4Symptom of damageBoth nymphs and adults feed on rice by sucking the plant sapThey migrate to the field soon after seedlings have emerged.Yellowing of leaves from tip to downwards. Vector for the diseases viz., Rice tungro virus, rice yellow & transitory yellowingYellowingRice tungro virus
5Managementbiological control :wasps parasitize the eggs. They are attacked by aquatic veliid bugs, nabid bugs, empid flies, damselflies, dragonflies, and spidersUse resistant varieties.The vegetation on the bunds should also be sprayed with the insecticidesSet up light traps
62. Rice case worm Nymphula depunctalis Larva Adult
7Symptom of damageCaterpillars feed on green tissues of the leaves and leave become whitish paperyTubular cases around the tillers by cutting the apical portion of leavesFloating of tubular cases on the waterEg:Case tubes
8Management cultural control: the use of correct fertilizer application,wider spacing (30 × 20 mm)early plantingdraining the fieldtransplanting older seedlingsgrowing a ratoon can also help control this insectdislodge the cases – running rope
9biological agents:snails are useful (predate on eggs), Spiders, dragon flies, birdsChemical controllarvae are highly sensitive to insecticides.The use of foliar treatments-carbamatePyrethroids should be avoided
103.Black bug Scotinophara lurida The newly emerged adult is white and tinged with green and pinkMature adults are shiny darkbrown or black.
11Symptoms of damage Both the adults and nymphs remove the plant sap They prefer the stem nodes because of the large sap reservoirsBlack bugs feed on the rice plant from seedling to maturity growth stagesHeavy infestation and “bug burn” is usually visible after heading or maturing feeding damage of black bugs causes half-filled and empty grains.Ten adults per hill can cause losses of up to 35% in some rice.
12Managementmaintain a clean field by removing the weeds and drying the rice field during ploughingDirect-seeded rice crops tend to have less tillers in one planting point and thus discourage population growthDuring early infestation, the water level in the field may be raised for 2-3 days to force the insects to move upwards.Flooding the fields can also cause higher egg mortality. After harvest, fields might be ploughed to remove remaining insects.
13In the field, there are biological control agents such as small wasps that parasitize the eggs. Ground beetles, spiders, crickets, and red ants attack the eggs, nymphs, and adults.Both the eggs and the nymphs are fed-upon by coccinellid beetles
16Symptom of damage Presence of brown coloured egg mass near leaf tip. Caterpillar bore into central shoot of paddy seedling and tillerCauses drying of the central shoot known as “dead heart”Grown up plant whole panicle becomes dried “white ear”.Dead heartWhite ear
17Management Cultural control proper timing of planting and synchronous planting.harvesting at ground level to remove the larvae in stubble.Ploughing and floodingegg masses should be handpickedThe level of irrigation water can be raised periodically to submerge the eggs deposited on the lower parts of the plant.
20Symptom of damage This pest attacks all stages of the rice crop Larvae cut the seedlings in large scaleIt becomes very destructive when the population is high that it can totally devour the host plantMature panicles are cut off from the base of the plantsSevere infestation - cattle grazing appearance to the field.
21ManagementParasitoids such as tachinids, ichneumonids, eulophids, chalcids, and braconid wasps parasitize this pestAnts, ducks and birds feed on the pest.Fungal diseases and viruses also infect the larvaeChemical control :when populations are extremely highE.g Pyrethroids
26ManagementRemove the alternate hosts and adjust the time of planting (early)Optimum recommendation of potash fertilizerSetup light trap and monitor the adult flies
27Cultural control :Ploughing ratoon of the previous cropHarvest the crop and plough immediatelyUse early maturing varietiesremoving all off-season plantBiological control:The pupa is host to some species of wasps.spiders eat the adults.Resistant varietiesEg: BG 304, BG 350installing Light traps,-Split application of Nitrogen fertilizersapplication of insecticide(Eg : Carbofuran, Diaczinon)
287. Rice skipper Pelopidas mathias Larva: Pale green with constructed neck.Adult: Butterfly with brown coloured wings and curved antennaAdultCaterpillar
29Symptom of damage Edges of the leaves are fastened with webbing. Backward rolling of leaves,caterpillar feeds from margin to inwards
30ManagementSpray endosulfan 35 EC 1000 ml / ha or monocrotophos 36 WSC 500 ml / ha
33Symptom of damageLeaves fold longitudinally and larvae remains inside.Larvae scrapes the green tissues of the leaves and becomes white and dry.During severe infestation the whole field exhibits scorched appearance
34white and dried leavesLongitudinal folding larva inside the fold
35Management Cultural control not use too much Maintaining of surrounding grass habitatsBiological controlwasps and crickets attack eggslarval and pupal stages :parasitizedby many species of waspsDamselflies, ants, beetles, wasps,prefer the larvaeffective predator of rice leaf folder larvae.
369. Green horned caterpillar Melanitis leda ismene AdultPupa
42Damage tunnels into the soil using its enlarged fore legs. It feeds on seeds and resulting in loss of plant stand or poor crop stands.It feeds on rice during the seed to seedling stages of the crop.
43Management Cultural control – Maintaining standing water Bund shaving and plastering of fresh wet soilThe rice field can be flooded for 3-4 days.Modern varieties with long and dense fibrous can tolerate damage betterBiological control-a sphecid wasp, carabid beetle,nematodes,
4411. Yellow hairy caterpillar Psalis pennatula Larva-Caterpillar is yellowish brown with red stripes-Orange head and tufts of hairs all over the body.Pupa-pale white cocoon of silk and frass attached to the leafAdult-Moth is stout with straw coloured forewings.
45Symptoms of damageCaterpillar causes defoliation
46Management cultural control : draining the rice field for 3-4 days during the early stage of infestationNitrogen application can be split to reduce BPH build upSynchronous planting within 3 weeks of staggering and maintaining a free-rice period could also decrease the build-up of BPH.
47Eggs are preyed upon by mirid bugs and phytoseiid mites. Biological control :Eggs are preyed upon by mirid bugs and phytoseiid mites.Nymphs and adults are eaten by spiders and coccinellid beetles.Resistant varieties:A number of varieties with moderate level of resistance to BPH have been developedBg 379-2, Bg 300, Bg 403, Bg 304, Bg 357, Bg 358, Bg 360 and 1. AT 402.Chemical control:Spray Endosulfan or Monocrotophos
4812. Grasshopper Hieroglyphus banian Short horned grasshopper Oxya nitidula Adults - Green, larger with transverse black lines on pronotum
49Symptom of damage Irregular feeding on seedlings and leaf blade Cutting of stem at panicle stageCompletely defoliate the plants leaving only the mid ribs
50ManagementExpose the eggs to be picked up by birds after ploughing and trim the bundsDusting the crop with 5-10% BHC or methyl parathion kg/haDusting malathion 20 kg/ha.
5113. Spiny beetle / Rice hispa Dicladispa armigera Larva - Grub is minute, flat and yellowAdult - Blue - black shiny beetle with spines on the thorax and elytraAdult
52Symptoms of damageAdults feed on chlorophyll by scraping and causing white parallel streaksWhite patches along with long axis of leaf.Grubs mine into the leaves and make blister near leaf tips.
54Management Leaf tip containing blotch mines should be destroyed Manual collection and killing of beetles – hand netsSpray endosulfan 35
5514. Whorl maggot Hydrellia philippina Maggot - Yellowish white in colour.Adult - Small dull grey fly.
56Symptom of damage Maggot feeds on the tender tissue inside the whorl Yellowish white longitudinal marginal blotching with holeLeaves shrivelled plant stunted and maturity delayed.Drooping of young leaves near the tip
58ManagementRemove the alternate hosts and adjust the time of planting (early)Use early maturing varietiesOptimum recommendation of potash fertilizerSmall wasps parasitized the eggs and the maggots.The rice plant can compensate for the damage caused by the rice whorl maggot.
5915. Brown plant leafhopper Nilaparvata lugens Adult: Brown body and chestnut brown eyes. It has two forms viz.,(Macropterous (long winged) and brachypterous (short winged).
61Symptoms of damageNymphs and adults congregate at the base of the plant above the water levelAffected plant dries up and gives a scorched appearance called “hopper burn”.Circular patches of drying and lodging of matured plantIt is vector of grassy stunt, ragged stunt and wilted stunt diseases
63Management cultural control draining the rice field for 3-4 days during the early stage of infestationSynchronous planting within 3 weeksAvoid close plantingAvoid use of excessive nitrogenous fertilizersControl irrigation by intermittent drainingSet up light traps during nightDrain the water before the use of insecticides
64Biological control :Eggs are preyed upon by mirid bugs and phytoseiid mites.Nymphs and adults are eaten by spiders and coccinellid beetles.Resistant varieties:A number of varieties with moderate level of resistance to BPH have been developedBg 379-2, Bg 300, Bg 403, Bg 304, Bg 357, Bg 358, Bg 360 and 1. AT 402.
6516. White backed plant hopper Sogatella furcifera Nymph - White in colour and pronotum is pale yellow.Adult - Possess a diamond like marking on the thorax and ovipositional site is black streaks.Nymphs and adults
66Damage Suck the sap and cause stunted growth. “Hopper burn” is caused in irregular patches.
67Management Avoid use of excessive nitrogenous fertilizers Control irrigation by intermittent drainingApply any one of the followingMonocrotophosCarbofuran
6817. Mealybug Brevennia rehi Adult - Small reddish white, soft-bodiedwingless insect covered with filamentous materials.
69DamageLarge number of insects remains in leaf sheath and suck the sap.Plants become week, yellowish and very much stunted in circular patches.Presence of white waxy fluff in leaf sheaths
70ManagementDurin field preparation - remove the grasses from the bunds and trim the bundsRemove and destroy the affected plants. Spray any one of the following insecticides in the initial stage of infestationdimethoatemethyl demetonConserve the natural enemies like Scymnus sp.,Anatrichus pygmaeus, and Mepachymerus ensifer
72Symptoms of damageSucking the sap from individual grains, which are in milky stage.Individual grains become chaffyBlack spots on the grains at the site of feeding puncture.Buggy odour in rice field during milky stage
74Management Cultural control removal of alternate hosts early planting use of late-maturing cultivars.Netting and handpicking the bugs reduce their numbers.
75biological control: chemical control small wasps parasitize the eggs and the meadow grasshoppers prey on them.spiderscoccinellid beetlesdragonfliesuse of entomopathogenschemical controlFenthoateCabarylDiacinon
7619.Zigzag leafhopper Recilia dorsalis found in all rice environmentsIt is abundant during the early rainy season in the early growth stages of the rice plantadults usually stay in the upper parts of the rice plants.Zigzag leafhopper nymphadult
81Symptoms of damageLaceration of the tender leaves and suck the plant sap.Yellow (or) silvery streaks on the leaves of young seedlings. Terminal rolling and drying of leaves from tip to base It causes damage both in nursery and main field.Initial - inward rolling silvery streaks
82Management Cultural control Flooding to submerge the infested field for 2 daysBiological controlPredatory thripscoccinellid beetlesAvoid staggered cultivationInsecticide application:Dimethoate, Fenthion, Diacinon, Cabaryla
83Group Members P.M.G.S.K.Attanayake AG/07/08/07 K.L.D.S.Chandradasa AG/07/08/14K.P.N.K.Chandrasiri AG/07/08/15