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The Poultry Industry One of the fastest growing segments of the animal industry 1.

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Presentation on theme: "The Poultry Industry One of the fastest growing segments of the animal industry 1."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Poultry Industry One of the fastest growing segments of the animal industry 1

2 Modern Breed of chickens 2 Single Comb White leghorn

3 Modern Breed of chickens 3 Single Rhode Island Red

4 Modern Breed of chickens 4 New Hampshire

5 Modern Breed of chickens 5 White Plymouth Rock

6 Modern Breed of chickens 6 Cornish

7 Modern Breed of chickens 7 Barred Plymouth Rock

8 Modern Breed of chickens 8 Light Sussex

9 Modern Breed of chickens 9 White leg horn

10 Poultry BroilerLayer 10

11 Desi Breed Poultry 11

12 Chicken Anatomy 12

13 13

14 14

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17 Chicken Digestive system 17

18 Chicken Respiratory system 18

19 Chicken Respiratory system 19

20 The Broiler Industry Today, almost all of the poultry is raised in large operations The term broiler refers to chickens which are about 7-8 weeks of age and are raised for meat. Generally lighted 24 hours a day Helps cut down on cannibalism Process begins with the production of eggs that will be hatched into chicks. Parents are selected from breeds that are large and muscular Most are hybrids derived from mating of different breeds usually mated through artificial insemination results in hybrid vigor 20

21 Egg Production Eggs are expelled from the hens body and the embryo develops outside the mothers body. Eggs are encased in a hard shell and can weigh several ounces Process begins with the release of the ovum (yolk) from the ovary If the female has been mated, the ovum will be fertilized within the infundibulum. The albumin or white of the egg is secreted by cells in the magnum. Chalazae is formed, It is a ropelike substance which holds the yolk in place in the center of the egg. 21

22 Egg Production Inner and outer shell membranes are formed in the isthmus The shell is formed in the uterus In hours the shell is completed and moves to the vagina and out of the hens body. Some facilities collect eggs with the use of a conveyor belt The egg rolls out of the nest box and onto the belt Eggs must be kept clean and free from contamination 22

23 Egg hatching Eggs are stored at degrees until being placed in the hatchery within 48 hours after incubation begins the embryo has developed a circulatory system Circulatory system sustains life by carrying nourishment from the yolk to the embryo Eggs are turned at least two times per day Turning eggs keeps the embryo from sticking to the inside of the shell By the end of the first week, embryos are recognizable as chickens 23

24 Egg hatching 24

25 Egg hatching After two weeks, the chicks are covered with down incubation takes about 21 days. After hatching, chicks are removed from the incubator, dried off, cleaned, and placed in a warm dry environment. The chicks are sexed and separated into groups. At one day of age chicks are vaccinated and the beaks are trimmed to prevent canabalism. Chicks are then placed in ventilated cardboard boxes to be shipped to the broiler house. 25

26 Broiler Breeder Selection Keep - Cull 26

27 Broiler Breeder Placement Is this chicken keep or cull? A.CullCull B.KeepKeep If Cull, choose a reason A. Cross BeakCross Beak 27

28 Broiler Breeder Placement Is this chicken keep or cull? A.CullCull B.KeepKeep If Cull, choose a reason A. Cross BeakCross Beak B. Discolored or swollen hocksDiscolored or swollen hocks C. Leg or foot abnormalitiesLeg or foot abnormalities 28

29 Broiler Breeder Placement Is this chicken keep or cull? A.CullCull B.KeepKeep If Cull, choose a reason A. Cross BeakCross Beak B. Discolored or swollen hocksDiscolored or swollen hocks C. Leg or foot abnormalitiesLeg or foot abnormalities 29

30 Broiler Breeder Placement Is this chicken keep or cull? A.CullCull B.KeepKeep If Cull, choose a reason A. Cross BeakCross Beak B. Discolored or swollen hocksDiscolored or swollen hocks C. Leg or foot abnormalitiesLeg or foot abnormalities D. Crooked toes, greater than 90ºCrooked toes, greater than 90º 30

31 STRESSORS Cold Humidity Bacteria Viruses Protozoa Loud Noises Beak Trimming Parasites Poor Ventilation Mold & Mycotoxins NH 3 /H 2 S Heat Dust Vaccination Rough Handling Poor Sanitation Molting Weighing Pecking Order Feed Restriction Nutritional Deficiencies Poor Litter Quality Dirty Water Crowding 31

32 COMMERCIAL BROILERS 32

33 SIMILAR BASIC REQUIREMENTS …FOR… BROODING NUTRITION HOUSING AND EQUIPMENT MANAGEMENT 33

34 Brooding 34

35 ALL THE BIRDS BODY SYSTEMS ARE DEVELOPING 35

36 1-DAY OLD BROILER CHICK RESIDUAL YOLK IMMATURE DIGESTIVE TRACT 36

37 HATCH 1 WEEK OF AGE TOTAL MASS IS 4 FOLD GREATER THAN REST OF BODY Gut development 37

38 DURING EMBRYOGENESIS THE DIGESTIVE TRACT DEVELOPS BEFORE THE BRAIN 38

39 COMMERCIAL SCALE BROODING 39

40 SMALL SCALE BROODING 40

41 BROODING UNITS LAMP-TYPE BROODER 41

42 BROODING BROODING HEAT SOURCES 42

43 BROODING UNITS 43

44 THE CHICKS WILL TELL YOU IF THEY ARE COMFORTABLE WHAT IS THE BEST WAY TO DETERMINE IF THE CHICKS ARE COMFORTABLE IN THE BROODER ? 44

45 BROODING THE CHICKS WILL TELL YOU IF THEY ARE COMFORTABLE 45

46 BODY WEIGHT AGE 1000 HOURS MOST CRITICAL PERIOD 42 DAYS TODAYS MEAT-TYPE BIRDS GROW VERY RAPIDLY 46

47 ….FACT…. WHEN FEED INTAKE DECLINES GUT DEVELOPMENT DECLINES Gut development 47

48 Crop fill 48

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50 IMPORTANT NUTRITIONAL CONCEPT NUTRITION IS FIXED NUTRITION IS NOT FIXED 50

51 NUTRITIONALLY SPEAKING WHAT ARE THE ONLY SIX THINGS CHICKENS NEED ? 51

52 SIX MAJOR NUTRIENTS CARBOHYDRATE LIPID PROTEIN VITAMINS MINERALS WATER 52

53 VERY IMPORTANT CONCEPT OF NUTRITION TO REMEMBER …..ENERGY IS NOT A NUTRIENT….. IT IS A PROPERTY OF THREE NUTRIENTS CARBOHYDRATE LIPID PROTEIN 53

54 VERY IMPORTANT CONCEPT OF POULTRY NUTRITION TO REMEMBER MOST POULTRY EAT THE AMOUNT OF FEED THEY NEED IN ORDER TO MEET AN ENERGY REQUIREMENT 54

55 IMPORTANT FACT TO REMEMBER …TODAY… FEED COSTS REPRESENT APPROXIMATELY 75% OF THE TOTAL COST OF PRODUCING MEAT AND EGGS 55

56 CONVENTIONAL PRODUCTION 1) USE THE CORRECT FEED FOR EACH AGE & BIRD TYPE STARTERGROWERFINISHERLAYER General Nutrition 56

57 57

58 GIZZARD & PROVENTRICULUS (VENTRICULUS) 58

59 KOILIN LINING 59

60 KOILIN LINING OF GIZZARD GROOVES 60

61 GRIT FED FOR ONLY ONE PURPOSE NOT NECESSARY IF MASH OR PELLETS ARE FED ALONE 61

62 KOILIN LAYER GIZZARD GRIT 62

63 HOW MUCH WATER WILL POULTRY DRINK ? 63

64 BROILER AGE AND WATER CONSUMPTION BODY WEIGHT 64

65 DAILY WATER CONSUMPTION DAYS OF AGE X 6 ML BROILERS (UNDER NORMAL CONDITIONS) 65

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