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1 SPICES 1123 Steven C Seideman Extension Food Processing Specialist Cooperative Extension Service University of Arkansas.

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Presentation on theme: "1 SPICES 1123 Steven C Seideman Extension Food Processing Specialist Cooperative Extension Service University of Arkansas."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 SPICES 1123 Steven C Seideman Extension Food Processing Specialist Cooperative Extension Service University of Arkansas

2 2 HISTORY The quest for spices have an important part in world discovery. Marco Polos trips to the orient for spices and Christopher Columbuss ocean voyage to discover a shorter route to the far east for spices. The East India Company of England started in the 1600s initiated worldwide colonialism and slavery in their quest for spice trade. Another module in this series Food Additives; 1212 discusses salt, sugar and other food additives that effect flavor.

3 3 SOME INTERESTING FACTS ABOUT SPICES Food processors rarely use whole spices because of the microbial content and appearance. Many natural spices are irradiated or treated with a gas to reduce the microbial load. Spice extractives are often plated on dextrose or salt as a carrier.

4 4 SPICE COMPANIES There are several large spice suppliers that can assist in duplicating a flavor match to any product you have. They have highly trained people who can taste a food and tell what spices are in it and how much. On ingredient labels, the exact spices used do not have to be labeled. Just reads Spice or Spice Extractives.

5 5 SPICES The following covers some of the natural spices including the part of the plant used, description, source and uses arranged in alphabetical order. Descriptions and drawings are from the American Spice Trade Association.

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7 7 ALLSPICE ALLSPICE; Whole, ground Description; Brown berry with clove- like flavor. Sources; Jamaica, Guatemala, Mexico. Uses; Baked goods, fruit desserts, yellow vegetables, pickles, relishes, marinades.

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9 9 ANISE SEED ANISE SEED; Whole, ground Description; Small, greenish-brown seeds; Licorice-like taste. Sources; Spain, Egypt, Mexico. Uses; Baked goods, especially cookies and fruit pies. Excellent with poultry and veal.

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11 11 BASIL BASIL; Whole (leaf). Description; As packaged, bits of green leaves; aromatic, mildly pungent. Sources; U.S., Hungary, France, Bulgaria. Uses; Spaghetti sauce, cooked vegetables (esp. tomatoes), seafood, poultry, salads.

12 12

13 13 BAY LEAVES BAY LEAVES; Whole. Description; Large, pale green leaves; Fragrant, slightly bitter taste. Sources; Turkey Uses; Stews, soups, marinades, casseroles of meat, fowl, fish and seafood.

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15 15 CARAWAY SEEDS CARAWAY SEEDS; Whole Description; Curved brown seeds; warm, tangy taste. Sources; Netherlands, Poland, Denmark. Uses; Breads, cheese dips and spreads, sauerkraut, pork and beef casseroles.

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17 17 CARDAMON SEED CARDAMON SEED; Whole pods; Ground seeds. Description; Buff or green-colored pods containing small brown seeds; strong, exotic aroma. Sources; Guatemala, India. Uses; Coffee cakes, cookies, buns, pumpkin and apple pies, hot coffee.

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19 19 CELERY FLAKES CELERY FLAKES; Flakes Description; Dehydrated flaked stalks of vegetative celery. Sources; Primarily U.S. Uses; In any celery-seasoned dishes, especially meat sauces, soups, stews, casseroles, stuffing.

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21 21 CELERY SEED CELERY SEED; Whole, ground and as celery salt. Description; Tiny seeds from a special strain of celery, not the same as the vegetable. Sources; India, France, China, Uses; Meat loaves, stews, croquettes, salad dressings, coleslaw and eggs.

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23 23 CHIVES CHIVES; freeze-dried. Description; Small, cross-cut selections of chive shoots, with delicate onion taste. Sources; U.S. Uses; Sour cream (for baked potatoes), eggs, cottage cheese, any cooked vegetables, cocktail dips, creamy sauces, salad dressings.

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25 25 CINNAMON CINNAMON; Whole stick; ground Description; Tan to reddish brown sticks or rolled bark with aromatic, sweet, pungent taste. Sources; Indonesia, China. Uses; Most important baking spice, also puddings, sweet sauces, and frozen desserts. Excellent with chocolates, most fruits.

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27 27 CLOVES CLOVES: Whole; Ground. Description; Nail-sharp flower bud and stem with strong, sweet aroma. Sources; Madagascar, Zanzibar, Indonesia. Uses; (Whole) Pressed into ham and pork. In fruit desserts, pickling fruits, stews, gravies, root vegetables. (Ground) Baked goods, beverages.

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29 29 CUMIN SEED CUMIN SEED: (Cominos) Whole; Ground. Description; Yellowish-brown seeds with strong, aroma, reminiscent of caraway. Sources; Iran, India. Uses; In chili and curry powders; deviled eggs, soups, sauerkraut, pork, cheese dishes.

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31 31 DILL DILL: Whole seeds or weed (leaves). Description; Light brown, oval seeds with warm, caraway-like taste. Dill weed is milder. Sources; India(seed); U.S. (weed). Uses; Pickles, fish, sauces, cabbage, potatoes, green beans, cauliflower, salad dressings, stuffing.

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33 33 FENNEL SEED FENNEL SEED; Whole Description; Yellowish-brown seeds with licorice-like aroma. Sources; India, Lebanon, China. Uses; Chicken, seafood sauces and pork dishes, breads, rolls, coffee cakes, sweet vegetables.

34 34

35 35 GARLIC GARLIC; Minced; powder; granulated; salt. Description; Dehydrates forms are the most common. Strong, savory taste. Sources; U.S. Uses; All kinds of meats, shellfish, bread, salad dressings, soups, sauces, casseroles.

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37 37 GINGER GINGER; Whole, Ground Description; Irregularly shaped pieces of tan-colored roots with spicy, warm flavor. Sources; Jamaica, India, Nigeria, China. Uses; Ginger Ale, gingerbread, spice cakes, cookies, beef and chicken dishes, sauces and marinades

38 38

39 39 MACE MACE; Ground. Description; Lacy, orange-colored layer from nutmeg fruit. Aroma nutmeg-like but stronger. Sources; Indonesia, West Indies Uses; Cherry pie, fruit cakes, pound cakes, sweet vegetables, sauces, chowders, creamed spinach or chicken.

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41 41 MARJORAM MARJORAM; Whole (leaf); ground. Description; As packaged, whole bits of grayish-green leaves with aromatic, savory flavor. Sources; France, Egypt. Uses; Roast meats, poultry, fish, green vegetables, salads, herbed breads.

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43 43 MINT FLAKES MINT FLAKES; Flakes Description; Broken dried spearmint leaves. Sources; Egypt, Bulgaria. Uses; Fruit desserts, spice teas, fruit drinks, tossed green salads, lamb dishes, pickled beets.

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45 45 MUSTARD SEED MUSTARD SEED; Whole; Ground; Powdered. Description; Tiny seeds, yellowish to reddish-brown. Powdered develops sharp, pungent taste when water is added. Sources; Canada, U.K., Denmark, U.S. Uses; Powdered-Cheese dishes, deviled eggs, ham salads, sauces. Seed-Pickles, salads.

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47 47 NUTMEG NUTMEG; Whole; Ground. Description; Large, brownish seed (nut); Sweet, warm aroma and taste. Sources; Indonesia, West Indies. Uses; Cakes, cookies, pies, puddings, eggnog, custards, any lemon dessert, corn, creamed spinach, chicken, seafood.

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49 49 ONION ONION: Instant minced, diced, chopped, sliced, flakes, salad onion, minced green, powder, granulated, salt. Description; Dehydrated forms of onion with characteristic taste. Sources; U.S. Uses; Most dishes except dessert, esp meats, poultry, seafood, salads, vegetables, soups, sauces, eggs.

50 50

51 51 OREGANO OREGANO; Whole (leaf) Description; As packaged, small pieces of green leaves with strong, pleasant aroma and taste. Sources; Mexico, Greece, Turkey. Uses; The pizza herb; Also in spaghetti, other Italian dishes, meat, cheese, fish, eggs.

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53 53 PAPRIKA PAPRIKA; Ground only Description; Rich red powder; slightly sweet taste; some forms are nippy. Sources; U.S., Spain, Hungary. Uses; The garnish spice. Also used for flavor in creamed, mild flavored foods such as Welsh rarebit, deviled eggs, sour creamed dips, bisques.

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55 55 PARSLEY FLAKES PARSLEY FLAKES; Flakes Description; Flakes of dried bright green leaves with mild, agreeable aroma and taste. Sources; U.S., Hungary. Uses; In sauces for meats, poultry, fish, vegetables, scrambled eggs, stuffing, soups, salad dressings.

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57 57 BLACK PEPPER BLACK PEPPER; Whole peppercorns, ground, course ground, cracked. Description; Dark, wrinkled berries; pungent taste. Sources; Indonesia, India, Brazil. Uses; Most important spice used in all kinds of meats and vegetables, Some cakes and cookies.

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59 59 WHITE PEPPER WHITE PEPPER: Whole, ground. Description; Light colored seed of ripe peppercorn; somewhat less pungent. Sources; Indonesia, India, Malaysia. Uses; Same as black pepper, but particularly in light colored sauces, casseroles, soups, eggs, cheese dishes.

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61 61 RED PEPPER RED PEPPER; Whole (chilies), ground (cayenne); crushed. Description; Elongated red pods of varying sizes with heat levels mild to extremely pungent. Sources; Mexico, China, U.S. Uses; Ground or Cayenne-in dips, sauces, soups, meats, fish. Crushed-in pizza, spaghetti and various Mexican dishes. Whole-in pickles and marinades.

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63 63 POPPY SEED POPPY SEED; Whole. Description; Tiny, slate blue colored seeds; Nut-like taste. Sources; Netherlands, Turkey, Romania. Uses; As toppings for rolls, breads, cookies, in cole slaw, noodles, dips and cheesecakes.

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65 65 ROSEMARY ROSEMARY; Whole (leaf). Description; Bits of needle-like green leaves; bittersweet taste. Sources; Portugal, France, Yugoslavia. Uses; Excellent with lamb, chicken, beef and pork, sauces for fish, salad dressings, eggplants, green beans, summer squashes, mushrooms.

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67 67 SAFFRON SAFFRON; Whole; Ground. Description; Costliest spice; orange- yellow strands (flower stigmas) pleasantly bitter taste. Sources; Spain. Uses; So potent, a few strands bring rich, golden color and flavor to rice, chicken and seafood.

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69 69 SAGE SAGE; Whole (leaf); Ground; Rubbed (crumbled, fluffy leaves). Description; Long, grayish green leaves with strong, slightly bitter taste. Sources; Yugoslavia, Albania, Turkey. Uses; Sausage and poultry stuffing, meat loaves, pork dishes, fish chowders, melted cheese dishes.

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71 71 SAVORY SAVORY; Whole (leaf), ground. DESCRIPTION; As packaged, bits of greenish-brown leaves with savory aroma. Sources; Yugoslavia, France. Uses; Green beans, meat, chicken, dressings, scrambled eggs, omelets, soups, salads.

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73 73 SESAME SEED SESAME SEED; Whole. Description; Creamy white seed with mild, nutty taste. Sources; Central America, Ethiopia. Uses; Topping for hamburger buns, breads, cakes, cookies, creamy pies, in stuffings, sauces, vegetable butters, fried chicken coatings.

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75 75 SWEET PEPPER FLAKES SWEET PEPPER FLAKES; Also known as Bell pepper flakes. Flakes. Description; Dehydrated, flaked, sweet green or sweet red pepper or a mixture of both. Sources; U.S. Uses; Sauces, soups, salads, stews, sandwich fillings, chili, Spanish rice, Creole dishes.

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77 77 TARRAGON TARRAGON; Whole (leaf); Ground. Description; As packaged, bits of green leaves with sweet licorice-like taste. Sources; U.S., France, Yugoslavia. Uses; Known as the vinegar herb. Salad dressings, casseroles of meat, seafood, poultry esp chicken; Also in tartar sauce.

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79 79 THYME THYME; Whole (leaf), Ground. Description; As packaged, bits of grayish-green leaves; aromatic, pungent taste. Sources; Spain, France. Uses; Clam chowder, seafood, stuffings, creamed chicken, chipped beef, onions, eggplant, celery.

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81 81 TURMERIC TURMERIC; Ground. Description; Orange-yellow roots, peppery, slightly bitter taste. Sources; India, Haiti, Peru. Uses; Adds saffron-like coloring to rice, chicken, seafood, eggs; Also good in pickles and relishes.

82 82 CONCLUSIONS Spices are grown throughout the world and add flavor to the foods we consume each day. Knowledge and understanding of these spices are useful in developing new products and making foods at home.

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