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Got Babies? Embryo Transfer in Livestock

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Presentation on theme: "Got Babies? Embryo Transfer in Livestock"— Presentation transcript:

1 Got Babies? Embryo Transfer in Livestock
CLF3256 Kati Chamberlin - AgEd 410, Spring 2013

2 Introduction What is embryo transfer?
Removing fertilized eggs from a donor and placing them in a recipient female Most common in beef and dairy cattle Also known as “ova” transplantation

3 How does it work?

4 What’s the process? Superovulation Insemination
Donor female is stimulated to ovulate more than one egg/cycle Hormones are injected to cause superovulation Insemination The donor cow (the cow superovulated) is bred

5 Common hormones used for superovulation
PMSG (pregnant mare’s serum gonadotropin) FSH (follicle stimulating hormone) eCG (equine chorionic gonadotrophin) Prostaglandin F2 alpha LH (luteinizing hormone)

6 What’s the process? 3. Ova Collection (Flushing) Nonsurgical:
rubber catheter inserted through cervix saline solution flushed into and out of uterus harvests the embryos 7-8 days after estrus 30 minute or less procedure standard method

7 Click HERE if video does not play
Flushing process Click HERE if video does not play

8 What’s the process? 4. Evaluation of the Embryos
Regularity of shape of the embryo Compactness of the blastomeres Variation in cell size Color and texture of the cytoplasm Blastomeres: the dividing cells within the boundaries of the embryo Cytoplasm: the fluid within the cell wall

9 What’s the process? 4. Evaluation of Embyo’s cont.
Overall diameter of the embryo Presence of extruded cells and vesicles Regularity of the zona pellucida Zona pellucida: the protective layer of protein and polysaccharides around the single celled embryo Vesicles: small bubble-like structures in the cytoplasm

10 Embryo Classification
Grades: Grade 1: Excellent or Good Grade 2: Fair Grade 3: Poor Grade 4: Dead or degenerating

11 Embryo Classification
Stage of Development: Stage 1: Unfertilized Stage 2: 2 to 12 cell Stage 3: Early morula Stage 4: Morula Stage 5: Early Blastocyst Stage 6: Blastocyst Stage 7: Expanded Blastocyst Stage 8: Hatched Blastocyst Stage 9: Expanding Hatched Blastocyst

12 What’s the process? 5. Implantation
Recipient cows must be at right stage in estrous cycle to receive embryo Recipient cows are synchronized with donor The eggs are transferred to the recipient cows

13 Quick! What are the five processes of Embryo Transfer?

14 Benefits of Embryo Transfer
A dozen calves might be obtained from a valuable cow in one year The rate of genetic improvement would quicken Progeny testing of heifers can be done quicker Genetically inferior animals could be made more productive by using them as recipient animals

15 Benefits of Embryo Transfer
Large numbers of fertilized eggs can be transferred from young heifers Large amount of fertilized eggs can be transferred into mature recipients Valuable cows that fail to conceive due to hormonal defects would not need to be culled

16 Limitations Expensive
The technique for harvesting the ova is complicated Donors used repeatedly may become incapable of carrying to full term

17 FFA/SAE and Career opportunities
Bred replacement heifer for the fair Embryologist Internship with veterinarian Veterinarian tech/ Veterinarian In-vitro fertilization at a Dairy Embryo transfer technician

18 Are there any limitations to using frozen embryos?
What do you think has better pregnancy rates, embryos transferred that were frozen or fresh? Are there any limitations to using frozen embryos?

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