5 Flea Eggs are laid in the coat and fall onto bedding/carpets
6 Eggs can be seen on a black surface… Flea eggs
7 Flea larva
8 Flea Larva in the coat
9 Fleas feeding Flea dirt- what is it? Flea faeces
10 Fleas on coat Flea dirt is dried blood passed in faeces to feed larvae Flea dirt on bedding
11 Flea pupae form
12 Pupae and hatching from cocoon
13 Fleas on pet are the tip of the iceberg
14 Flea saliva…..
15 Flea Allergy Dermatitis – (FAD)
16 Flea Allergy Dermatitis (FAD) is an allergy to flea saliva that makes the dog itchy, so they start to scratch. You might not even see a flea – but the bite sets off a reaction. Breaking the skin allows bacteria to get in and the dog gets an infection So what are bacteria?
17 Flea Allergy Dermatitis ( infection) (Bacteria is a single cell organism. They are capable of reproducing on their own without the use of a host cell. Bacteria exist in all environments The dog will need treatment
18 Three Pronged Approach Effective treatment programme MUST have 1. kill fleas currently on your pet 2. and kill fleas all other animals in your household 3. kill fleas in the environment
19 Fleas Sleeping areas can be contaminated with eggs, larvae and pupae, plus shaded areas outside harbour all flea stages
20 REMEMBER you will only see 5% of the actual flea population on your pet The rest are on the house and garden – mainly where you sit and sleep Fleas also carry Flea Tapeworm (Dipylidium caninum) Bathing your dog will reduce fleas and help remove eggs and dirt from the coat, and if an insecticidal shampoo is used, kill, any live fleas on an animal but follow up treatment is always required.
21 Flea sprays What are the problems associated with using these? Toxicity Do they work How often Permethrin is toxic to cats
22 Top Spots These vary and not all products are the same. Older style products can be toxic poisons and care must be taken when applying them. If you overdose, or share a dog product on cats, you might kill them. ional/363769/Pedigree- killed-in-flea-product-mix- up- Bayer Spotton - see next slide ional/363769/Pedigree- killed-in-flea-product-mix- up-
23 Products to treat Fleas Spotton Liquid for Large Dogs (1ml) Convenient once a month flea treatment for dogs Using older technology Spotton for dogs provides a low cost flea treatment option from a pre measured tube. Spotton is oil soluble and after application is distributed via the skin glands that supply coat oil. This method guarantees that the entire coat is protected after applying Spotton behind your dogs head. 200g/L Fenthion- %20Dog.pdf %20Dog.pdf classic symptoms of poisoning with Spotton's chemicals, known as organophosphates excessive salivation, slowed heart rate, shivering and shaking, depression and vomiting
24 Top Spots Newer products are a lot safer, but they are not without side effects and there are laws coming into effect to check their action due to reports of side effects. chemfin.pdf DO NOT USE ON CHILDREN.
25 Surface Top Spots Absorbed only through oils ( Sebum) on coat and kill fleas quickly – as soon as they get on which is ideal for pets with FAD – eg Advantage= Imidacloprid Frontline Plus is Fipronil + (s)Methoprene which is an Insect growth regulators that inhibit hatching of the flea pupa
26 Products to treat Fleas Top Spots Products that are not toxic to the pet but are absorbed into the body – redistributed to oils to kill fleas, but also kill some worms and a selection of mites. E.g. Advocate
28 Revolution Revolution works by penetrating the skin and entering your pet's bloodstream. Concentrations of selamectin, the active ingredient, in the tissue and bloodstream prevent heartworm disease (useful in Australia and America. ) Selamectin also redistributes into the skin from the bloodstream and kills adult fleas, ticks, and ear mites, and prevents flea eggs from hatching. It is also an anthelmintic, which means it fights to expel parasitic worms. Parasites ingest the drug when they feed on the animal's blood. Revolution is safe for pregnant and lactating pets.
31 Others Pyripole
32 Fleas Keeping the fleas off your pet treat every weeks (depends on species and product used) ALWAYS CHECK LABELS FOR AGES LICENCED FOR – eg kittens and puppies DO NOT USE ON HUMANS!!!!
33 Applying products ller.com/frontlineplus/ killing-101/how-to- apply/ ller.com/frontlineplus/ killing-101/how-to- apply/ Use multiple areas on large dogs
34 The Environment Vacuum carpets regularly and discard debris.
35 Flea contraceptives…. Treat furnishings and carpets throughout the home with combination I.G.R. treatment (Indorex Fogger, Indorex Target and Indorex Spray). These inhibit pupa hatching and so on – read more here virbacnzpuben/display.aspx?srv=p- virbacnz&typ=pub&lang=en&cmd=v iew&style=styles/popup.xsl&select= &generic1=sendfriend&fav=yes&cont act=sendmail
37 Sarcoptic Mange Mites Sarcoptic mange Highly contagious It burrows into skin – usually on ears, elbows, legs Severe redness, scaly skin, hair loss and damage to skin from scratching
38 Sarcoptic mange
39 Sarcoptic Mange
40 A severe case of scabies of the hand. (Original image from Identification and Diagnosis of Parasites of Public Health Concern)
41 Human - Scabies
42 Cheyletiella Mites Called walking dandruff See in dogs, cats, rabbits and humans Lives on skin and hair Causes white scaly flakes and itchiness (pruritus). Can diagnose it with sellotape and then look under microscope.
44 Dog with cheyletiellosis
45 Rabbit with Cheyletiella
47 Cheyletiella on an arm
48 Ear mites
49 Ear Mites Otodectes Live in external ear canal but can be found on the body Head shaking, waxy discharge Cats can be carriers with no signs Speaker Notes Avail
50 Ear Mites Can cause a secondary bacterial infection called Otitis Externa Ear pinnae is red, hot swollen (inflammation) Smelly ears coffee grounds- black gritty discharge
51 Check inside ear
52 Normal ear canal Ear mites See the ear mites! Ear mites in canal
53 Treatment Ear drops can be used on all in contact animals There are injections available – but they are not licenced for use in small animals, so and special permission is required from owners before vets can use them Also, not suitable for all breeds of dogs, particularly collie family.
54 Demodectic Mange
55 Demodectic mange Demodex mite Microscopic and t ransmitted by bitch to her pups Found normally in hair follicles, but some dogs have immunity problem and it grows too much
56 Demodex Immune System The immune system is the body's defense against infectious organisms and other invaders. Through a series of steps called the immune response, the immune system attacks organisms and substances that invade body systems and cause disease
57 Localised form of demodex Usually see bald areas on head and neck
60 Demodex- generalised
61 Lice are very precise…. Cat Louse Dog Louse
62 The low-down on lice Lice are wingless insects that live their whole lives on pets. Cats and dogs have their own species of lice, neither of which infect humans. Lice live on your pets skin and feed on their skin debris. Female lice lay their eggs in the pets coat and these become glued to the hairs. (nits)
64 The low-down on lice Lice are not a common problem in healthy pets – If they are unwell or very young pets are more likely to suffer from them. They will make the pet itchy
65 Ringworm Is a Fungal infection which is caused by microscopic organisms (fungi) that can live on the skin. They can live on the dead tissues of the hair, nails, and outer skin layers.
66 Ringworm Causes patches of broken hair – usually in circular pattern Contagious to other animals and people Broken fur has spores in it that spread infection through environment or by contact
67 Ringworm – is not a parasite!!! The lesion can be checked – it can have fungal cultures taken. Microsporum forms will be tested for fluorescence under a woods lamp but Trichophyton does not show this way
69 Woods Lamp
70 Ringworm in humans
72 Treatment Plus topical ointments/ drugs such as griseofulvin. Treat animal - Treat environment Protect other pets!