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Presentation on theme: "FOOD SANITATION AND SAFETY PREVENTING FOOD BORNE ILLNESS"— Presentation transcript:

TRAINING OVERVIEW: Food Borne Illness Definition Potentially Hazardous Foods Definition Types of Foodborne Illnesses or Diseases Define and explain “HACCP” Review of Safe Food Handling Practices and Requirements Presenter: Barbara D. Will Environmental Specialist II Employed by Hillsborough County Environmental Health Worked as field inspector in the Food Hygiene Program with the Pinellas County Health Department. In , worked with the Division of Hotels and Restaurants as the District Plan Reviewer and Licensing Specialist. Spent next five years with the Pinellas County Health Dept as the Food Hygiene Coordinator and Food Borne Illness Investigation Coordinator. FDA Certified in Food Inspections HACCP Certified – 1998 Certified in Food Protection since 1996 with the Florida Department of Health. A MANATEE County Health Dept Production

2 What is Foodborne Illness?
The “sickness (or disease) that results from eating foods that are contaminated with harmful bacteria and/or other microorganisms”. Symptoms of Food Borne Illness are extremely unpleasant! They include diarrhea, severe abdominal cramping, fever, headache, and vomiting. Some Food Borne diseases can also result in death. Unfortunately, these bacteria cannot be seen, smelled or tasted.

3 “Potentially Hazardous Foods”
Perishable foods, those that are made of milk, eggs, meats, poultry, fish, or shellfish, that can support the rapid growth of bacteria, are usually responsible for the spread of foodborne illnesses. The definition also excludes those foods with a pH level of 4.6 or less (high acidity); or a water activity of .85 or less. However, harmful bacteria has recently been found in raw fruits, vegetables, and unpasteurized juices! Latest outbreaks: cereal (toasty oat) (salmonella), OJ (once thought too acidic to allow for the growth of pathogens) (salmonella), apple juice (unpasteurized) (E. coli 0157:H7), cantaloupe (salmonella), raspberries (cryptosporidium), strawberries (Hepatitis-A), etc. Cooked vegetables are considered phf due to ability to support the growth of pathogens as the cooking breaks down natural protective barriers.

4 Some Types of Food Borne Illnesses
There are some 250 types of Food Borne Illnesses – we’ll cover just five today: Salmonella – bacterial infection Staphylococcus – intoxication E. coli – bacterial infection Hepatitis A – viral infection Bacillus cereus – bacterial infection AND intoxication Chosen for their diversity.

5 Salmonella (Infection)
Transmission: ingestion of under-cooked, infected foods; or, oral/fecal contamination from infected food handler. Onset: usually hours. Foods usually involved: poultry, eggs, meats, raw fruit & vegetables.

6 Staphylococcus (Intoxication)
Transmission: ingestion of foods contaminated by an infected worker. Onset: usually 2-4 hours. Foods usually involved: pastries, custards, sandwiches, cold salads, cheese. NOTE: Heat does not kill this toxin. Heat does not kill the toxin! Short onset with severe vomiting usually the symptom

7 E. Coli 0157:H7 (bacteria) Transmission: ingestion of contaminated food. Onset: usually 3-4 days. Foods usually involved: under-cooked ground meat (usually beef), raw milk. Bloody diarrhea

8 Hepatitis A (Virus) Transmission: person-to-person; or, ingest-tion of food contam-inated by an infected worker. Onset: usually days. Foods usually involved: items that are not cooked after handling, salads & produce. Long onset, jaundice (yellowing), clay colored stool

9 Bacillus cereus (Intoxication)
Transmission: ingestion of food that has been stored at ambient temps after cooking. Onset: 1-24 hours (shorter on-sets usually begin with vomiting, longer on-sets usually begin with diarrhea). Food frequently involved: cooked rice, spices, mixes.

10 Preventing Food Borne Illnesses
The transference of food borne diseases can be prevented through safe food handling practices. These are simple steps that can be followed during the purchase, storage, preparation, and cooking phases of food handling that will minimize the risk of spreading food borne illness. These practices are based on a food safety system known as Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points (“HACCP”) that “focuses on preventing hazards ... by applying science-based controls (on food handling), from raw materials to finished products.” Based on a federally recognized food safety system called HACCP Hazard Analysis of Critical Control Points Explain


12 Step 1: Identifying Hazards
Chemical toxic metal (mercury) Pesticides cleaners Biological bacteria viruses Physical glass hair cigarette butts

13 STEP 2: Identifying Critical Control Points
FLOW CHART A “CCP” is any point or “step” in the food handling procedure at which biological, chemical and/or physical contamination could occur which can be prevented or reduced.” Step 1 Step 2 Step 3 Etc...

14 STEP 3: Establish Preventative Measures
This is the setting of controls for each step in the flow of the food item. This includes, but is not limited to, setting time and temperature limits for each step in the food preparation process, establishing and enforcing employee hand washing policies, maintaining adequate cleaning schedules and utilizing proper sanitizer solutions.

15 STEP 4: Establish Monitoring Procedures
In order to verify all pro- posed controls are in place, a written plan assigning personnel to perform routine observations and/ or measurements for each CCP, and delineating how the results of these measurements should be recorded, should be in place.

16 STEP 5: Establish Corrective Actions
disposal of food item repair equipment re-heating of food item quick chill of food item adjust cleaning schedules If, during the monitoring process, a control measure is discovered to be non-effective, the deviation needs to be acted upon immediately, and an agreed upon corrective action should occur.

17 STEP 6: Recordkeeping An effective system to record observations and measurements made during the food handling process must be established. Records may include flow charts, temperature logs, HACCP team assignments, corrective action plans, lists of regulations governing establishment, equipment maintenance logs, etc.

18 STEP 7: Verification System
Once the basics of a HACCP plan are set, verification procedures need to be applied to ensure the plan is in operation: review of equipment maintenance logs review of temperature logs are being utilized correctly ensuring all handwash stations functional review of records review of corrective action plans routine visual observation

19 Receiving Shipments/Shopping
The principles of HACCP are incorporated in the rules by which the health department inspects and educates food service establishments: Receiving Shipments/Shopping Use wholesome, undamaged foods only: Canned Goods Packaging Whole Eggs Infestation Produce Also important, “Buy Cold Food Last; Get It Home Fast!” Denting, swelling, pin holes, rust, etc. Ripped or torn plastic wrap Ice crystal under packaging indicate thawing and re-freezing Gnaw marks, droppings on shelving Produce moldy, rotted, mildewy

20 Food Storage (Temperatures)
Prevent the growth of harmful bacteria by storing perishable food at the proper temperatures: Frozen - 5F Refrigerated - 41F Heated - 140 F Avoid the Danger Zone (41°F – 140°F) During the preparation process, temperatures may reach the danger zone – this deviation should not exceed four hours.

21 Food Storage (Methods)
Prevent cross-contamination by storing: raw meats/eggs below/away from cooked/ready-to-eat items all food items off the floor food in covered/labeled containers

22 Food Storage (Labeling)
Refrigerated, ready-to-eat, potentially hazardous food prepared and held for more than 24 hours in a facility shall be clearly marked with the date of preparation. (a) Refrigerated, ready-to-eat, potentially hazardous food prepared and held for more than 24 hours in a facility shall be clearly marked with the date of preparation. (b) Except as specified in paragraph (d) of this section, a container of refrigerated, ready-to-eat, potentially hazardous food prepared and packaged by another food service establishment shall be marked to indicate the date, as specified under subsection 64E (15), F.A.C., by which food shall be sold or served. (c) When ready to eat, potentially hazardous food specified in paragraphs 64E (14)(a) and (b), F.A.C., is to be subsequently frozen, in addition to the date of preparation, the food shall comply with the following: 1. Prior to the food being placed into the freezer, the container must be clearly marked to indicate the date of freezing; and 2. The container must be clearly marked to indicate that the food shall be consumed within 24 hours of thawing and shall be exempted from paragraphs (15)(a) and (b) of this subsection; or 3. When the food is removed from the freezer, the container must be clearly marked to indicate the date of thawing. (d) Paragraphs (b) and (c) of this section does not apply to: 1. Cured meats and aged cheese; and 2. Individual meal portions served or repackaged for sale from a bulk container upon a consumer’s request.

23 Preparation Cleaning!! Start with clean hands, surfaces, and utensils
Wash produce prior to preparation Do not re-use utensils that have been in contact with raw meats/eggs Properly constructed surfaces and equipment: Stainless steel, polyurethane, lamination, food grade rubber, plastics

24 Raw Animal Products Using color coded cutting boards seems to be an effective tool to keep raw meat products separate from ready-to-eat foods.

25 Heating/Cooking/Re-Heating
Minimum cooking/heating temperatures: Poultry/Stuffed Meats - 165°F Beef/Fish - 145°F Pork -145 °F Eggs °F Leftovers that are to be re-served to be rapidly re-heated to 165 °F

26 Thawing/Chilling Four accepted methods of thawing:
Under refrigeration at 41°F or less Under cool running water As part of the cooking process In a microwave Accepted methods to rapidly chill hot foods that are to be re-served: Ice bath Chill/Ice sticks Frequent stirring Transfer to shallow pan Flash/Blast freezing

27 Time/Temperature Controls
Provide accurate thermometers to all refrigeration and freezer units! Use a probe thermometer frequently throughout preparation/cooking process! Keep perishable foods refrigerated until the last minute! For perishable salads, begin with refrigerated ingredients! Pathogenic (disease causing) bacteria can grow rapidly in the "Danger Zone," but they do not generally affect the taste, smell, or appearance of a food.

28 Why Refrigeration is Important!
Refrigeration slows bacterial growth. Bacteria exist everywhere in nature, including in the foods we eat. When bacteria have nutrients (food), moisture, and favorable temperatures, they grow rapidly, increasing in numbers to the point where some types of bacteria can cause illness. You can also limit the amount of food out at one time!

29 Communicable Diseases
Access to all food handling areas should be limited to only those persons necessary for the prep and service of the meal. Any person with a known communicable disease, or open wound or sore, should not have access until they are well!

30 Food Service Employee Hygiene
Employees should wear clean clothing. Employees should bathe daily. Employees are not permitted to use tobacco in any form in the food prep and service areas!! No animals either. All persons involved with food preparation or food storage, or who come in contact with utensil or other food contact services, shall comply with paragraphs (a) through (f). (a) Hairnets, headbands, caps or other effective hair restraints shall be worn to keep hair from food and food-contact surfaces. (b) Keep their fingernails trimmed, filed, and maintained so the edges and surfaces are cleanable and not rough. Fingernails exceeding one-eighth inch beyond the nail bed shall not be considered trimmed and must comply with paragraph (c) of this subsection. (c) Not wear fingernail polish or artificial fingernails when working with exposed food or unwrapped utensils unless wearing intact gloves in good repair. (d) Except as specified in paragraph (f) of this section, shall not eat or drink in food storage and preparation areas, or in areas containing exposed food or unwrapped utensils, or where utensils are cleaned or stored. (e) Not wear jewelry on their arms and hands while preparing food. This does not apply to a single plain ring such as a wedding band. (f) Be allowed to drink from a beverage container with a tight fitting lid, if the container is handled to prevent contamination of the employees’ hands, the container or unwrapped single-service article; and exposed food, clean equipment, utensils, and linens.

31 Frequent Handwashing... “is one of the best ways to prevent the spread of infectious diseases” including food borne illnesses. Always wash hands after eating, drinking, smoking, changing a diaper, handling raw meat items, feeding pets, coughing, sneezing, etc. prior to handling food.

32 Frequent Handwashing... HANDWASHING TIPS:
You can prevent the spread of Salmonella, Hepatitis A and Shigella just by washing your hands.  It also works to combat germs like those that cause the flu or the common cold.     HANDWASHING TIPS: Keep nails natural, short and clean. Nail polish and artificial nails are prohibited unless gloves are worn. Bacteria can grow under artificial nails. Avoid wearing rings, watches and bracelets while preparing foods. It's As Easy As...  Using warm, running water and soap; liquid soap is the best choice. Rubbing your hands together vigorously for 20 seconds,  paying special attention to cleaning underneath the fingernails. Rinsing soap off thoroughly and drying hands with paper towels or a hot-air dryer. OUR NEW RULE WILL INCOPORATE LANGUAGE REGARDING FINGERNAIL POLISH AND FALSE NAILS!

33 and use utensils with handles.
Minimize Hand Contact Especially those food items that are not cooked prior to service…. and use utensils with handles.

34 Smooth and Easily Cleanable
All food contact equipment, including cooking and/or eating utensils, is to be cleaned & sanitized between uses. Surfaces that are no longer smooth and easily cleanable must be repaired or replaced. This includes frayed pastry brushes, tattered rubber spatulas and heavily scored cutting boards!

35 Dishwashing Facilities
Proper sanitization of dishware can be accomplished by: Manually washing, rinsing & sanitizing all multi-use equipment in a three compartment sink; or, Utilizing a mechanical dishmachine with hot water or chemical sani-cycles.

36 Manual Dishwashing Procedure

37 Mechanical Dishmachines
Hot water sanitizing machines must reach a minimum of 180°F for the final rinse. Low temp machines must reach a minimum of 120°F for the wash cycle & a minimum of 50 ppm Cl2 on the final rinse.

38 Approved Sanitizers Sanitization, or disinfection, is “the effective treatment of clean surfaces of equipment and utensils” which removes harmful bacteria. APPROVED SANITIZERS – TEST STRIPS ARE REQUIRED Chlorine - minimum 50ppm = 1 tsp. per gallon of water Iodine - min 12.5 ppm = 2 Tbs. per gallon of water Quaternary Ammonium - Usually ppm = per manuf. instructions

39 Storage of Clean Kitchenware
Handle Up Inverted Same Direction Cleanable Surface Which picture is improper storage?

40 Continued. Clean, sanitized food equipment should be allowed to completely air-dry prior to storage. No “wet-nesting”!

41 Vermin Control Food preparation areas are to be free of insect and rodent infestation. Screening/Vermin proofing is required. Extermination via the application of pesticides, traps &/or glue boards is to be performed in a sanitary manner.

42 Toxics Storage Personal belongings stored separately from food and food contact equipment/surfaces! Tobacco use not permitted in food prep areas! Cleaners, medicines, pesticides, chemicals stored separately from food and food contact equipment /surfaces!

43 General Maintenance Floors, walls and ceiling in food preparation areas to be constructed of smooth, easily cleanable surfaces. Food contact equipment to be maintained in good repair. Areas to be well lighted. Pets/animals not permitted into prep areas.

44 General Maintenance Garbage to be stored and disposed of in a sanitary manner.

45 General Maintenance (Plumbing)
Plumbing installed and maintained properly - no cross-connections. Waste water to be disposed of properly. Laundry facilities not be installed within food prep area. Tight pipe.

46 Preventing Foodborne Illness!
“Ultimately, prevention depends on educating food handlers about proper practices in cooking and storage of food and personal hygiene.” Dr. James Chin, Control of Communicable Diseases Manual, 2000 Preventing Foodborne Illness! Education is the key! Learn all there is to know about the different pathogens and the means to prevent them from contaminating food prepared in your facility. Pass it along! To learn more about HACCP and how its principles can help prevent Food Borne Illness, visit on the Internet!


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