2 Starter ActivityRecall methods of making – what are they?
3 Learning Outcomes KNOW The effects of combining different ingredients and the interaction of foods during preparation and cooking.UNDERSTANDThe importance of appropriate proportions on the structure, shape and volume of mixturesBE ABLE TO...EXPLAIN methods of making and which recipes they relate to.UNDERSTAND how food structures are formed: solutions, suspensions, emulsions, and gels.DISTINGUISH faults in bread , cake, pastry, scones and sauce making.MATCH finishing techniques to definitionsDESCRIBE quality of manufacture key terminology
4 Lesson 21 Combining ingredients and structures Lesson 1 DipsLesson 13 PRACTICAL Bread and shareLesson 14 Manufacturing quality and CAD/CAMLesson 23 Labelling and packagingLesson 24 SECELesson 2 PRACTICAL DipsLesson 11 & 12Functions of foodsLesson 15 EquipmentLesson 22 Acids, alkaline and additivesLesson 25 Technological Developments - NANOLesson 3 DipsLesson 10 Research TechniquesLesson 16 PRACTICAL Cultural breadsLesson 21 Combining ingredients and structuresLesson 26 & 27 PRACTICE EXAMLesson 4 & 5 Safe storageLesson 8 & 9 Design exam QuestionsLesson 17 Prototypes and sensory testingLesson 20 PRACTICAL Pastry twist developmentLesson 6 Standard componentsLesson 7 PRACTICAL Bread sticksLesson 18 Nutrition and healthy EatingLesson 19 Nutrition and healthy Eating
5 What does the spec say?The effects of combining different ingredients and the interaction of foods during preparation and cookingThe importance of appropriate proportions on the structure, shape and volume of mixturesselect and combine foods/ingredients to achieve different textures, finishes, shapes, size and appearance;understand how the following food structures are formed: solutions, suspensions, emulsions, and gels. Through practical activities, develop different types of salad dressings, sauces and cold desserts;investigate, through product development, the use of different ingredients/quantities/methods of making;demonstrate how accurate measurement, ratio and proportioning affect preparation, making and shaping of products to designated criteria to achieve acceptable outcomes;investigate the adaptation of amounts in mixtures: cakes, pastry, sauces, bread, biscuits;through experiment, investigation and product development understand the importance of using appropriate amounts and types of ingredients and processing techniques to meet designated criteria and tolerances;
7 Rubbing in methodUSED FOR - farmhouse fruit cake, raspberry buns, pastry and rock buns.MIXING - fat rubbed into the flourRATIO - half fat and sugar to flour. High proportion of liquid.RAISING AGENT – Chemical baking powder or self raising flour.TEXTURE - dry, open, crumb.SHORT CRUST PASTRY – ½ FAT TO FLOUR. E.g. 100g flour to 50g fatFLAKY PASTRY – ¾ FAT TO FLOUR. E.g. 100g flour to 75g fatCHOUX PASTRY – 1/3 FAT TO FLOUR . E.g.. 75g plain flour to 25g butter.
8 Creaming methodUSED FOR – used for Victoria sandwich, Maderia cake, sponge buns, Dundee cakeMIXING – fat and sugar creamed togetherRATIO – 4/4/4/2. (100g marg /flour/sugar and 2 eggsRAISING AGENT – chemical self raising flour. Air from creaming.TEXTURE - fine light, even
9 Melting method USED FOR – gingerbread, flapjacks, brownies MIXING – fat melted with treacle or syrup or honey and sugarRATIO – half or less fat to flour. High proportion of sugar ingredientsRAISING AGENT – chemical – bicarb sodaTEXTURE - soft, moist, sticky.
10 Whisking Method USED FOR – Swiss roll, sponge, sandwich cake. MIXING – eggs and sugar whisked together.RATIO - equal portions of sugar and flour to weight of eggs ( e.g. 75g (3oz) plain flour, 75g (3oz) sugar, 3 eggs )RAISING AGENT – air and steam from water in eggsTEXTURE – light, even, soft.
12 COLLOIDAL SYSTEM –The structure of some foods involves 2 parts which have to be held together e.g. Emulsifiers, gelatinisation, foams and gels.SOLUTIONWhen one ingredient becomes part of a liquid ingredient. This is not part of the colloidal system as the mixture dissolves!Sugar in teaSUSPENSIONWhen a solid ingredient is mixed with a liquid but it does not disappear. It is suspended. But if making a sauce and heat is added GELATINISATION occurs.White sauce, cheese sauce.GELSA really thick viscous solution. A liquid held in a solid network.Marmalade, jelly, jamFOAMSFormed when air is mixed in a liquid . Bubbles of gas trapped in a liquidMeringue nests, Whipped cream,ice creamsEMULSIONSOily and watery liquids mixed together.Salad dressing, Mayonnaise, margarine, salad cream
14 Is HARD and COURSE in texture 1. Faults in bread makingFAULTREASONSSMALL and DENSEInsufficient fermentationToo little water causes dough too stiff to allow expansionInactive yeast – not enough CO2 gas producedIs HARD and COURSE in textureDough has been over fermented – breakdown of gas pockets in dough due to increase in pressure from the CO2 gas. The gas pockets break down and release the gas to form large uneven holes.NOT RISENYeast has been killed before loaf has been baked.
15 2. Faults in cake making – select 3 and draw the result REASONSCLOSE, HEAVY TEXTUREInsufficient raising agent was usedMixture too wetOverbeating after adding flour or liquid.UNEVEN RISINGTin placed unevenly near source of heat in ovenCRACKED TOP OR PEAKTin too small for mixtureOven too hotSUNKEN CAKEToo much raising agent – gluten overstretched and then collapsed before had time to setRemoving cake from oven before it was cookedBURNT CRUSTCooked too longCake tin too thin
16 3. Faults in Pastry making REASONSTOO HARD and TOUGHIngredients were too warm.Over kneading and heavy handling.Incorrect proportion of ingredients e.g. too much water in shortcrust pastry, too little water in flaky pastry.Oven temperature too cool.BLISTERED PASTRYUneven mixing of water.Oven set too high a temperature.Fats insufficiently and unevenly rubbed into the flour.SHRUNK PASTRY DURING COOKINGThe pastry has been stretched during preparation and rolling.FRAGILE AND CRUMBLY WHEN COOKEDToo much fat.Over rubbing fat into flour.Too little flour.
17 SPREAD and HAVE LOST SHAPE ROUGH SURFACE after baking 4. Faults in Scone makingFAULTREASONSPREAD and HAVE LOST SHAPEToo soft a dough due to too much liquid.Incorrect kneading.HEAVY and POORLY RISENInsufficient raising agent.Insufficient liquid.Too heavy handling.Oven temperature too cool.Baked too low in oven.ROUGH SURFACE after bakingRough handling.
18 5. Faults in Sauce making FAULTS REASON THIN SAUCE Undercooked Will have the flavour of raw starch – gelatinisation has not occurred (about 95°C)LUMPY SAUCEStirring or whisking of mixture too slowToo high a heatTOO THICK SAUCEOvercooked – the water has evaporated
19 Gelatinisation of starch Starch particles will not dissolve in liquidThe liquid must be HEATED so the particles will swell and rupture.At 60°C liquid is ABSORBED by starch.The particles SOFTEN and SWELL to up to five times their original sizeHeating continues to 80°C. The particles RUPTURE, releasing starch.The mixture becomes THICK and VISCOUS.The starch has GELATINISED ( a gel has formed)When cool the gel SETS and the sauce becomes SOLID.
20 Finishing techniquesMaking a QUALITY outcome –CONSISTENCYACCURACY
21 Glazes – match up the glaze with the suitable food BEATEN EGGMILKHONEY AND ORANGESUGAR SYRUP
22 Pastry Glazes SWEET PASTRY – brushed with milk or beaten egg white SAVOURY PASTRY –brushed with milk or beaten egg and salt or egg wash ( equal quantities of egg yolk and water).Savoury pastry - should have a GLOSSIER and DARKER BROWN glaze compared to sweet
23 Garnishes – For at least 1 in each section of garnishes state what food it could be used with. HERBSOTHERSFRUITS
24 Decoration – Match the picture with the title REDCURRANTSDUSTED ICING SUGARPIPINGCHOCOLATE CURLSCHOCOLATE LEAVESFEATHERING
25 Decorations for Pastry ROPE PIECRUSTLATTICE TOPEDGE FINISHESSPIRAL TOPTOP DECORATIONFORKED EDGEFLUTED PINCHED EDGECUT OUT SHAPES
26 Toppings for bread - Match the picture with the title POPPY SEEDSCHOPPED NUTSFLOURSESAME SEEDSGRATED CHEESE
27 Finishing Techniques - The appearance of a food product is essential PIPING: fresh cream, chocolate and mashed potato can be piped using bags and nozzles to create an attractive and professional designBROWNING: uses fats, eggs, sugar, milk, flour or oil, which darken a food when heatedGLAZING: a glaze is a smooth shiny coating which gives an attractive finish, e.g. jam can be warmed and used to cover a fruit flan.EGG-WASH GLAZING: a mixture of milk and egg brushed onto pastry before cooking gives a shiny golden finish.CHOCOLATE: chocolate swirls, grated chocolate and other chocolate shapes can add interest to a dessert.ICINGS: different icings can add colour and texture to sweet baked products such as: butter cream, glace icing, fondant icing, fudge icing, etc. To create a professional finish.
28 Quality of manufacture Match the answer to the description
29 MICRO- BIOLOGICAL CHECK TYPE OF CHECKWHAT IT ISVISUAL CHECKSSamples tested for levels of bacteria.ORGANOLEPTIC CHECKSamples are checked regularly to ensure accurate temperature control .CHEMICAL CHECKMetal detectors are used at the packaging stage.MICRO- BIOLOGICAL CHECKWeight tested at packaging stage.WEIGHT CHECKSamples of final product tested for flavour, texture and aroma.TEMPERATURE CHECKSome foods tested for acidity or alkalinity.PH CHECKRaw ingredients checked for quality and colour.METAL CHECKSamples tested to ensure they are contamination – free.
30 Review – Self assessment – R/A/G Methods of makingStructures of foodsFaultsFinishing TechniquesQuality of manufacture