Presentation on theme: "Zebras … Animal Domestication & Anna Karenina. Zebras … Two Principles: Tolstoy (Anna K): Happy families are all alike; every unhappy family is unhappy."— Presentation transcript:
Zebras … Two Principles: Tolstoy (Anna K): Happy families are all alike; every unhappy family is unhappy in its own way. Diamond (GGS): Domesticable animals are all alike; every undomesticable animal is undomesticable in its own way.
Zebras … So What Does That Mean? –Failure in anyone essential aspect can doom a marriage, or the domestication of animal, even if all other elements for success are met.
Zebras … Big Domestic Mammals Were Important –Meat –Milk –Fertilizer –Land Transport –Military Assault (horses) –Plow Traction –Wool –Germs
Zebras … Small Domestic Animals & Birds also of Use in Ancient Times: Animal/ BirdAreaUse Chicken ChinaMeat/eggs Ducks/GeeseEurasiaMeat/eggs TurkeysMesoamericaMeat/eggs Guinea FowlAfricaMeat/eggs Muscovy DucksS. AmericaMeat/eggs Wolves (Dogs)Eurasia/N.A.Pets/ Hunting Small RodentsAllMeat
Zebras … Why Choose Big Terrestrial Herbivores? –Big: Weighing more than 100 pounds More meat, replace human labour –Terrestrial: On land Sea and sky creatures hard to herd or harness –Herbivore (Omni?): Does not eat meat! Raise non-carnivorous, for obvious reasons
Zebras … The Big Terrestrial Herbivores (p. 160, Table 9.1) –Only 14 domesticated before 1900 –Only 5 became widespread: Cow Sheep Goat Pig Horse –Others include: Arabian Camels (one-hump), Bactrian Camel (two-hump) Llama/Alpaca, Donkey, Reindeer, Water Buffalo, Yak, Bantang (Bali cattle) & Gaur (Mithan)
Zebras … Tame vs. Domestic –Morphological change & captive breeding is essential to domestication Tame Elephant vs. Domestic Cattle –… selectively bred in captivity and modified from its wild ancestors, for use by humans who control the animals breeding and food supply. –Two forces of change: Human Selection Animal Response to Human Selection
Zebras … Location of Animal Domesticates: –Unequal Distribution of Ancestral Species Most in Eurasia –Worlds largest land mass –Diverse Environment –Largest Number of candidates –But, was the unequal distribution due to human cultural bias? No, for five reasons …
Zebras … Five Reasons: 1)Rapid Uptake of Eurasian Domesticates 2)Penchant for Keeping Pets 3)Rapid Domestication of Ancient 14 4)Repeated Independent Domestication 5)Limited Success of Modern Domestication Therefore, definitely not a human cultural bias
Zebras … So why didnt any of the other 148 candidates make the cut? –Anna Karenina Principle Diet Growth Rate Problems with Captive Breeding Nasty Disposition Tendency to Panic Social Structure
Assigned Readings For Friday:Course Reader G G S Spacious Skies …pp47-54pp176-191 By Diamond (GGS) ------------------------------------------------------------------------------- For Monday:Course (at least to p. 78)Reader G G S Medievil Sectionpp60-93 By Walburger