2What are the proper terms used in describing poultry? Poultry is the group name for all domesticated birds used for meat, eggs, or feathers.A baby chicken of either sex is a chick.A young male chicken is a cockerel.A castrated (neutered) male chicken is a capon.A mature male chicken is a rooster.A young female chicken is a pullet.A mature female chicken is a hen.A group of chickens is a flock.
3What are the proper terms used in describing poultry? A. Chickens are classified as layers or broilers.Layers are chickens used to produce large quantities of eggs.On average layer hens produce 250 to 270 eggs per year.Broilers are six- to seven-week-old chickens weighing about 4 pounds that are used for meatbecause they are tender.
4What are the different, breeds, and varieties of chickens? We have two breeds of chicken in our incubator:1. The White Leghorn.The Leghorn is the most popular layer breed in the United States.This breed is also known for its ability to take flight.Leghorns produce white eggs.They express yellow skin, yellow shanks, white earlobes, and reddish-bay eyes.They are somewhat smaller than most breeds, and tend to be noisy.The chicks are white in color.
5What are the different, breeds, and varieties of chickens? 2. Rhode Island RedThe Rhode Island Red is a dual-purpose breed; that is, it is raised for meat and eggs.The breed is dark red and lays brown eggs.Rhode Island Reds have yellow skin, yellow shanks, red earlobes, and reddish-bay eyes.Chicks are a light red to tan color with two dark brown bars running down their backs.
6How does the process of fertilization take place in a chicken egg? The yolk is released into the oviduct (a long, spiraling tube in the hen's reproductive system), where it can be fertilized internally (inside the hen) by a sperm.Fertilization of a chicken egg takes place when the sperm unites with the egg, forming the blastoderm.Unfertilized eggs will go through the same process however, it will form a blastodisc.A blastodisc will not be a dark whiteNot symmetrically round
8Can an unfertilized egg actually develop? Parthenogenesis is an inherited trait that causes the development of unfertilized eggs.About 1% of parthenogenetic embryos will develop and hatch with deformities.Parthenogenesis is more common in turkeys than in chickens.
9What are the internal parts of an egg and what are their functions? 1. Blastoderm/blastodisc2. Yolk: Produced by the hen's ovary in a process called ovulation.It is the yellow, inner part of the egg where the embryo will form.The yolk contains the food that will nourish the embryo as it grows.
10What are the internal parts of an egg and what are their functions? 3. Vitelline (yolk) membrane - the membrane that surrounds the yolk.4. Thick albumin - the stringy part of the egg white (albumin) located nearest the yolk.5. Thin albumin - the watery part of the egg white (albumin) located farthest from the yolk.6. Chalaza - a spiral, rope-like strand that anchors the yolk in the thick egg white. There are two chalazae anchoring each yolk, one on the top and one on the bottom.
11What are the internal parts of an egg and what are their functions? 7. Inner shell membrane - the thin membrane located between the outer shell membrane and the albumin.8. Outer shell membrane - the thin membrane located just inside the shell.9. Air cell - an empty space located at the large end of the egg; it is between the inner and outer shell membranes.10. Shell - the hard, protective coating of the egg.It is semi-permeable; it lets gas exchange occur, but keeps other substances from entering the egg.The shell is made of calcium carbonate.
13What is the ideal environment for incubating eggs artificially? Four Factors must be present for ideal incubation conditions:A. Temperature. Optimum temperature for hatching chickens is between 99 and 100 degrees F.B. Humidity. Eggs lose moisture during development and low humidity causes an increased loss. High humidity can prevent the correct evaporation of water.
14What is the ideal environment for incubating eggs artificially? C. Ventilation. Proper circulation is critical to assure a fresh supply of oxygen and removal of carbon dioxide.D. Position and turning of eggs. The head of the chick must face the large end of the egg for proper hatching. Eggs should be incubated large end up, and turned three to five times daily to prevent the developing embryo from attaching to the shell membrane.
16How do we prepare eggs for hatching and care for young birds during brooding? Fertility of eggs can be determined by a process known as candling.A. Eggs held up to an egg candler, a device for shining a light beam into an egg. Eggs will look different depending on fertilization or lack of fertilization. Fertile eggs will appear darker as the developing embryo begins to form. Infertile eggs can be detected after 15 to 18 hours of incubation.
17Between the following poultry species, who has the longest incubation period? Shortest? WHY?DuckPigeonOstrichChickenTurkey
18Different breeds of poultry have different incubation lengths: How do we prepare eggs for hatching and care for young birds during brooding?Different breeds of poultry have different incubation lengths:Do not candle or turn the eggs the last three days of incubation.Bird:Incubation:Chickens21 daysDucks/Turkeys28 daysPigeon18 daysOstrich42 days
19Chick DevelopmentDAY 118 hours – the digestive system starts to appear20 hours – the vertebral column starts to appear21 hours – the nervous system and brain begin to form22 hours – the head begins to form23 hours – the extraembryonic blood systems begin to form24 hours – the eyes begin to formDAY 225 hours – the heart begins to form35 hours – the ear pits begin to form37 hours – the amnion starts to appear42 hours – the heart starts to beat46 hours – the throat begins to form
20Chick Development Day 4 The tongue begins to form The tail appears 50 hours – the amnion begins to form60 hours – the nose begins to form62 hours – the legs start to appear64 hours – the wings start to appear70 hours – the allantois begins to formDay 4The tongue begins to formThe tail appearsThe toes begin to formExtra-embryonic circulation is fully functionalDAY 5- The crop begins to form- The bones of the legs begin to form- The sex of the chick is determined and itsreproductive organs begin to form(ovary & oviduct for the female as studiedin Part III)
21Chick Development Day 6 The beak and egg-tooth begin to form Day 7 The ribs start to appearThe gizzard begins to formVoluntary movement beginsDay 7The wings bend at the elbowand the leg at the kneeThe toes are visibleThe abdomen is bigger asthe intestine starts to loop
22Chick Development Day 9 The mouth opening appears Day 8 The claws begin to formDay 8The feathers begin to formThe eye lids begins to form
23Chick Development Day 11 The toe claws begin to curve downwards The bottom of the feet become paddedThe chick begins to take calciumfrom the eggshellDay 10The beak starts to hardenThe comb is visibleThe flight feathers develop
24Chick Development Day 12 Scales appear on the lower legs The chick continues to grow and moveDay 13Body fairly well covered with feathersThe left and right collar bones jointo form the wishbone
25Chick Development Day 14 Day 15 The embryo turns its head towards the large end of the eggThe skull and ribs have begun to ossifyDay 15The scales, claws and beak are becoming firm
26Chick Development Day 16 The chick is fully covered with feathers The albumen is nearly gone and the yolkis increasingly important as nourishmentDay 17The chick turns its beak towards the air celland begins preparation for hatching
27Chick Development Day 18 The growth of the embryo is nearly complete The amnion which protects the chickbegins to disappearDay 19The yolk sac begins to enter the bodyThe chick occupies all the space in the eggexcept the air cell
28Chick DevelopmentDay 20The yolk sac is completely drawn into the bodyThe beak breaks through the inner shell membraneThe lungs begin to function and to use the air cell for breathingThe allantois ceases to function and starts to dry upDay 21The neck begins to jerkThe egg tooth pips through the shellThe chick hatches!
29How the chick hatchesWhen the chick is completely out of the shell it lies still.It is extremely tired. After a rest it begins to rise to its feet and gain coordination.Within a few days the egg tooth will disappear.
30What is the process of chick development during incubation? Day 3:Body parts have begun to forThe embryo will have a distinct question mark shapeHeart begins to beatDay 6Voluntary movement beginsformation of reproductive organs and differentiation of sexDay 9Egg tooth begins to formBody parts can be clearly recognized
31What is the process of chick development during incubation? Day 12Beginning of feathersDay 16Beak, claws become to hardenEmbryo continues to grow and moves into position to break the shellDay 20-21yolk sac completely drawn into body cavity;embryo occupies practically all the space within the egg except the air cellWhen the air cell is broken, the embryo only has a limited time to pip its way out of the egg.
32What is the process of chick development during incubation?
33How do we prepare eggs for hatching and care for young birds during brooding? D. Brooding refers to the care of young poultry from the time of hatching through eight to ten weeks of age.Chicks should be removed from the incubator when they have dried and the down becomes fluffed. This drying normally takes about 12 hours.1. Certain environmental conditions are needed for proper brooding.a. Temperature—When chicks are one day old, the temperature should be between 90 and 95 degrees F. The temperature is generally lowered five degrees per week until a temperature of 70 to 75 degrees is reached, or until the chicks are fully feathered.b. Ventilation—Proper ventilation provides fresh oxygen, removes carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, ammonia, and keeps bedding dry.c. Moisture—50 to 60% relative humidity is recommended for good feathering.