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Early Development Gametes
Egg Lecithal = Yolk
Microlecithal egg Small amount of yolk Amphioxus Eutherians
Mesolecithal egg Medium amount of yolk Amphibians
Macrolecithal egg Large amount of yolk Bird and reptiles Most fish
Isolecithal Even yolk distribution In microlecithal eggs
Telolecithal Uneven yolk distribution Macrolecithal and Mesolecithal eggs Vegetal Pole – yolk region Animal Pole – relatively yolk-free, high metabolic activity/embryo
AmnionAmnion AmnioniccavityAmnioniccavity AllantoisAllantois AllantoiccavityAllantoiccavity ChorionChorion YolkYolk Amniote eggs AlbuminAlbumin
Layers around egg Vitelline membrane Jelly Capsule Shell Albumin Corona Radiata Zona Pellucida
Internal Fertilization Apodans Urodeles Amniotes
External Fertilization Fish Frogs
Cleavage & Blastula Microlecithal Eggs Cleavage – Mitosis divisions Blastomeres Blastocoel
Cleavage & Blastula Blastocyst in mammals Inner cell mass in mammals Trophoblast cells in mammals
Cleavage & Blastula Mesolecithal eggs
Cleavage & Blastula Macrolecithal Eggs Blastoderm Blastocoel
Gastrulation Germ layers form from which ALL future organs form Notochord forms Bilateral symmetry established
Gastrulation/Microlecithal eggs Involution Blastopore Archenteron
Germ layers Ectoderm –outer layer Mesoderm – middle layer – Forms notochord – Splits to form coelom Endoderm – inner layer around archenteron
Gastrulation Mesolecithal eggs Epiboly
Ectoderm Nervous System Sensory structures Neural crest cells that become melanocytes, adrenal gland… Epidermis of skin Epithelium of mouth/nose and anus
Endoderm Lungs & Swim bladders Digestive viscera
Mesoderm Chordomesoderm becomes notochord
Mesoderm Dorsal Mesoderm = Epimere Segmented bands called somites Divides into – Dermatome – Myotome – Sclerotome
Mesoderm Lateral plate mesoderm = hypomere Splits into Somatic and Splanchnic layers Coelom between these layers
Hypomere Somatic Mesoderm plus Ectoderm = Somatopleure Splanchnic Mesoderm plus Endoderm = Splanchnopleure
Mesoderm Intermediate mesoderm = Mesomere Kidney tubules and associated ducts
Key Points Which germ layer (ectoderm, endoderm, mesoderm) gives rise to the following structures: Heart Liver Lung Biceps muscle Notochord Brain Kidney Spinal cord Skin
Gastrulation in Macrolecithal eggs Delamination Blastoderm forms upper sheet of cells called Epiblast and Lower sheet of cells called Hypoblast Epiblast becomes Ectoderm Hypoblast becomes Endoderm
Gastrulation in Macrolecithal eggs Mesoderm forms by Primitive Streak Cells stream inward from posterior to anterior Gives rise to notochord
Gastrulation in macrolecithal eggs Some mesoderm is unorganized and migrates, called MESENCHYME
Gastrulation in macrolecithal eggs Body stalk Connection from body to yolk
Gastrulation in mammal Blastoderm Delamination to form hypoblast & epiblast Primitive streak forms mesoderm – Notochord – Mesenchyme – Coelom from splitting of lateral plate mesoderm
Neurulation Dorsal hollow nerve cord Neural crest cells branch off
Organogenesis Beginning of all major organs of the body
Extraembryonic membranes Fish – Body stalk – Yolk sac
Extraembryonic membranes AMNIOTES – Yolk sac (from splanchnopleure)
Amniotes Amnion From somatopleure Amniotic Fluid
Amniotes Chorion From somatopleure For communication with oxygen source Helps form placenta in mammals Against shell in birds
Amniotes Allantois From splanchnopleure Gas exchange in reptiles Waste receptacle in eutherians
Placenta in Eutherians Excellent waste removal & nutrient uptake Moms uterus plus babys extraembryonic membrane Attaches to baby via umbilical cord Yolk sac functions as placenta in marsupials
Comparative Anatomy Early Embryology Kardong Chapter 5 Part 7.
Todays Objective: 2.1 The student will list the germ layers and their derivatives The student will be able to sequence the stages of animal development.
CLEAVAGE, BLASTULA, GASTRULA, NEURULA Lecture 2. Cleavage Mitosis Duplication of cells 1 2 4 8 16 etc. zygote morula blastula gastrula.
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Morphogenesis Vertebrate eggs Early chordate development Fate of the germ layers Extraembryonic membranes.
Embryology Embryology – study of the origin and development of single individual Prenatal period Embryonic period – first 8 weeks Fetal period – remaining.
1 mm Morphogenesis process by which an animal takes shape determined by genome and differences between embryonic cells.
Animal Embryonic Development From Fertilization to Organogenesis.
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Early Craniate Morphogenesis Why study this material? Phylogeny Ontogeny Morphology.
& formation of the germ layers. Cleavage, Gastrulation.
Fertilization Fertilization activates the egg Activation of the egg triggers embryonic development.
Development determined by zygote genome & distribution of maternal substance ( cytoplasmic determinants ) in egg Location of cells affects early development.
Chapter 47 Animal Development. Embryonic development/fertilization u Preformation~ until 18th century; miniature infant in sperm or egg u At fertilization/conception:
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Lecture #20 Date ________ u Chapter 47 ~ Animal Development.
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Kingdom Animalia Major Animal Phyla Porifera Cnidaria Phatyhelminthes Nematoda Rotifera Mollusca Annelida Arthropoda Echinodermata Chordata.
HUMAN EMBRYOLOGY (First eight weeks of early human development) Recommended reading: Keith Moore, Vid Persaud The developing human: Clinically oriented.
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Tutorial for module BY1101: Embryology Joe Colgan BY1101 Introduction to Molecular and Cellular Biology.
Chapter 47. Cleavage A period of rapid cell division after fertilization –Skips the G1 and G2 phases –No growth during this period, just division Includes.
Chapter 47: Animal Development Theories of embryonic development Preformation Preformation Belief that egg or sperm contain a miniature embryo/adult form.
Ch. 47. THE STAGES OF EARLY EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT.
Early Development in Animals Chicken or Human??. The Process of Early Development 1. Fertilization 2. Cleavage 3. Morula 4. Blastula 5. Gastrulation 6.
Early Development Review Zygote = 1 celled stage Cleavage=early cell division (no cell growth) Morula = solid multicelled embryo Blastula = “hollow”
Chapter 47 Animal Development. I. Fertilization A.Sea Urchins B.Mammals.
Basic Embryology. Embryology Definition: the study of the origin and development of an organism Prenatal period: before birth 38 weeks from conception.
Animal Growth & Development. Beginnings of the Embryo Fertilization- union of the gametes Sperm- very small, mobile, ½ of chromosome set Egg- very large,
Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings PowerPoint ® Lecture Presentations for Biology Eighth Edition Neil Campbell.
Neural Tube, Somites and the Placenta Lecture 3. Neurulation Neural tube formation Notochord stimulates the ectoderm to form the neural tube Cells between.
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