Presentation on theme: "SUCCESSFUL MANAGEMENT OF PEST IN PADDY CULTIVATION."— Presentation transcript:
SUCCESSFUL MANAGEMENT OF PEST IN PADDY CULTIVATION
1. Green leafhopper Nephotettix virescens Adults - are green with black spot and black patch on wings.
Symptom of damage Both nymphs and adults feed on rice by sucking the plant sap They migrate to the field soon after seedlings have emerged. Yellowing of leaves from tip to downwards. Vector for the diseases viz., Rice tungro virus, rice yellow & transitory yellowing YellowingRice tungro virus
Management biological control :wasps parasitize the eggs. They are attacked by aquatic veliid bugs, nabid bugs, empid flies, damselflies, dragonflies, and spiders Use resistant varieties. The vegetation on the bunds should also be sprayed with the insecticides Set up light traps
2. Rice case worm Nymphula depunctalis Larva Adult
Symptom of damage Caterpillars feed on green tissues of the leaves and leave become whitish papery Tubular cases around the tillers by cutting the apical portion of leaves Floating of tubular cases on the water Eg:Case tubes
Management cultural control: the use of correct fertilizer application, wider spacing (30 × 20 mm) early planting draining the field transplanting older seedlings growing a ratoon can also help control this insect dislodge the cases – running rope
biological agents: snails are useful (predate on eggs), Spiders, dragon flies, birds Chemical control larvae are highly sensitive to insecticides. The use of foliar treatments- carbamate Pyrethroids should be avoided
3.Black bug Scotinophara lurida The newly emerged adult is white and tinged with green and pink Mature adults are shiny dark brown or black.
Symptoms of damage Both the adults and nymphs remove the plant sap They prefer the stem nodes because of the large sap reservoirs Black bugs feed on the rice plant from seedling to maturity growth stages Heavy infestation and bug burn is usually visible after heading or maturing feeding damage of black bugs causes half-filled and empty grains. Ten adults per hill can cause losses of up to 35% in some rice.
Management maintain a clean field by removing the weeds and drying the rice field during ploughing Direct-seeded rice crops tend to have less tillers in one planting point and thus discourage population growth During early infestation, the water level in the field may be raised for 2-3 days to force the insects to move upwards. Flooding the fields can also cause higher egg mortality. After harvest, fields might be ploughed to remove remaining insects.
In the field, there are biological control agents such as small wasps that parasitize the eggs. Ground beetles, spiders, crickets, and red ants attack the eggs, nymphs, and adults. Both the eggs and the nymphs are fed-upon by coccinellid beetles
Symptom of damage Presence of brown coloured egg mass near leaf tip. Caterpillar bore into central shoot of paddy seedling and tiller Causes drying of the central shoot known as dead heart Grown up plant whole panicle becomes dried white ear. Dead heartWhite ear
Management Cultural control proper timing of planting and synchronous planting. harvesting at ground level to remove the larvae in stubble. Ploughing and flooding egg masses should be handpicked The level of irrigation water can be raised periodically to submerge the eggs deposited on the lower parts of the plant.
Symptom of damage This pest attacks all stages of the rice crop Larvae cut the seedlings in large scale It becomes very destructive when the population is high that it can totally devour the host plant Mature panicles are cut off from the base of the plants Severe infestation - cattle grazing appearance to the field.
Management Parasitoids such as tachinids, ichneumonids, eulophids, chalcids, and braconid wasps parasitize this pest Ants, ducks and birds feed on the pest. Fungal diseases and viruses also infect the larvae Chemical control :when populations are extremely high E.g Pyrethroids
Egg Adult 6. Gall midge Orseolia oryzae
Symptom of damage Maggot feeds at the base of the growing shoot Causing formation of a tube like gall that is similar to onion leaf or Silver-shoot. Infested tillers produce no panicles.
Management Remove the alternate hosts and adjust the time of planting (early) Optimum recommendation of potash fertilizer Setup light trap and monitor the adult flies
Cultural control : Ploughing ratoon of the previous crop Harvest the crop and plough immediately Use early maturing varieties removing all off-season plant Biological control: The pupa is host to some species of wasps. spiders eat the adults. Resistant varieties Eg: BG 304, BG 350 installing Light traps, -Split application of Nitrogen fertilizers application of insecticide (Eg : Carbofuran, Diaczinon)
7. Rice skipper Pelopidas mathias Larva: Pale green with constructed neck. Adult: Butterfly with brown coloured wings and curved antenna Caterpillar Adult
Symptom of damage Edges of the leaves are fastened with webbing. Backward rolling of leaves, caterpillar feeds from margin to inwards
Management Spray endosulfan 35 EC 1000 ml / ha or monocrotophos 36 WSC 500 ml / ha
Symptom of damage Leaves fold longitudinally and larvae remains inside. Larvae scrapes the green tissues of the leaves and becomes white and dry. During severe infestation the whole field exhibits scorched appearance
Longitudinal folding larva inside the fold white and dried leaves
Management Cultural control not use too much Maintaining of surrounding grass habitats Biological control wasps and crickets attack eggs larval and pupal stages :parasitized by many species of wasps Damselflies, ants, beetles, wasps, prefer the larva effective predator of rice leaf folder larvae.
CaterpillarAdult Pupa 9. Green horned caterpillar Melanitis leda ismene
Damage Larva feeds on leaf blades of rice. Leaves are defoliated from the margin or tip irregularly. minor pests of rice
Management Natural enemies usually control their populations and rice compensate from the feeding damage of green horned caterpillars Spray -Endosulfan -Monocrotophos
10. Mole cricket Gryllotalpa orientalis modified for digging have strong teeth-like structures
Damage tunnels into the soil using its enlarged fore legs. It feeds on seeds and resulting in loss of plant stand or poor crop stands. It feeds on rice during the seed to seedling stages of the crop.
Management Cultural control – Maintaining standing water Bund shaving and plastering of fresh wet soil The rice field can be flooded for 3-4 days. Modern varieties with long and dense fibrous can tolerate damage better Biological control- a sphecid wasp, carabid beetle, nematodes,
11. Yellow hairy caterpillar Psalis pennatula Larva -Caterpillar is yellowish brown with red stripes -Orange head and tufts of hairs all over the body. Pupa -pale white cocoon of silk and frass attached to the leaf Adult -Moth is stout with straw coloured forewings.
Symptoms of damage Caterpillar causes defoliation
Management cultural control : draining the rice field for 3-4 days during the early stage of infestation Nitrogen application can be split to reduce BPH build up Synchronous planting within 3 weeks of staggering and maintaining a free-rice period could also decrease the build-up of BPH.
Biological control : Eggs are preyed upon by mirid bugs and phytoseiid mites. Nymphs and adults are eaten by spiders and coccinellid beetles. Resistant varieties: A number of varieties with moderate level of resistance to BPH have been developed Bg 379-2, Bg 300, Bg 403, Bg 304, Bg 357, Bg 358, Bg 360 and 1.AT 402. Chemical control: Spray Endosulfan or Monocrotophos
12. Grasshopper Hieroglyphus banian Short horned grasshopper Oxya nitidula Adults - Green, larger with transverse black lines on pronotum
Symptom of damage Irregular feeding on seedlings and leaf blade Cutting of stem at panicle stage Completely defoliate the plants leaving only the mid ribs
Management Expose the eggs to be picked up by birds after ploughing and trim the bunds Dusting the crop with 5-10% BHC or methyl parathion kg/ha Dusting malathion 20 kg/ha.
13. Spiny beetle / Rice hispa Dicladispa armigera Larva - Grub is minute, flat and yellow Adult - Blue - black shiny beetle with spines on the thorax and elytra Adult
Symptoms of damage Adults feed on chlorophyll by scraping and causing white parallel streaks White patches along with long axis of leaf. Grubs mine into the leaves and make blister near leaf tips.
white parallel streaksblister near leaf tips
Management Leaf tip containing blotch mines should be destroyed Manual collection and killing of beetles – hand nets Spray endosulfan 35
14. Whorl maggot Hydrellia philippina Maggot - Yellowish white in colour. Adult - Small dull grey fly.
Symptom of damage Maggot feeds on the tender tissue inside the whorl Yellowish white longitudinal marginal blotching with hole Leaves shrivelled plant stunted and maturity delayed. Drooping of young leaves near the tip
Yellowish white blotching
Management Remove the alternate hosts and adjust the time of planting (early) Use early maturing varieties Optimum recommendation of potash fertilizer Small wasps parasitized the eggs and the maggots. The rice plant can compensate for the damage caused by the rice whorl maggot.
15. Brown plant leafhopper Nilaparvata lugens Adult: Brown body and chestnut brown eyes. It has two forms viz., (Macropterous (long winged) and brachypterous (short winged).
Symptoms of damage Nymphs and adults congregate at the base of the plant above the water level Affected plant dries up and gives a scorched appearance called hopper burn. Circular patches of drying and lodging of matured plant It is vector of grassy stunt, ragged stunt and wilted stunt diseases
Management cultural control draining the rice field for 3-4 days during the early stage of infestation Synchronous planting within 3 weeks Avoid close planting Avoid use of excessive nitrogenous fertilizers Control irrigation by intermittent draining Set up light traps during night Drain the water before the use of insecticides
Biological control : Eggs are preyed upon by mirid bugs and phytoseiid mites. Nymphs and adults are eaten by spiders and coccinellid beetles. Resistant varieties: A number of varieties with moderate level of resistance to BPH have been developed Bg 379-2, Bg 300, Bg 403, Bg 304, Bg 357, Bg 358, Bg 360 and 1.AT 402.
16. White backed plant hopper Sogatella furcifera Nymph - White in colour and pronotum is pale yellow. Adult - Possess a diamond like marking on the thorax and ovipositional site is black streaks. Nymphs and adults
Damage Suck the sap and cause stunted growth. Hopper burn is caused in irregular patches.
Management Avoid use of excessive nitrogenous fertilizers Control irrigation by intermittent draining Apply any one of the following Monocrotophos Carbofuran
17. Mealybug Brevennia rehi Adult - Small reddish white, soft-bodied wingless insect covered with filamentous materials.
Damage Large number of insects remains in leaf sheath and suck the sap. Plants become week, yellowish and very much stunted in circular patches. Presence of white waxy fluff in leaf sheaths
Management Durin field preparation - remove the grasses from the bunds and trim the bunds Remove and destroy the affected plants. Spray any one of the following insecticides in the initial stage of infestation – dimethoate – methyl demeton – Conserve the natural enemies like Scymnus sp.,Anatrichus pygmaeus, and Mepachymerus ensifer
Adult 18. Paddy bug Leptocorisa acuta
Symptoms of damage Sucking the sap from individual grains, which are in milky stage. Individual grains become chaffy Black spots on the grains at the site of feeding puncture. Buggy odour in rice field during milky stage
Eggs Black spots
Management Cultural control removal of alternate hosts early planting use of late-maturing cultivars. Netting and handpicking the bugs reduce their numbers.
biological control: small wasps parasitize the eggs and the meadow grasshoppers prey on them. spiders coccinellid beetles dragonflies use of entomopathogens chemical control Fenthoate Cabaryl Diacinon
19.Zigzag leafhopper Recilia dorsalis found in all rice environments It is abundant during the early rainy season in the early growth stages of the rice plant adults usually stay in the upper parts of the rice plants. Zigzag leafhopper nymph adult
Management parasites and predators Mymarid wasp and the mirid bug prey on the eggs
20. Thrips Stenchaetothrips biformis Adults - are dark brown in colour Larvae Adult
Symptoms of damage Laceration of the tender leaves and suck the plant sap. Yellow (or) silvery streaks on the leaves of young seedlings. Terminal rolling and drying of leaves from tip to base It causes damage both in nursery and main field. Initial - inward rolling silvery streaks
Management Cultural control Flooding to submerge the infested field for 2 days Biological control Predatory thrips coccinellid beetles Avoid staggered cultivation Insecticide application: Dimethoate, Fenthion, Diacinon, Cabaryla
Group Members P.M.G.S.K.AttanayakeAG/07/08/07 K.L.D.S.ChandradasaAG/07/08/14 K.P.N.K.ChandrasiriAG/07/08/15