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Early Development Chapter 21. Early Development Highly variable among different organisms Highly variable among different organisms Common genetic and.

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Presentation on theme: "Early Development Chapter 21. Early Development Highly variable among different organisms Highly variable among different organisms Common genetic and."— Presentation transcript:

1 Early Development Chapter 21

2 Early Development Highly variable among different organisms Highly variable among different organisms Common genetic and cellular mechanisms in development Common genetic and cellular mechanisms in development Begins with gametogenesis Begins with gametogenesis Proceeds in ordered phases Proceeds in ordered phases

3 Phases of Human Development

4 Gametogenesis and Fertilization

5 Gametogenesis Formation of gametes, sperm and egg Formation of gametes, sperm and egg In the reproductive organs of adult organisms In the reproductive organs of adult organisms Sperm and egg contribute an equal number of chromosomes to the offspring Sperm and egg contribute an equal number of chromosomes to the offspring Egg is 100x larger, contributes more cytoplasm Egg is 100x larger, contributes more cytoplasm

6 Sperm Structure and Function Animal sperm has four major compartments: Animal sperm has four major compartments: the head (the acrosome) the head (the acrosome) the neck (a centriole) the neck (a centriole) a midpiece packed with mitochondria a midpiece packed with mitochondria a tail (a flagellum) a tail (a flagellum)

7 Sperm Structure and Function In plants, sperm develop from pollen grains In plants, sperm develop from pollen grains Pollen are several haploid cells from meiosis Pollen are several haploid cells from meiosis Pollen cell comes into contact with the stigma and divides by mitosis to produce two sperm nuclei Pollen cell comes into contact with the stigma and divides by mitosis to produce two sperm nuclei Move down the pollen tube to the egg cell Move down the pollen tube to the egg cell

8 Sperm Structure and Function

9 Egg Structure and Function Large, contain the nutrients required for the embryos early development Large, contain the nutrients required for the embryos early development In species that lay eggs in the environment, stores in the egg are the only source of nutrients until it hatches In species that lay eggs in the environment, stores in the egg are the only source of nutrients until it hatches In mammals need stores until the egg implants in the placenta In mammals need stores until the egg implants in the placenta Plants also provide endosperm to nourish the embryo Plants also provide endosperm to nourish the embryo

10 Egg Structure and Function Cortical granules- vesicles filled with enzymes that assist fertilization in egg-laying animals Cortical granules- vesicles filled with enzymes that assist fertilization in egg-laying animals Vitelline envelope- fibrous, matlike sheet of glycoproteins that surrounds the egg Vitelline envelope- fibrous, matlike sheet of glycoproteins that surrounds the egg Jelly layer (a large, gelatinous mass that also encloses the egg Jelly layer (a large, gelatinous mass that also encloses the egg

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12 Fertilization Fusing of a haploid sperm cell with a haploid egg cell to form a diploid zygote Fusing of a haploid sperm cell with a haploid egg cell to form a diploid zygote Can be internal or external Can be internal or external Requires exact timing and recognition Requires exact timing and recognition Must start development Must start development Starts with gamete release Starts with gamete release

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14 Fertilization Enzymes from the acrosome digest through the egg's jelly layer Enzymes from the acrosome digest through the egg's jelly layer Acrosomal process contacts the vitelline envelope Acrosomal process contacts the vitelline envelope Plasma membranes fuse Plasma membranes fuse Sperm nucleus, mitochondria, and centriole enter the egg Sperm nucleus, mitochondria, and centriole enter the egg Sperm and egg nucleus fuse Sperm and egg nucleus fuse

15 Species Recognition Fertilizin is a compound on the surface of sea urchin egg cells Fertilizin is a compound on the surface of sea urchin egg cells Binds to bindin, a protein on the head of sea urchin sperm Binds to bindin, a protein on the head of sea urchin sperm Binding occurs in a species-specific manner Binding occurs in a species-specific manner Fertilizin from the eggs of one species binds to sperm of its own species but does not bind to sperm of different species Fertilizin from the eggs of one species binds to sperm of its own species but does not bind to sperm of different species

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17 Blocking Polyspermy Wide variety of mechanisms to block polyspermy Wide variety of mechanisms to block polyspermy In sea urchins, fertilization results in erection of a physical barrier In sea urchins, fertilization results in erection of a physical barrier Generates a fertilization envelope as cortical granules fuse with the plasma membrane Generates a fertilization envelope as cortical granules fuse with the plasma membrane

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19 Fertilization in Mammals Internal fertilization, so species recognition is generally not an issue Internal fertilization, so species recognition is generally not an issue Acrosome still breaks down zona pellucida Acrosome still breaks down zona pellucida Egg cells have a binding site for sperm Egg cells have a binding site for sperm Glycoprotein ZP3 in the zonabinds to the head of sperm Glycoprotein ZP3 in the zonabinds to the head of sperm Enzymes released from cortical granules modify ZP3 to prevent binding by additional sperm Enzymes released from cortical granules modify ZP3 to prevent binding by additional sperm

20 Fertilization in Flowering Plants Takes place inside ovule Takes place inside ovule Double fertilization-one sperm nucleus fuses with an egg to form a zygote, and the other sperm nucleus fuses with two polar nuclei to form the triploid endosperm Double fertilization-one sperm nucleus fuses with an egg to form a zygote, and the other sperm nucleus fuses with two polar nuclei to form the triploid endosperm Interaction between the pollen grains and the ovule involve species recognition Interaction between the pollen grains and the ovule involve species recognition May also prevent self-fertilization May also prevent self-fertilization

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22 Endosperm Endosperm provides nutrients for the embryotic development, germination and early seedling growth Endosperm provides nutrients for the embryotic development, germination and early seedling growth

23 Animal Cleavage and Gastrulation

24 Cleavage Cleavage is the set of rapid cell divisions (without growth) that follows fertilization Cleavage is the set of rapid cell divisions (without growth) that follows fertilization Divides up the cytoplasm into cells, no growth Divides up the cytoplasm into cells, no growth Cells are called blastomeres Cells are called blastomeres Forms a blastula, sphere of cells Forms a blastula, sphere of cells Pattern of cleavage varies among species Pattern of cleavage varies among species Sometimes makes cells around yolk Sometimes makes cells around yolk

25 Cleavage

26 Cleavage Cells can divide at right angles to one another, forming tiers in a pattern called radial cleavage Cells can divide at right angles to one another, forming tiers in a pattern called radial cleavage

27 Cleavage Divide at oblique angles so that they pile up in a pattern called spiral cleavage Divide at oblique angles so that they pile up in a pattern called spiral cleavage

28 What Determines Cleavage and Development? Cytoplasmic determinant is a molecule found in the egg that helps direct early development Cytoplasmic determinant is a molecule found in the egg that helps direct early development Affect development independently of sperm or zygote genotype Affect development independently of sperm or zygote genotype Involved in differentiation the generation of different cell types from a single cell Involved in differentiation the generation of different cell types from a single cell

29 Activating the Zygotic Genome Zygotic Genome not active during cleavage Zygotic Genome not active during cleavage In most animals it is not transcribed until after cleavage is well under way In most animals it is not transcribed until after cleavage is well under way Mammals are the exception Mammals are the exception Transcribe from the zygotic genome at the two-cell stage Transcribe from the zygotic genome at the two-cell stage

30 Embryonic Tissues Animal embryos develop three types of tissues, called germ layers: Animal embryos develop three types of tissues, called germ layers: Ectoderm forms the outer covering and nervous system Ectoderm forms the outer covering and nervous system Mesoderm gives rise to muscle, internal organs, and connective tissues such as blood and cartilage Mesoderm gives rise to muscle, internal organs, and connective tissues such as blood and cartilage Endoderm produces the lining of the digestive tract or gut, along with some of the associated organs Endoderm produces the lining of the digestive tract or gut, along with some of the associated organs

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32 Gastrulation After cleavage is complete a bastula is the result After cleavage is complete a bastula is the result Hollow ball of cells Hollow ball of cells Gastrulation rearranges cells Gastrulation rearranges cells Results in the gastrula that contains the three embryonic tissue types Results in the gastrula that contains the three embryonic tissue types Each gives rise to different tissue types Each gives rise to different tissue types

33 Gastrulation Zygote Cleavage Eight-cell stage Cleavage Blastula Cross section of blastula Blastocoel Gastrula Gastrulation Endoderm Ectoderm Blastopore In most animals, cleavage results in the formation of a multicellular stage called a blastula. The blastula of many animals is a hollow ball of cells. 3 The endoderm of the archenteron de- velops into the tissue lining the animals digestive tract. 6 The blind pouch formed by gastru- lation, called the archenteron, opens to the outside via the blastopore. 5 Most animals also undergo gastrulation, a rearrangement of the embryo in which one end of the embryo folds inward, expands, and eventually fills the blastocoel, producing layers of embryonic tissues: the ectoderm (outer layer) and the endoderm (inner layer). 4 Only one cleavage stage–the eight-cell embryo–is shown here. 2 The zygote of an animal undergoes a succession of mitotic cell divisions called cleavage. 1

34 Gastrulation At the end of gastrulation, the three embryonic tissues are arranged in layers, the gut has formed, and the major body axes have become visible At the end of gastrulation, the three embryonic tissues are arranged in layers, the gut has formed, and the major body axes have become visible

35 Plant Development

36 Plant Life Cycle

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38 Embryogenesis First division is asymmetric First division is asymmetric The large basal cell generates the suspensor structure; The large basal cell generates the suspensor structure; Apical cell will give rise to the shoot apical meristem and the root apical meristem Apical cell will give rise to the shoot apical meristem and the root apical meristem Meristem is area of rapidly dividing cells Meristem is area of rapidly dividing cells

39 Embryogenesis An embryo contains an: An embryo contains an: Epidermis- an outer covering of cells that protect the individual. Epidermis- an outer covering of cells that protect the individual. Ground tissue- a mass of tissue that may later differentiate into cells for specialized functions Ground tissue- a mass of tissue that may later differentiate into cells for specialized functions Vascular tissue- that will differentiate into specialized cells that transport food and water between root and shoot. Vascular tissue- that will differentiate into specialized cells that transport food and water between root and shoot.

40 Invertebrate Development

41 Embryogenesis in Fruit Fly Fertilized egg undergoes mitoses without cytokinesis Fertilized egg undergoes mitoses without cytokinesis Produces a multinucleate cell with a cytoplasm filled with nutrient-rich yolk Produces a multinucleate cell with a cytoplasm filled with nutrient-rich yolk Each nucleus migrates to the outside of the embryo cell and receives a plasma membrane Each nucleus migrates to the outside of the embryo cell and receives a plasma membrane Embryo becomes an outer sheet of cells surrounding the original cytoplasm Embryo becomes an outer sheet of cells surrounding the original cytoplasm

42 Embryogenesis in Fruit Fly

43 Gastrulation starts with the formation of a cleft or furrow, followed by formation of furrows that define the head region and the series of body regions called segments Gastrulation starts with the formation of a cleft or furrow, followed by formation of furrows that define the head region and the series of body regions called segments Embryo hatches to from larva Embryo hatches to from larva Larva forms pupa after a few days Larva forms pupa after a few days Pupa goes through metamorphosis to become fly Pupa goes through metamorphosis to become fly

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45 Vertebrate Development

46 Embryogenesis in Frog Frog embryo goes from one large cell to a ball of cells (blastula) through a series of cleavage events Frog embryo goes from one large cell to a ball of cells (blastula) through a series of cleavage events Does not increase in size Does not increase in size Neural tube, which becomes the spinal cord and brain, forms at the end of gastrulation Neural tube, which becomes the spinal cord and brain, forms at the end of gastrulation Embryo hatches into tadpole Embryo hatches into tadpole Tadpole goes through metamorphosis Tadpole goes through metamorphosis

47 Embryogenesis in Frog

48 Early Development in Humans Human eggs are released into the fallopian tube by the ovary Human eggs are released into the fallopian tube by the ovary After fertilization zygote goes through cleavage as it goes down the fallopian tubes After fertilization zygote goes through cleavage as it goes down the fallopian tubes Embryo undergoes implantation into the wall of the uterus, and the placenta forms Embryo undergoes implantation into the wall of the uterus, and the placenta forms Placenta carries nutrients to and waste from the developing fetus Placenta carries nutrients to and waste from the developing fetus

49 Early Development in Humans


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