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Phylum – Porifera The Sponges Copyright cmassengale.

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Presentation on theme: "Phylum – Porifera The Sponges Copyright cmassengale."— Presentation transcript:

1 Phylum – Porifera The Sponges Copyright cmassengale

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3 Taxonomy AnimaliaKingdom – Animalia ParazoaSubkingdom – Parazoa (lacks tissues) PoriferaPhylum – Porifera (pores)

4 Characteristics oSimplest oSimplest of all animals specialized cells oContain specialized cells but no other organization level marine oMost are marine brightly colored oSaltwater sponges are brightly colored oFreshwater sponges oFreshwater sponges are small and dull green color 2 meters to 2 cm oSize – 2 meters to 2 cm

5 Characteristics oPorifera oPorifera means pore- bearing oWater food and oxygen oWater enters through pores bringing in food and oxygen oFilter feeders oFilter feeders on plankton oOsculum oOsculum – large opening at the top where excess water leaves

6 Water Flow Through the Sponge WATER IN WATER OUT Osculum

7 Water Flow Through Sponge

8 Characteristics oAsymmetrical oSessile oSessile as adults (attach to rocks) Dipleurula oFree-swimming larval stage called Dipleurula fragmentation oAlso reproduce by fragmentation (pieces break off & form a new sponge)

9 Sponge Body Structure hollow oInside body cavity of sponge is hollow Spongocoel oCalled the Spongocoel oHave 2 cell layers: epidermis Outer epidermis endoderm Inner endoderm mesenchyme oJelly-like material between cell layers called mesenchyme

10 ChoanocytesChoanocytes line the gastrovascular cavity & capture food AmebocytesAmebocytes digest & distribute food

11 Specialized Cells ChoanocytesChoanocytes (collar cells) line inside of body cavity (spongocoel) flagellaHave flagella that spins to pull in water & food CollarplanktonCollar traps plankton (food) from water Collar

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13 oAmebocytes: Pick up foodPick up food from choanocytes digestionFinish digestion MoveMove through the mesenchyme & take food to other cells Other Specialized Cells

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15 Skeletal Structure of the Sponge SponginSkeleton made of network of protein fibers called Spongin SpiculesSpicules are hard spear or star- shaped structures CaCO 3 silicaSpicules made of CaCO 3 (limestone) or silica (glass)

16 Sponge Skeletons SPONGIN Silica Spicules Limestone Spicules

17 Sponge Skeletons SPICULES VENUS FLOWER BASKET

18 Sponge Reproduction regenerate oSponges can regenerate (regrow) lost body parts through mitotic cell division (asexual) asexually by budding oSponges also reproduce asexually by budding

19 Sponge Reproduction hermaphrodites oSponges are hermaphrodites (produce both eggs & sperm) Sexually releasing eggs & sperm from the Osculum oSponges reproduce Sexually by releasing eggs & sperm into the water from the Osculum oCross-fertilize oCross-fertilize each others eggs Sponge releasing eggs & sperm

20 Surviving Harsh Conditions Gemmules o Gemmules are specialized buds made to survive harsh weather (hot or cold) food, amebocytes protective covering oContain food, amebocytes, and a protective covering of spicules sponge dies oReleased when a sponge dies dessication oResist dessication (drying out) conditions become favorable oBecome adult sponge conditions become favorable

21 Branching Tube Sponge

22 Stove Pipe Sponge

23 Vase Sponges

24 Barrel Sponges

25 Ball Sponges

26 Rope Sponges

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