Nurofik Ari Armansyah 2003512006 Maria Agustin Daniastuti 2003512002 Anik Nur Maidah 2003512049 Damaris A. Putri
# The Contents: 1. Deixis Definition 2. Categories of Deixis and the Examples of Each Deixis 3. Conclusion
# Deixis Definition The single most obvious way in which the relationship between language and context is reflected in the structures of languages themselves. Concerns on the interpretation of utterances depends on the analysis of that context of utterance. Pointing language
# We can see from each sentence: Ill be back in an hour. ( a notice on someones office door ) Listen, Im not disagreeing with you but with you, and not about this but about this. ( someone says when the lights go out ) Meet me here a week from now with the stick about this big. ( a message on a bottle )
# The words I, you, here, this, deixis dont have constant referent It is used as referring expressions. ex: We meet here at the lunch time, said a manager to his workers in a cafeteria. To help the hearers to identify the referent.
# Philosophical Approaches Indexical expressions may be usefully approached by considering how truth-conditional semantics deals with certain natural language expression. ex: - You are the mother of Napoleon - This is an eighteenth-century man-trap. - Mary is in love with that fellow over there. - It is now 12.15
# Definite Descriptions Donnellan (1966) Referential Use The man drinking champagne is Lord Godolphin. Attributive Use The man who can lift this stone is stronger than an ox. That man ((the speaker indicates the man drinking champagne)) is Lord Godolphin.
# Descriptive Approach Indexical expressions are approached by using the categories of deixis (person, place, time, discourse and social) Gesture usageNot that one, idiot, that one. Symbolic usageThats a beautiful view. Non-deicticUh, I did this and that. (non-anaphoric) John came in and he lit a fire (anaphoric)
# Categories of Deixis: 1. Person Deixis 2. Place Deixis 3. Time Deixis 4. Empathetic Deixis 5. Social Deixis 6. Discourse Deixis
# 1. Person Deixis Person deixis concerns with the encoding of the role of participants in the speech even in which the utterance in question is delivered. It can be called deictic reference to the participant role of a referent, such as: participant rolereferent the speakerspeaker the addressee, andaddressee referents which are neither speaker nor addressee.
# Kinds of Person Deixis Yule (1996) describes that person deixis involves the speaker and the addressee and operates in a basic three-part division they are: First person (I). The first person deixis is a reference that refers to the speaker or both speaker and referent grouped with the speaker which is expressed in singular pronouns (I, me, myself, mine) and plural pronouns (we, us, ourselves, our, ours).
# Second person (you). The second person deixis is a deictic reference to a person or persons identified as addressee, such as you, yourself, yourselves, your, yours. The third person (He, She, It). Third person deixis is a deictic reference to a referent(s) not identified as the speaker or addressee.
# 2. Place Diexis Levinson (1983) stated that place deixis concerns for the specification of locations to anchorage points in the speech event and typically the speaker, and there are two basic ways of referring objects by describing or naming them on the one hand and by locating them on the other. Briefly, place deixis is an expression used to show the location relative to the location of a participant in the speech event.
# The Examples: There are: - a proximal (close to the speaker) such as this, these, and here - a distal (sometime close to the addressee) such as that, those and there. Source: Levinson 1983Levinson 1983
# 3. Time Deixis Time deixis is also called as temporal deixis. It is reference to time relative to a temporal reference point. Typically, this point is the moment of utterance.
# Examples of Time Deixis Temporal adverbs This / last / next Monday / week / month / year. Now, then, ago, later, soon, before. Yesterday, today, tomorrow.
# 4. Empathetic deixis Empathetic deixis is the metaphorical use of deictic forms to indicate emotional or other psychological distance or proximity between a speaker and a referent. speakerreferent
# Examples of Empathetic Deixis The use of this to indicate the speakers empathy The use of that to indicate the speakers emotional distance
# 5. Social Deixis Social deixis concerns with the aspects of sentences which reflect or establish or determined by certain realities of participants or the social situation in which the speech event occurs. (Levinson:1983)
# Still Social Deixis here... There are two basic kinds of social deixis information that seems to be encoded in language around the world. They are: Relational social deixis Absolute social deixis
# a. Relational social deixis Relational social deixis is a deictic reference to some social characteristic of referent apart from any relative ranking of referents. In English, relational social deixis may be a lexical items (e.g. my husband, teacher, cousin, etc.), pronouns (you, her).
# b. Absolute social deixis Absolute social deixis is a deictic reference usually expressed in certain forms of address which will include no comparison of the ranking of the speaker and addressee. For examples: your highness, Mr. President, your majesty, etc.
# 6. Discourse deixis Discourse deixis is an expression used to refer to certain discourse that contain the utterance or as a signal and its relations to surrounding text. Levinson (1983, p.85)
# Discourse deixis should be distinguished from a related notion that of anaphora. Anaphora concerns with the use of a pronoun to refer to the same referent as some prior term. Levinson (1983, p.85-86 ) Still Discourse Deixis....
# Example of Discourse Deixis: Use of this to refer to a story one is about to tell in: - I bet you havent heard this story. Reference to Chapter 7 of a book by means of in the next chapter or in the previous chapter, depending on whether the reference is made from Chapter 6 or 8. Use of this in a creaky-voiced utterance of: This is what phoneticians call a creaky voice.
# Conclusion Deixis is the way in which the relationship between language and context is reflected in the structures of languages themselves. It concerns on the interpretation of utterances depends on the analysis of that context of utterance.
# References Grundy, P. 1995. Doing Pragmatics. London: St. Martins Press, Inc. Levinson, S. C. 1983. Pragmatics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Purwo, B. K. 1990. Pragmatik dan Pengajaran Bahasa. Yogyakarta: Kanisius. Yule, George. 1996. Pragmatics. New York:Oxford University Press.