3 Female VocabularyOvary- female gonad that produces ova (eggs), and hormones estrogen and progesteroneOviduct-(Fallopian tube) tube that extends from ovary to uterus. Carries ova to uterus. Not attached to ovary.Uterus- hollow organ with thick, muscular walls and mucus lining. Houses developing embryo during pregnancy. Embryo attaches to uterine wall. Sits on top of bladder and below rectum.
4 Cervix- between uterus and vagina, consists of think ring-like muscles called sphincters. Prevents foreign substances from entering uterus. Normally closed except during estrus.Vagina- extends from cervix to outside the body. Serves as passage for semen into body, and offspring out of the body.Vulva- female external genetalia. External opening to urogenital tract.Why does the cervix prevent foreign substances from entering the uterus?
5 Estrous Cycle Follicular Phase Proestrus- period when follicles (ova/eggs) grow. Uterine lining develops, animal not sexually receptive yet. Depending on species, could last 3 weeks or 1 dayEstrus- short length of time (couple hours to just 1 or 2 days), period of sexual receptivity. Ovulation occurs. Large production of estrogenOvulation- ovary releases ova/egg into oviduct
6 Estrous Cycle, cont’d Luteal Phase Metestrous- Estrogen subsides, Corpus Luteum develops. Uterus produces small amounts of hormone Progesterone. Lasts 1-5 daysDiestrous- Corpus Luteum produces large quantities of Progesterone (if pregnant). When Corpus Luteum regresses, diestrous ends, proestrous begins again. Lasts up to a number of weeks.Anestrus – period of time when animal does not experience estrous cycle. This could be due to season (in seasonally polyestrous animals), pregnancy, lactation, illness, or age
7 Estrous CyclesPolyestrous- animals that have more than one estrous cycle per year. Ex: cats, cows, pigs, horsesSeasonally Polyestrous- animals that have estrous cycles in a specific time of yearLong day breeders (spring): horses, hamstersShort day breeders (fall): sheep, goats, deerDiestrous- animals that have estrous cycles twice a year: Dogs
8 Monestrous- animals that have only one estrous cycle per year. Ex: bears, foxes, wolvesInduced ovulators- animals in which ovum (eggs) are only released after copulation (mating)Ex: cats, rabbits, llamas, ferrets
9 Gestation Lengths Dog (Bitch)- 63 days Cat (Queen)- 63 days Rabbit (Doe)- 31 daysHorse (Mare)- 340 daysCow (Cow)- 285 daysPig (Sow)- 114 days (3 months, 3 weeks, 3 days)Sheep (Ewe)- 147 daysGoat (Doe)- 150 daysChicken (Hen)- 21 days
10 Uterine Bodies Simplex- no uterine horns. Primates (humans) Duplex- Large horns, no uterine body, 2 cervices (cervix). Rodents and lagomorphs (rabbits, hares)Bicornuate- has both uterine horns and uterine body. Pigs, cow, mare, sheep
11 SheepUsing play-doh, create each of these uterine bodies.
12 Stages of Prenatal Growth Fertilization- when sperm and egg (ova) uniteAttachment- when the embryo attaches itself to the uterus for further developmentTypes of placentaDiffuse- horse, pigCotyledon- cow, sheep etc.Zonary- dogs, cats, bears, elephantsDiscoidal- primates, rodentsEmbryonic Stage- Period when body parts and organs start to formFetal Stage- Period when body parts and organs mature. Lasts until birth
14 Male VocabularyScrotum- external sac that houses and protects testicles. Keeps testicles at temp slightly lower than the body.Testicles- Male sex glands that produce sperm and hormone testosteroneEpididymis- Where sperm are store to matureVas deferens- (ductus deferens)- transports sperm from epididymis to urethraUrethra- tube passing through penis to outside of body, transporting urine and semen.
15 Accessory Sex Glands- Provide fluids to semen which provide health and nutrition to sperm Seminal Vesicles, Prostate Gland, Bulbourethral glandsPenis- Male sex organ, carries semen and urine out of body. Made of erectile tissue that fills with blood upon stimulation, this causes erection.
16 AI vs. Natural Cover vs. In-vitro Artificial Insemination- semen is ‘collected’ from the male (sire/stud) and manually depositing into femalePros- can breed more females in a short time, better genetic selectionCons- expensive, requires specialized training, costs time and laborNatural Cover- actual physical mating of a male and female of a speciesPros- cheaper, less time required by ownerCons- dangerous to stud, limited to local/cheap studsIn-vitro- process in which egg/ova is fertilized outside the uterus (ie test tube/culture dishPros- can utilize genes of superior female that cannot reproduce (not so much cowsCons- very expensive
17 Dystocia Definition- difficult birth During birth, when the baby (calf, lamb, foal) presents itself in the wrong positionCorrect position- front hooves first, then nose, then rest of body.
18 Twinning- Multiples are very common in sheep, and sometimes occur in cattle. Rare in horses and twin foals don’t always survive.Freemartinism- sexual abnormality in cattle. Causes infertility in a female calf born with a male twin. Female demonstrates male behavior and has non-functioning ovariesOccasionally occurs in pigs, sheep, goats
19 GeneticsAutosomes- chromosomes that determine traits other than genderSex Chromosomes- 1 pair of chromosomes that determine genderX Chromosome- Female (XX)Y Chromosome- Male (XY)Half of total chromosomes come from father, half come from mother
20 Phenotype- outwardly displayed trait Genotype- genetic code of a specific trait2 types of traits: Dominant and RecessiveDominant genes will ALWAYS be displayedRecessive genes will only be displayed if there is no dominant gene presentHomozygous Dominant- BBHomozygous Recessive- bb- recessive is shownHeterozygous- Bb – Dominant is shown
21 B BB Punnett Squares Parent 1’s Chromosomes of specific trait BBBParent 2’s Chromosomes of specific trait
22 100 % of offspring will show dominant trait Homozygous DominantBBB100 % of offspring will show dominant trait
23 100% of offspring will show recessive trait Homozygous Recessivebbb100% of offspring will show recessive trait
24 Heterozygous B b BB Bb bb BbBBBbbb25% of offspring will beHomozygous Dominant (BB)25% of offspring will be Homozygous Recessive (bb)50% of offspring will be Heterozygous (Bb)75% will show Dominant trait25% will show Recessive Trait