2Kingdom - Animalia Phylum - Chordata Class - Mammalia Order - Primates Within each kingdom, species are further classified into groups based on similarities.For example, the full classification of a human is:Kingdom - AnimaliaPhylum - ChordataClass - MammaliaOrder - PrimatesFamily - HominidaeGenus - HomoSpecies - sapiens
3How are organisms classified? Kingdom (Animalia, Plantae, Fungi, Prokaryotae (bacteria), Protoctista)PhylumClassOrderFamily – always ends ‘ae’ or ‘ea’Genus – Italicised, capital letterSpecies – Italicised, lower case letter,
6Carcharodon carcharias Within each group…Organism are classified by genus and speciesCarcharodon carchariasGenus – like a familynameSpecies – individualname
7Viruses Viruses don’t belong to any of the five kingdoms: They need to take over living cells to reproduceThey are regarded as non-living
8Phylum Chordates Chordates have a backbone (vertebrates). Non-chordates do not have a backbone (invertebrates).
9Groups of vertebrates Reptiles Oviparous Poikilotherms Fish Oviparous ChordataBackboneMammalsViviparousHomeothermsAmphibiansOviparousPoikilothermsBirdsOviparousHomeotherms
10Vertebrate features Oviparous – lay eggs Viviparous – give birth to their youngHomeotherms – keep their body temperature constantPoikilotherms – body temperature varies with their surroundings
11The 5 Classes of Vertebrates NameMain characteristicsFishHave wet scales and gills, lay eggs in water.AmphibiansHave smooth, moist, permeable skin. Adults have lungs. They lay eggs in water.ReptilesHave dry, scaly skin. Have lungs They lay leathery shelled eggs.MammalsHave hair on their body and mammary glands that produce milk. Have lungs. They give birth to live young.BirdsHave feathers and a beak. Have lungs. They lay hard shelled eggs.
13Viviparous – give birth to their young ClassMammalViviparoussHomeothermsFishOviparousPoikilothermBirdReptilePoikilothermsAmpibianOviparous – lay eggsViviparous – give birth to their youngHomeotherms – keep their body temperature constantPoikilotherms – body temperature varies with their surroundings
14Classifying vertebrates Absorbing oxygen?Fish and young amphibians = gillsMammals, birds, reptiles and adult amphibians = lungsReproduction?Internal fertilisation – sperm meets egg inside the body = mammalsExternal fertilisation – female lays eggs then male releases sperm onto them = fish, amphibiansMaintaining Body temperature?Homeotherms – keep body temperature constant by releasing heat to their surroundings = mammalsPoikilotherms – body temperature changes with surroundings = reptiles
15Duck Billed Platypus – how would you classify it and why?
16SpeciesSpecies are organisms that are capable of interbreeding to produce fertile offspring.Have Binomial Names eg Homo sapiensFelis catusExceptionsHybrids (cross between 2 different species) eg horse and donkey = muleRing Species Sometimes there are a chain of neighbours that can all breed with their neighbour but the ones at either end can’t. These are called a ring species.