreviataLema basicostata
19Beetle Biological Control Agents Neolema abbreviataLarvae feed on growing tips of plantNeolema oglobliniAdult and larvae feed on leavesLema basicostataAdult and larvae feed on stems
21Current Lincoln University Research Determine effectiveness of three beetles to control Tradescantia fluminensis :Decide if three beetles are most effective, or possibly just one beetle could be effective enough to reduce Tradescantia growth and spread
22The holm oak hedge, Quercus ilex Leaves 30 cms into the hedge show evidence of leaf mines. Fresh new outer growth not yet showing signs of mines
23Acorn and leaves from the evergreen oak hedge The Holm Oak, Quercus ilexAcorn and leaves from the evergreen oak hedge
24Leaf minesThe holm oak twig with 5 leaves showing presence of mines. One leaf not infected
25Leaf miner, Phyllonorycter messaniella The adult moth on the leaf surface
26The larva or caterpillar of the leaf miner and a tidy pile of frass
27Leaf miner attacked by the parasitoid from Te Taiao. No 4 Leaf miner attacked by the parasitoid from Te Taiao. No 4. Nov 2004, ISSN Tangled Web: A new addition to the natural enemy suite controlling leaf-miner.
28Possum biocontrol – funding for this research at Landcare Research has been cut.
29The possums own biological systems used to interfere with the process by which sperm fertilises the egg.This response will be triggered by proteins that make up part of the coat of the sperm or egg, and will stop female possums producing eggs and/or interfere with the fertilisation of any eggs produced.
30That way, no or very few baby possums will be born, so possum numbers will decline as the adults die off and there are no young to replace them.The biological control agent based on the sperm or egg proteins will be made into baits and fed to possums from bait stations.
31LEARNZexamples include invasive species and their control. Marine reserves High Country wetland ecology Northern wetlands Freshwater ecology Birds of prey
32ADDITIONAL INFO:Colour pictures: Aphid, lacewing, parasitoid waspWorksheet for everyone: Ecology – pea aphid, lacewing and parasitoid waspWeb site:Has worksheets on:biological control of gorse, gorse spider mite, gorse pod moth, investigating aphids, leaf miner
33PS Have a look at work done by: Professor Steve Wratten, Lincoln University on the "Greening Waipara" programme, which is using native vegetation in vineyards to enhance ecosystem services:
34AcknowledgementsTradescantia information and resources – current M.Sc student, Sam ReedVideo clips, slides and resources on insect bio-control courtesy of Professor Steve Wratten, Eric Wyss and Dr Sophia OrreAll the contents of this presentation draw from work carried out by researchers at Lincoln University