Within each kingdom, species are further classified into groups based on similarities. For example, the full classification of a human is: Kingdom - Animalia Phylum - Chordata Class - Mammalia Order - Primates Family - Hominidae Genus - Homo Species - sapiens
Kingdom (Animalia, Plantae, Fungi, Prokaryotae (bacteria), Protoctista) Phylum Class Order Family – always ends ae or ea Genus – Italicised, capital letter Species – Italicised, lower case letter, How are organisms classified?
The 5 Kingdoms
Within each group… Organism are classified by genus and species Carcharodon carcharias Genus – like a family name Species – individual name
Viruses Viruses dont belong to any of the five kingdoms: They need to take over living cells to reproduce They are regarded as non-living
Phylum Chordates Chordates have a backbone (vertebrates). Non-chordates do not have a backbone (invertebrates).
Groups of vertebrates Chordata Backbone Fish Oviparous Poikilotherms Birds Oviparous Homeotherms Mammals Viviparous Homeotherms Amphibians Oviparous Poikilotherms Reptiles Oviparous Poikilotherms
Oviparous – lay eggs Viviparous – give birth to their young Homeotherms – keep their body temperature constant Poikilotherms – body temperature varies with their surroundings Vertebrate features
The 5 Classes of Vertebrates NameMain characteristics Fish Have wet scales and gills, lay eggs in water. Amphibians Have smooth, moist, permeable skin. Adults have lungs. They lay eggs in water. Reptiles Have dry, scaly skin. Have lungs They lay leathery shelled eggs. Mammals Have hair on their body and mammary glands that produce milk. Have lungs. They give birth to live young. Birds Have feathers and a beak. Have lungs. They lay hard shelled eggs.
ClassMammalViviparoussHomeothermsFishOviparousPoikilothermBirdOviparousHomeothermsReptileOviparousPoikilothermsAmpibianOviparousPoikilotherms Oviparous – lay eggs Viviparous – give birth to their young Homeotherms – keep their body temperature constant Poikilotherms – body temperature varies with their surroundings
Absorbing oxygen? Fish and young amphibians = gills Mammals, birds, reptiles and adult amphibians = lungs Reproduction? Internal fertilisation – sperm meets egg inside the body = mammals External fertilisation – female lays eggs then male releases sperm onto them = fish, amphibians Maintaining Body temperature? Homeotherms – keep body temperature constant by releasing heat to their surroundings = mammals Poikilotherms – body temperature changes with surroundings = reptiles Classifying vertebrates
Duck Billed Platypus – how would you classify it and why?
Species are organisms that are capable of interbreeding to produce fertile offspring. Have Binomial Names eg Homo sapiens Felis catus Exceptions 1.Hybrids (cross between 2 different species) eg horse and donkey = mule 2.Ring Species Sometimes there are a chain of neighbours that can all breed with their neighbour but the ones at either end cant. These are called a ring species. Species