Biological control is the suppression of insect pests by natural enemies Predators Parasitoids Pathogens
Pests Squash Bug Spotted Cucumber Beetle Striped Cucumber Beetle Predators Stink Bugs Ground Beetles Ants Lady Beetles Biological control can target any stage of a pest. Eggs likely fed upon by generalist predators Do predators provide significant biological control of pest eggs?
Spotted CB and Squash Bug eggs studied Live sterile colony eggs glued to cards – OPEN/CLOSED treatments (4 reps) – In the field for 48 hrs – July-August Spotted cucumber beetle eggs on ground Pumpkin Pests – Biological Control of Eggs Squash bug eggs attached to plant leaves
Predators reduced squash bug eggs by 10% and spotted cucumber beetle by 80%!! Pumpkin Pests – Biological Control of Eggs Squash bug eggs eaten by predator
Pests Squash Bug Spotted Cucumber Beetle Striped Cucumber Beetle Pest adults are attacked by parasitoid flies Tachinidae Do we detect significant parasitism of pests in the field? Feather-legged Fly (parasitoid of squash bug) Celatoria diabroticae and C. setosa (parasitoids of cucumber beetles)
Assessment of adult parasitism 2 collections of striped cucumber beetle and squash bug from each site, July – August Raised for 8 days, then frozen & dissected Pumpkin Pests – Biological Control of Adults Celatoria sp larval mouthparts
Pumpkin Pests – Biological Control of Adults 10-17% of adult pests were parasitized! Does not account for number which may have been killed by parasitoids and not captured
Biological control is an important and sometimes undervalued component of IPM Diverse group of arthropods contribute to biological control This service is provided free to growers and can be enhanced through habitat management practices. Integrated Pest Management Physical Control Biological Control Chemical Control Cultural Control Integrated Pest Management (IPM) is the combined use of tactics to manage a pest (insect, disease, or weed) in an economically and ecological sound manner. Integrated Pest Management Physical Control Biological Control Chemical Control Cultural Control