Presentation on theme: "Lisa Grohskopf, MD, MPH Influenza Division, NCIRD, CDC ACIP Influenza Vaccine Recommendations 2013-14 Season National Center for Immunization & Respiratory."— Presentation transcript:
Lisa Grohskopf, MD, MPH Influenza Division, NCIRD, CDC ACIP Influenza Vaccine Recommendations Season National Center for Immunization & Respiratory Diseases Influenza Division September 12, 2013
Objective Provide a summary of influenza vaccine guidance for , reflecting ACIP discussion and vote in February and June, Brief update on antiviral drugs for influenza.
Overview No major changes in the recommendations Annual vaccination recommended for all persons aged 6 months Minor changes related to vaccination in setting of egg allergy But, a number of new things to discuss… Virus composition of the vaccine New abbreviations 6 new vaccine products
Influenza Vaccine Virus Strains for Trivalent vaccines will contain: An A/California/7/2009 (H1N1)-like virus, An H3N2 virus antigenically like the cell-propagated prototype virus A/Victoria/361/2011, and A B/Massachusetts/2/2012-like virus (Yamagata lineage). Quadrivalent vaccines, will contain, in addition: A B/Brisbane/60/2008-like virus (Victoria lineage)
Influenza Vaccine Abbreviations TIV (Trivalent Inactivated Influenza Vaccine) replaced with IIV (Inactivated Influenza Vaccine): IIV refers to inactivated vaccines (egg and cell-culture based) Includes trivalent (IIV3) and quadrivalent (IIV4) vaccines; Cell-culture-based IIV is referred to as ccIIV/ccIIV3; RIV refers to recombinant HA influenza vaccine Trivalent (RIV3) for ; LAIV refers to Live Attenuated Influenza Vaccine Quadrivalent (LAIV4), for
Quadrivalent Influenza VaccinesRationale Two lineages of influenza B viruses: Victoria and Yamagata Immunization against virus from one lineage provides only limited cross-protection against viruses in the other Trivalent vaccines contain only one B vaccine virus Only one B lineage is represented Predominant lineage is difficult to predict Quadrivalents contain one virus from each B lineage
Quadrivalent LAIV (LAIV4) Flumist Quadrivalent (MedImmune) Replacing trivalent LAIV starting Same presentation (intranasal sprayer) and administration Recommendations same as those for trivalent LAIV Healthy, non-pregnant persons aged 2-49 years Similarly immunogenic to LAIV3 No preferential recommendation for LAIV vs. IIV where either is otherwise appropriate
Quadrivalent IIVs (IIV4s) Three brands; different age indications Fluarix Quadrivalent (GSK): 3 years Fluzone Quadrivalent (Sanofi Pasteur): 6 months FluLaval Quadrivalent (GSK): 3 years IIV3 and IIV4 are similarly immunogenic For each brand, both IIV3 and IIV4 available this season More IIV3 available than IIV4 during No preferential recommendation for quadrivalent over trivalent
Vaccines Produced via Non-Egg-Based Technologies May permit more rapid scale up of vaccine production (e.g., as might be needed during a pandemic) Two vaccines this season, both trivalent: Cell culture-based Recombinant hemagglutinin (HA)
Cell culture-based IIV (ccIIV3) Flucelvax (Novartis) Approved for persons aged 18 and older Vaccine virus propagated in Madin Darby Canine Kidney cells Vaccine viruses for ccIIV are not propagated in eggs; however, initial reference strains have been passaged in eggs Cannot be considered egg-free, though expected to contain less egg protein than other IIVs
Recombinant Influenza Vaccine (RIV3) FluBlok (Protein Sciences) Approved for persons aged 18 through 49 years Vaccine contains recombinant influenza virus hemagglutinin Protein is produced in insect cell line No eggs or live influenza viruses used in production Egg-free
Other Vaccines Available for Standard dose IIVs (multiple brands) For 6 mos., BUT age indications differ by brand High dose IIV (Fluzone® High Dose)65 yrs. and over Intradermal IIV (Fluzone® Intradermal)18 through 64 yrs. ACIP currently expresses no preferential recommendations
Influenza Vaccination for Persons with Egg Allergies : First Modification Can the individual eat lightly cooked egg (e.g., scrambled egg) without reaction?* After eating eggs or egg-containing foods, does the individual experience ONLY hives? After eating eggs or egg-containing foods, does the individual experience other symptoms such as: Cardiovascular changes (e.g., hypotension) Respiratory distress (e.g., wheezing) Gastrointestinal (e.g., nausea/vomiting) Reaction requiring epinephrine Reaction requiring emergency medical attention Administer vaccine per usual protocol Yes Administer RIV3, if patient aged 18 through 49 yrs.; OR Administer IIV Observe for reaction for at least 30 minutes following vaccination No Administer RIV3, if patient aged 18 through 49 yrs.; OR Refer to a physician with expertise in management of allergic conditions for further evaluation Yes No
Influenza Vaccination for Persons with Egg Allergies : Second Modification Addition of the following: For individuals with no known history of exposure to egg, but who are suspected of being egg-allergic on the basis of previously performed allergy testing: Consultation with a physician with expertise in the management of allergic conditions should be obtained prior to vaccination Alternatively, RIV3 may be administered if the recipient is aged 18 through 49 years
Dose algorithm for 6mo through 8yr olds, seasonFirst approach MMWR 2012; 61(32): * Doses should be administered a minimum of 4 weeks apart.
Dose algorithm for 6mo through 8yr olds, seasonAlternative approach If vaccination history before 2010–11 is available If child received 2 seasonal influenza vaccines during any previous season, And 1 dose of a 2009(H1N1)-containing vaccine (monovalent 2009(H1N1) or , or seasonal vaccine), Then the child needs only 1 dose in 2013–14. Children 6mos8yrs for whom this is not the case need 2 doses Need only 1 dose of vaccine in 2013–14 if : 2 doses of seasonal influenza vaccine since July 1, 2010; or 2 of seasonal influenza vaccine before July 1, 2010, and 1 dose of monovalent 2009(H1N1) vaccine; or 1 dose of seasonal influenza vaccine before July 1, 2010, and 1 dose of seasonal influenza vaccine since July 1, MMWR 2012; 61(32):
Influenza Antiviral Drugs Neuraminidase inhibitors (NAI): oseltamivir (Tamiflu) and zanamivir (Relenza) Used for the treatment and prevention of influenza A and B virus infections >99% of all circulating viruses were susceptible to oseltamivir and zanamivir during This class of drug is recommended for use during this season Adamantanes: rimantadine and amantadine No circulating viruses were susceptible to rimantadine and amantadine during Not recommended for use during this season Experimental drugs: IV oseltamivir, IV zanamivir
Antiviral Treatment Guidance Antiviral treatment is recommended as early as possible for any patient with confirmed or suspected influenza who is hospitalized; has severe, complicated, or progressive illness; or is at higher risk for influenza complications
Persons at higher risk for influenza complications o children aged younger than 2 years; o adults aged 65 years and older; o persons with chronic disease (e.g. Pulmonary, cardiovascular, renal, hepatic, hematological, metabolic disorders, or neurologic and neurodevelopment conditions o persons with immunosuppression, including that caused by medications or by HIV infection; o women who are pregnant or postpartum (within 2 weeks after delivery); o persons aged younger than 19 years who are receiving long-term aspirin therapy; o American Indians/Alaska Natives; o persons who are morbidly obese (i.e., body-mass index is equal to or greater than 40); and o residents of nursing homes and other chronic-care facilities.
Antiviral Treatment Guidance Clinical benefit is greatest when antiviral treatment is administered early. Start as soon as possible after illness onset, ideally within 48 hours of symptom onset. However, antiviral treatment might still be beneficial in patients with severe, complicated or progressive illness and in hospitalized patients when started after 48 hours of illness onset, as indicated by observational studies. Empiric treatment (before laboratory confirmation available) will be necessary for most patients Decisions about starting antiviral treatment should not wait for laboratory confirmation of influenza. Dont depend on insensitive tests like rapid influenza diagnostic tests
Antiviral Treatment Guidance Antiviral medications should be used as recommended for treatment in patients, regardless of vaccination status Early vaccine effectiveness estimated ~60% Thus, some vaccinated persons will get influenza
Antiviral Treatment Guidance Antiviral treatment can be considered for any previously healthy, symptomatic outpatient not at high risk with confirmed or suspected influenza on the basis of clinical judgment, if treatment can be initiated within 48 hours of illness onset.
Summary Early empiric antiviral treatment is recommended for suspected or confirmed influenza among the following: Hospitalized patients Patients with progressive illness, and Those at higher risk for complications Decisions about starting antiviral treatment should not wait for laboratory confirmation of influenza Antiviral medications should be used as recommended for treatment in patients, regardless of vaccination status
Thank you Many thanks to Dr. Alicia Fry for use of her Antiviral slides. More information available at: clinicians.htm clinicians.htm
Antiviral Post Exposure Chemoprophylaxis (PEP) Recommendations PEP should be started as soon as possible (no later than 48 hours) after exposure to case who is likely to be infectious Limit the use of PEP to persons with close contact exposure and who are likely to adhere to regimen No group specifically recommended for pre-exposure chemoprophylaxis Persons who can be considered for PEP: Persons who are at high-risk for complications of influenza and are close contacts of persons with confirmed, probable, or suspected influenza.. Health care personnel, public health workers, or first responders who have had a recognized, unprotected (inadequate personal protective equipment) close contact exposure to a person with confirmed, probable, or suspected influenza during that persons infectious period Consider alternative to PEP: Discussion with person exposed, close follow up and early treatment if suspected influenza develops
For more information please contact Centers for Disease Control and Prevention 1600 Clifton Road NE, Atlanta, GA Telephone, CDC-INFO ( )/TTY: Web: Thank You! National Center for Immunization & Respiratory Diseases Influenza Division