Presentation on theme: "1 SPICES 1123 Steven C Seideman Extension Food Processing Specialist Cooperative Extension Service University of Arkansas."— Presentation transcript:
1 SPICES 1123 Steven C Seideman Extension Food Processing Specialist Cooperative Extension Service University of Arkansas
2 HISTORY The quest for spices have an important part in world discovery. Marco Polos trips to the orient for spices and Christopher Columbuss ocean voyage to discover a shorter route to the far east for spices. The East India Company of England started in the 1600s initiated worldwide colonialism and slavery in their quest for spice trade. Another module in this series Food Additives; 1212 discusses salt, sugar and other food additives that effect flavor.
3 SOME INTERESTING FACTS ABOUT SPICES Food processors rarely use whole spices because of the microbial content and appearance. Many natural spices are irradiated or treated with a gas to reduce the microbial load. Spice extractives are often plated on dextrose or salt as a carrier.
4 SPICE COMPANIES There are several large spice suppliers that can assist in duplicating a flavor match to any product you have. They have highly trained people who can taste a food and tell what spices are in it and how much. On ingredient labels, the exact spices used do not have to be labeled. Just reads Spice or Spice Extractives.
5 SPICES The following covers some of the natural spices including the part of the plant used, description, source and uses arranged in alphabetical order. Descriptions and drawings are from the American Spice Trade Association.
21 CELERY SEED CELERY SEED; Whole, ground and as celery salt. Description; Tiny seeds from a special strain of celery, not the same as the vegetable. Sources; India, France, China, Uses; Meat loaves, stews, croquettes, salad dressings, coleslaw and eggs.
25 CINNAMON CINNAMON; Whole stick; ground Description; Tan to reddish brown sticks or rolled bark with aromatic, sweet, pungent taste. Sources; Indonesia, China. Uses; Most important baking spice, also puddings, sweet sauces, and frozen desserts. Excellent with chocolates, most fruits.
27 CLOVES CLOVES: Whole; Ground. Description; Nail-sharp flower bud and stem with strong, sweet aroma. Sources; Madagascar, Zanzibar, Indonesia. Uses; (Whole) Pressed into ham and pork. In fruit desserts, pickling fruits, stews, gravies, root vegetables. (Ground) Baked goods, beverages.
35 GARLIC GARLIC; Minced; powder; granulated; salt. Description; Dehydrates forms are the most common. Strong, savory taste. Sources; U.S. Uses; All kinds of meats, shellfish, bread, salad dressings, soups, sauces, casseroles.
51 OREGANO OREGANO; Whole (leaf) Description; As packaged, small pieces of green leaves with strong, pleasant aroma and taste. Sources; Mexico, Greece, Turkey. Uses; The pizza herb; Also in spaghetti, other Italian dishes, meat, cheese, fish, eggs.
53 PAPRIKA PAPRIKA; Ground only Description; Rich red powder; slightly sweet taste; some forms are nippy. Sources; U.S., Spain, Hungary. Uses; The garnish spice. Also used for flavor in creamed, mild flavored foods such as Welsh rarebit, deviled eggs, sour creamed dips, bisques.
57 BLACK PEPPER BLACK PEPPER; Whole peppercorns, ground, course ground, cracked. Description; Dark, wrinkled berries; pungent taste. Sources; Indonesia, India, Brazil. Uses; Most important spice used in all kinds of meats and vegetables, Some cakes and cookies.
59 WHITE PEPPER WHITE PEPPER: Whole, ground. Description; Light colored seed of ripe peppercorn; somewhat less pungent. Sources; Indonesia, India, Malaysia. Uses; Same as black pepper, but particularly in light colored sauces, casseroles, soups, eggs, cheese dishes.
61 RED PEPPER RED PEPPER; Whole (chilies), ground (cayenne); crushed. Description; Elongated red pods of varying sizes with heat levels mild to extremely pungent. Sources; Mexico, China, U.S. Uses; Ground or Cayenne-in dips, sauces, soups, meats, fish. Crushed-in pizza, spaghetti and various Mexican dishes. Whole-in pickles and marinades.
67 SAFFRON SAFFRON; Whole; Ground. Description; Costliest spice; orange- yellow strands (flower stigmas) pleasantly bitter taste. Sources; Spain. Uses; So potent, a few strands bring rich, golden color and flavor to rice, chicken and seafood.
75 SWEET PEPPER FLAKES SWEET PEPPER FLAKES; Also known as Bell pepper flakes. Flakes. Description; Dehydrated, flaked, sweet green or sweet red pepper or a mixture of both. Sources; U.S. Uses; Sauces, soups, salads, stews, sandwich fillings, chili, Spanish rice, Creole dishes.
77 TARRAGON TARRAGON; Whole (leaf); Ground. Description; As packaged, bits of green leaves with sweet licorice-like taste. Sources; U.S., France, Yugoslavia. Uses; Known as the vinegar herb. Salad dressings, casseroles of meat, seafood, poultry esp chicken; Also in tartar sauce.
81 TURMERIC TURMERIC; Ground. Description; Orange-yellow roots, peppery, slightly bitter taste. Sources; India, Haiti, Peru. Uses; Adds saffron-like coloring to rice, chicken, seafood, eggs; Also good in pickles and relishes.
82 CONCLUSIONS Spices are grown throughout the world and add flavor to the foods we consume each day. Knowledge and understanding of these spices are useful in developing new products and making foods at home.