4 General charactersFlat worms (no cavity), not segmented, bilaterally flattened (except Schistosoma is cylindrical)Hermaphrodite (except Schistosoma)Body has 2 suckers for attachment : oral, ventral, (except Heterophyes has a 3rd genital sucker.
5 General charactersLife cycle show sexual phase (defenitive host) and asexual phase (intermediate host)Require one or more intermediate host1st intermediate host is a snail.Eggs have an operculum.Infective stage is encystedmetacercaria.(except Schistosoma: cercariae)
8 Heterophyes heterophyes cont. Location of adult: Small intestineIntermediate host:Primary: Pirenella conica.Secondary: Bolti and Bouri fish.Infective stage: Encysted metacercaria.Mode of transmission: Ingestion of raw fish containing encysted metacercaria.Diagnosis: Eggs in stool.Disease: Heterophiasis.
12 Fasciola sp. cont. Location of adult: Bile duct. Intermediate host : Primary : Snail Lymnaea truncatula for F.hepatica and Lymnaea. Cailliaudi for F. gigantica.Secondary: leaves of fresh-water plants.Mode of transmission: Ingestion of raw water-cress containing encysted metacercariae.Infective stage: Encysted metacercaria.Diagnosis: Eggs in stool.Disease: Fascioliasis.
13 Schistosoma sp. a. Schistosoma mansoni Schistosoma mansoni male: 8-10 mm, has gynacophoric canal, dorsal surface covered with tubercle (4X)Schistosoma mansoni female: 14 mm, taller and thinner,vitelline glands occupy 2/3 of the body( 4X)
14 Schistosoma mansoni snail Biomphlaria alexandrina a. Schistosoma mansoni cont.Cercaria of Schistosoma mansoni : elongated head, biforked tail (H.P)Schistosoma mansoni egg: oval with lateral spine (H.P)Schistosoma mansoni snail Biomphlaria alexandrina
15 b. Schistosoma hematobium Egg: oval with terminal spine (H.P)Snail: Bulinus truncatus
16 Schistosoma mansoniSchistosoma hematobiumLocationVeins of large intestine, colon (lower mesentric veinVeins of urinary bladder (venous plexus of urinary bladderInterm. hostBiomphalaria alexandrinaBulinus truncatusDiagnosisEggs in stoolEggs in urineInfective stageCercariaeMode of transmissionDirect skin penetration of cercariae during swimmingDisease:Intestinal BilharziasisUrinary Bilharziasis
17 Helminthology Questions form: Name and sex of the parasite Class to which the parasite belongsLocation in the hostIntermediate hostDefinitive hostInfective stageMode of transmissionLab diagnosisDisease