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Scientific Method: H O vs. H A Types of Studies: Experimental vs. Observational Science & Study Basics- Overview Ecological Methodology LEC- 01a Althoff

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INVENTORY & MONITORING EVALUATION OF METHODS EXPERIMENTAL ANALYSIS: Trends/Baseline INTERPRETATION

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Scientific Method Observation(s) Question Hypothesis Prediction Test: Experimental or Additional observation Test does _______ support hypothesis: revise hypothesis or pose new one Test does _______ hypothesis: make additional predictions and test them

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Activity: Put these in proper order Conclusion Experiment Hypothesis Observation (question) Theory

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Some important terms _______ = sample unit left as normal or untreated _______ = sample unit that something different is done to it _______ = assumes no bias due to human subjectivity __________________ = independent variable __________________ = dependent variable

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Observational vs. Experimental Studies Observational: no controls (usually), trying to determine basics, learn patterns, trends, characteristics Experimental: control (usually), have basic knowledge of subject that enables one to separate into treatment groups

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Hypothesis = null hypothesis….essentially says no differences = alternative hypothesis….essentially says found differences…with statistical evidence to support that

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Observational vs. Experimental Studies Observational: generally summarize data using _____________ statistics Experimental: determine if differences between treatments are real using _______________ statistics

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Statistics Descriptive statistics: central tendency: mean, median, mode spread: range, variance, standard deviation, standard error relationship: correlation (Pearson, Spearman) Inferential statistics: parametric: t-test, F-test, Analysis of Variance (ANOVA), chi-squared non-parametric: sign test, Kruskal-Wallis test, Friedman test Models: Akaikae Information Criterion (AIC), Structural Equation Modeling (SEM)

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Quail Eggs: Does Size Matter? Not all eggs laid are the same….can vary by: 1) weight/mass 2) yolk composition (protein & lipid %) 3) albumen composition (protein & water %) 4) shell thickness

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Quail Eggs: Key components 2 3 Pre-incubation Mid-incubation

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Quail Eggs: Does Size Matter? Normally take 23-24 days to hatch from start of incubation Young born are __________…meaning they are ready to go (aka leave nest) within 6-24 hours after hatching Eggs must be kept at 99-100 o F (99.5 o F best) for the duration of the incubation period 3 ways for us to check on development: 1) _______ eggs (expect weight will decrease) 2) _______ eggs (expect air space to increase) 3) _______ eggs (expect light/dark areas)

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Quail Eggs: Checking Egg Status Weigh – using digital platform scale

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Quail Eggs: Checking Egg Status Float – in beaker of water Sink Semi-float Float

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Quail Eggs: Checking Egg Status Candling

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The Study Design Starting with 100+ eggs Placing in incubator with egg turner

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Basics…. Overall, eggs pre-incubation weighed from ________________ grams To have clear separation of small vs. large eggs, will consider only eggs weight 11.3 g or less as _________ 12.4 g or greater as ___________ Response variable: hatch within 24 hours of first hatch (= H24) _______ or less____ or greater

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Hypothesis & Statistical Test H 0 - No difference in H24 between small and large eggs H A - Difference in H24 between small and large eggs Evaluate using Chi-Squared ( X 2 ) Hatch in H24 Small eggs (<11.3) (N = 28) Large eggs (<12.4) (N = 31)

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