Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

EGG CHARACTERISTICS Nugraha E. Suyatma and Joko Hermanianto

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "EGG CHARACTERISTICS Nugraha E. Suyatma and Joko Hermanianto"— Presentation transcript:

1 EGG CHARACTERISTICS Nugraha E. Suyatma and Joko Hermanianto
4th Revision, 12 Nopember 2010 Nugraha E. Suyatma and Joko Hermanianto Department of Food Science and Technology Bogor Agricultural University

2 EGG An egg is a round or oval cell laid by the female of any number of different species, consisting of an ovum surrounded by layers of membranes and an outer casing, which acts to nourish and protect a developing embryo. Which came first, the chicken or the egg?

3 Edible egg: Chicken egg Quail egg Duck egg Goose egg Ostrich egg
Turtle egg Fish egg: roe and caviar

4 Commercial Egg: These are hen eggs in shell, suitable for consumption in the state, or use by food industries, excluding broken eggs and boiled eggs (CEE Regulation No. 1907/90). Most laying hens are White Leghorns .

5 Formation of the egg The egg is formed gradually over a period of about 25 hours. The female chick (Hen) has up to 4000 tiny ova (reproductive cells), from some of which full-sized yolks may develop when the hen matures. Each yolk (ovum) is enclosed in a thin-walled sac, or follicle, attached to the ovary The mature yolk is released when the sac ruptures, and is received by the funnel of the left oviduct

6 Approximate time egg spends in this section
Section of oviduct Approximate time egg spends in this section Functions of section of oviduct 1 Funnel (infundibulum) 15 minutes Receives yolk from ovary. If live sperm present, fertilisation occurs here (commercially produced table eggs are not fertilised) 2 Magnum 3 hours Inner and outer shell membranes are added, as are some water and mineral salts 3 Isthmus 1 hour Albumen (white) is secreted and layered around the yolk 4 Shell gland (uterus) 21 hours Initially some water is added, making the outer white thinner. Then the shell material (mainly calcium carbonate) is added. Pigments may also be added to make the shell brown 5 Vagina/cloaca less than 1 minute The egg passes through this section before laying. It has no other known function in the egg’s formation

7 Video of the Hen and Egg Formation

8 Anatomy of an Egg Eggshell Outer membrane Inner membrane Chalaza
Exterior albumen Middle albumen Vitelline membrane Nucleus of pander Germinal disk Yellow yolk White yolk Internal albumen Air cell Cuticula

9

10

11 Video of the Egg composition

12 SHELL (10 %) calcium carbonate (CaCO3) %, 3-6 % Organic material and Pigment Shell strength is depend on the content of CaCO3, Mg, P, dan vit D Thickness: mm Pores: 700 pores/cm2 = 17,000 tiny pores Semipermeable membrane: air and moisture can pass through has a thin outermost coating called the bloom or cuticle that helps keep out bacteria and dust. Mucin : covered shell and pores

13 INNER AND OUTER MEMBRANES AND AIR CELL
INNER AND OUTER MEMBRANES Lye between the eggshell and egg white, these two transparent protein membranes provide efficient defense against bacterial invasion. If you give these layers a tug, you’ll find they’re surprisingly strong. They’re made partly of keratin, a protein that’s also in human hair. AIR CELL An air space forms when the contents of the egg cool and contract after the egg is laid

14 ALBUMEN (60 %) The egg white is known as the albumen, which comes from albus, the Latin word for “white.” contain approximately 40 different proteins: OVALBUMIN, CANALBUMIN, OVOTRANSFERIN, LYSOZYM, OVOMUCIN, AVIDIN, ETC

15 ALBUMEN Consist of 4 parts: inner thick, inner thin white, outer thick white dan outer thin white. cloudy appearance due to CO2 content.

16 Albumen The egg white is approximately two-thirds of the total egg's weight out of its shell with nearly 90% of that weight coming from water. Proteins Lipids Carbohydrates Ash Water %, 0.03% % % % Composition of Albumen (Powrie 1973)

17 MAJOR PROTEINS IN ALBUMEN OF TOTAL PROTEINS (Powrie 1973)
Egg white contains approximately 40 different proteins: Ovalbumin 54% Conalbumin 13% Ovomucoid 11% Lysozyme 3.5% Globulins (G2, G3) 8.0 % Ovomucin 1.5% Other protein components include, flavoprotein (0.8%), ovoglycoprotein (0.5%), ovomacroglobulin (0.5%), ovoinhibitor (0.l%) and avidin (0.05%).

18 YOLK Less water, more protein and fat than the white egg
Contains most of the vitamins and minerals of the egg, including Fe, vitamin A, vitamin D, phosphorus, calcium, thiamine, and riboflavin. Source of lecithin (emulsifier). Yolk color ranges from just a hint of yellow to a magnificent deep orange, according to the feed and breed of the hen. Umur: kuning telur mengabsorbsi air dari albumen: ukuran kuning telur membesar , strukturnya meregang, membran vitelin rusak, bentuk lebih flat.

19 CHALAZAE AND VITELIN CHALAZAE
Opaque ropes of egg white, the chalazae hold the yolk in the center of the egg. Like little anchors, they attach the yolk’s casing to the membrane lining the eggshell. The more prominent they are, the fresher the egg. Vitelline Membrane The clear casing that encloses the yolk.

20 CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF EGG

21 Chemical composition of eggs
Animal Water (%) Protein (%) Lipid (%) CHO (%) Ash (%) Chicken 73,7 12,9 11,5 0,9 1 Duck 70,4 13,3 14,5 0,7 1,1 Goose 13,9 1,5 Pigeon 72,8 13,8 12 0,8 Quail 13,1 11,1 Ostrich 72,6 11,8 1,7 Turtle 66,7 16,5 11,6 3,3 1,9

22 Composition of egg Component (%) Telur Utuh Putih telur Kuning telur
Kulit telur Water 37 87,6 51,1 - Protein 12,9 10,9 16 4 Lipid 11,5 30 Carbohydrate 1,1 Free Carbohydrate 0,3 0,4 0,2 Ash 1 0,7 1,7 Mineral 11,7 2 96

23 Vitamin contain most of the recognised vitamins with the exception of vitamin C

24 VITAMINS Component Amount per 100 g egg Vitamin A 190 µg Vitamin D 1,8 µg Vitamin E 1,1 mg Vitamin C none Thiamin (B1) 0,09 mg Riboflavin (B2) 0,47 mg Niacin 0.1 mg Vitamin B6 0.12 mg Folate 50 µg Vitamin B12 2,5 µg Biotin 20 µg Panthotenic acid 1.77 µg

25 Phosphorus  for bone health.
Minerals Iodine  thyroid hormone Phosphorus  for bone health. Zinc  for wound healing, growth and fighting infection Selenium  an important antioxidant Calcium  for bone and growth structure and nervous function. also contain significant amounts of iron, the vital ingredient of red blood cells.

26 Lipids in Yolk Egg lipids are found mostly in yolk, only 0,05% is contained in albumen. Fatty acid content: monounsaturated (46.5%) > saturated (37.5%) > polyunsaturated (16.5%) Highest fatty acid content: monounsaturated: oleic acid (18:1) approximately 40% from lipid total.

27 Fatty acid content in 100 g of fresh yolk
Gram Saturated 1.59 Miristat (14:0) 0.02 Palmitat (16:0) 1.14 Stearat (18:0) 0.40 Monounsaturated 1.95 Palmitoleat (16:1) 0.15 Oleat (18:1) 1.78 Eicosenoat (20:1) 0.01 Polyunsaturated 0.70 Linoleat (18:2) 0.59 Linolenat (18:3) Arakidonat (20:4) 0.07 Dokosaheksanoat (22:6) Cholesterol 0.21 TOTAL 4.43

28 Chemical composition change:
Liquid /Dry Egg (per100g) Liquid*/Frozen Dried Whole Eggs Yolk White Stabilized White SOLIDS-g 24.80 43.20 11.0 96.3 97.3 93.5 pH-g 7.8 6.7 8.8 8.7 6.5 6.8 PROTEIN-g 12.0 15.3 9.3 48.4 33.7 84.6 LIPIDS-g 9.71 23.0 0.076 39.2 52.9 0.407 FREE GLUCOSE-g <0.10 0.2 0.3 <0.1 ASH-g 0.80 1.4 0.4 3.4 3.3 3.6 MOISTURE-g 75.20 56.80 89.0 3.7 2.7

29 Important Nutritional Value of Egg
One medium egg contains between 4-5 grams of fat High cholesterol ~200 mg/egg High in Complete Protein (EPR=93.7%); > milk (84.5%), fish (76%), beef meat (74.3%), soy bean (72.8%), corn (60%) Little to no CHO High in vitamins & minerals Vitamins ADEK, some B vitamins, selenium, iodine, zinc, iron, copper

30 Energy value of eggs Protein 78 kilocalories (324 kilojoules)
only around 3% of the average energy requirement of an adult man and 4% for an adult woman. Protein Protein 12.5% of the weight of the egg in both the yolk and the albumen. Egg protein is of high biological value as it contains all the essential amino acids needed by the human body.

31 Functional Properties of Egg
Flavor, color, nutrition Foaming agent Emulsifying agent Aids in thickening/structure Binding/coating agent Leavening agent

32 FOAMING PROPERTIES Air trapped in a liquid
In egg foam, air trapped by protein. Denatured and then coagulates Heat expands protein/air Important to souffles, meringues, omelet, and sponge cake.

33 EMULSIFIER CAPACITY Egg yolk is a source of lecithin, an emulsifier and surfactant. Lechitin is a substance that helps an emulsion form, or helps keep an emulsion from separating Aplication : Mayonnaise butter sauces salad dressing Stabilizer of bakery products Whipped egg

34 Properties Application Thickening
Eggs thicken foods like custards puddings, sauces, and creamy fillings Leavening Souffles, sponge & butter cakes, quick breads, and puffy omelets are leavened by eggs Coating Meat dishes, breads, and cookies are some foods with egg components as the base ingredients for coatings Binding Eggs bind other ingredients for making meat loaves, casseroles, and croquettes Emulsifying Eggs prevent mixture separation in mayonnaise, salad dressing, and cream puff filling Clarifying Tiny particles are coagulated in soups and coffee to create a clear solution Retarding Crystallization Crystallization of sugar is slowed in cake icings and candies

35 ANTIMICROBIAL AND ALERGEN ON ALBUMIN
LYSOZYME Immunoglobulin E (IgE) memicu histamin OVOMUCIN (hambat enzim tripsin) AVIDIN: mengkompleks biotin (Avidin+Biotin komplek): Biotin tak dpt dicerna

36 Daily Needed Nutritional analysis of egg without its shell
For a medium egg (Av 58g) Constituent of Egg Amount per egg % of Reference Nutrient Intake (RNI) Amount per 100g egg For adult female years For adult male19-50 years Weight1 51.6 - 100.0 Water g 38.8 75.1 Energy kjoules/ kcalories 324/78 4 3 627/151 Protein 6.5 14 12 12.5 Carbohydrate trace Fat 5.8 ** 11.2 Inc saturated f.a. 1.7 3.2 Monounsaturated f.a 2.3 4.4 Polyunsaturated fa.t 0.9

37 Benefit of Egg Components
Sialic acid could prevent infection Immunoglobulin in yolk can play a role as antibody. PHOSVITIN has a function as food antioxidant. Choline: aids brain function and enhances thinking capacity and memory. It is an important part of a neurotransmitter that helps preserve the integrity of the electrical transmission across the gaps between nerves. Lutein and zeaxanthin: contribute to improving eye health and protecting eyes from ultraviolet rays

38 Allergen in Egg There are 4 proteins in egg white may provoque an allergy: - ovomucoid (11%) - ovalbumin (54%) - ovotransferrin (12%) - lysozyme (3.5%)

39 Egg Allergy Symptoms Egg allergy is like most food allergy reactions: It usually happens within minutes to hours after eating eggs. the skin - in the form of red, bumpy rashes (hives), eczema, or redness and swelling around the mouth the gastrointestinal tract - in the form of belly cramps, diarrhea, nausea, or vomiting the respiratory tract - symptoms can range from a runny nose, itchy, watery eyes, and sneezing to the triggering of asthma with coughing and wheezing

40 EGG QUALITY

41 Egg Quality Exterior egg quality – shell quality based on shell cleanliness, shell soundness, shell texture, shell shape. Interior egg quality – based on relative viscosity of the albumen, freedom from foreign matter in the albumen, shape and firmness of the yolk, and freedom from yolk defects.

42 Shape Index of Egg Ideal shape (USDA) Shape index of egg = A/B x 100
A = the biggest diameter (cm) B = The longest of length (cm)

43 Candling Candling is the process of holding a strong light above or below the egg to observe: cracks, checks and weak shells blood or meat spots. Egg air cell size of yolk and its movement double yolk, yolkless, etc. Become familiar with interior quality.

44

45

46

47

48 Video: Candling an egg

49 Egg Grading size Grade

50 Sizing Peewee: less than 42 g Small: at least 42 g Medium:
Large: at least 56 g Extra Large: at least 64 g Jumbo: at least 70 g

51 Sizing is not related to grading in any way.
Eggs are sold in cartons by various sizes determined by a minimum weight for a dozen eggs in their shell.

52 Grading Grade AA Grade A Grade B Break Out Appearance
Covers a small area. Covers a moderate area. Covers a wide area. Albumen Appearance White is thick and stands high; chalaza prominent. White is reasonably thick, stands fairly high; chalaza prominent. Small amount of thick white; chalaza small or absent. Appears weak and watery. Yolk Appearance Yolk is firm, round and high. Yolk is firm and stands fairly high. Yolk is somewhat flattened and enlarged. Shell Appearance Approximates usual shape; generally clean,* unbroken; ridges/rough spots that do not affect the shell strength are permitted. Abnormal shape; some slight stained areas permitted; unbroken; pronounced ridges/thin spots permitted. Usage Ideal for any use, but are especially desirable for poaching, frying and cooking in shell. Good for scrambling, baking, and as an ingredient in other foods.

53 Grading GRADE A: sold at retail store yolk is round, well centred
white is thick small air cell (less than 5 mm deep) shell is clean, uncracked and of normal shape GRADE B : only a small percentage sold at retail stores; most go to further processing market yolk is slightly enlarged or flattened white is moderately thin shell uncracked  GRADE C: not sold at retail stores; all go to further processing market yolk is enlarged or flattened white is thin and watery shell may be cracked and stained

54 Video: EXTERIOR EGG QUALITY

55 Grade Grade Grade AA egg covers small area and stands high; white is thick and firm; yolk is high and round. Grade A egg covers moderate area; white is reasonably firm and stands fairly high; yolk is high. There are three consumer grades for eggs: U.S. Grade AA, A, and B. The grade is determined by the interior quality of the egg and the appearance and condition of the egg shell. Eggs of any quality grade may differ in weight (size).

56 Video: BROKEN OUT EGG QUALITY
56

57 Egg White Index Egg white index (EWI) Height of thick albumen EWI =
diameter of thick albumen (longest+shortest)/2 Newlaid Egg has the value: – 0.174 Good quality if the value: 0,090 – 0,120

58 Egg Yellow Index (EYI) height of yolk EYI = diameter of yolk
Good quality if EYI : 0,33 – 0,50 Average value: 0.42.

59 Haugh Unit Haugh unit (HU) HU= 100 log [h-(√G(3w0.37-100)+1,9] 100
HU= Haugh unit h = heigh of thick albumen (mm) G= 32,2 w= whole egg weight (g) Fresh egg: HU=100 Good quality: HU = 75; acceptable until 50 Bad quality (Spoiled egg): HU < 50

60 Changes in quality as the egg ages

61 Egg Handling Egg quality is affected by temperature and relative humidity of storage room. Need to preservation Egg preservation principles: Avoid spoilage microorganisme enter Minimize the loss of water and gas from egg. Aplication: freezing, chilling, dry packaging, coating with essential oil, dipping in various liquid.

62

63

64 Video: Commercial Egg Production

65 Video: Egg Processing

66 Commercial Egg Production and Processing
Courtesy of Ryan A. Meunier & Dr. Mickey A. Latour; Purdue University

67 Courtesy of Ryan A. Meunier & Dr. Mickey A. Latour; Purdue University
Egg Production The objective of this presentation is to provide a general overview of commercial egg production and processing. The slides are ordered in a sequential series as they occur in the production cycle. This particular egg production facility is considered an “in-line” operation. This means the eggs are produced and packaged for shipping to retail markets on the farm. There are also many “off-line” operations that produce eggs in one location and transport them to another location for processing. Courtesy of Ryan A. Meunier & Dr. Mickey A. Latour; Purdue University

68 Courtesy of Ryan A. Meunier & Dr. Mickey A. Latour; Purdue University
On the horizon is an in-line commercial egg production facility. This facility is vertically integrated or self-contained, i.e., the company owns the feed mill, hens, buildings, egg processing facility, and transportation vehicles. Courtesy of Ryan A. Meunier & Dr. Mickey A. Latour; Purdue University

69 Courtesy of Ryan A. Meunier & Dr. Mickey A. Latour; Purdue University
B A A A This facility represents one level of vertical integration, the feed mill. Based on demand, raw grains (from bins “A”) are mixed into designated poultry rations and augured (“B”) to the layer houses. Courtesy of Ryan A. Meunier & Dr. Mickey A. Latour; Purdue University

70 Courtesy of Ryan A. Meunier & Dr. Mickey A. Latour; Purdue University
The auger system delivers grain into high-rise layer houses (“C”). These houses are approximately 500 feet long and may contain as many as 150,000 laying hens. Courtesy of Ryan A. Meunier & Dr. Mickey A. Latour; Purdue University

71 Courtesy of Ryan A. Meunier & Dr. Mickey A. Latour; Purdue University
B B A B B This is a view of the inside of a layer facility. Hens are housed on slanted wire-mesh floors. Nipple waterers (“A”) serve as the hen’s source of water and the feed is transported through the house via an auger system in feeders (“B”). Courtesy of Ryan A. Meunier & Dr. Mickey A. Latour; Purdue University

72 Courtesy of Ryan A. Meunier & Dr. Mickey A. Latour; Purdue University
This is another view of the egg transporting mechanisms within a layer house. The use of advanced mechanical engineering has greatly reduced the occurrence of human egg handling to the point that eggs are rarely touched by human hands. Courtesy of Ryan A. Meunier & Dr. Mickey A. Latour; Purdue University

73 Courtesy of Ryan A. Meunier & Dr. Mickey A. Latour; Purdue University
As the eggs reach the end of each level, automatic collectors place the eggs into plastic egg handlers (“D”). Plastic egg handlers carry the eggs directly to the egg processing facility via a large overhead belt. Courtesy of Ryan A. Meunier & Dr. Mickey A. Latour; Purdue University

74 Courtesy of Ryan A. Meunier & Dr. Mickey A. Latour; Purdue University
These eggs are traveling to the egg processing/breaker facility. Courtesy of Ryan A. Meunier & Dr. Mickey A. Latour; Purdue University

75 Courtesy of Ryan A. Meunier & Dr. Mickey A. Latour; Purdue University
Eggs are mechanically washed with a mild detergent and sanitized (“E”). Eggs are washed in 120oF water. Courtesy of Ryan A. Meunier & Dr. Mickey A. Latour; Purdue University

76 Courtesy of Ryan A. Meunier & Dr. Mickey A. Latour; Purdue University
Here the eggs are entering the first stage in the egg grading process. The eggs are evaluated by an automated computerized detection system. Eggs are graded into categories of AA, A, B, and Loss Quality Standards. Courtesy of Ryan A. Meunier & Dr. Mickey A. Latour; Purdue University

77 Courtesy of Ryan A. Meunier & Dr. Mickey A. Latour; Purdue University
Brushes transport eggs away from the egg graders to the packaging area of the plant. It is at this point that eggs will either be placed into cartons or be sent to the breakers. Courtesy of Ryan A. Meunier & Dr. Mickey A. Latour; Purdue University

78 Courtesy of Ryan A. Meunier & Dr. Mickey A. Latour; Purdue University
This is a view of the entire “carton line.” Each stack of cartons (blue, white, yellow, pink) represents a different egg size. Courtesy of Ryan A. Meunier & Dr. Mickey A. Latour; Purdue University

79 Courtesy of Ryan A. Meunier & Dr. Mickey A. Latour; Purdue University
Eggs are mechanically placed into cartons for shipping to the grocery market. Courtesy of Ryan A. Meunier & Dr. Mickey A. Latour; Purdue University

80 Courtesy of Ryan A. Meunier & Dr. Mickey A. Latour; Purdue University
Eggs awaiting processing within the plant are placed on plastic skids. These skids are washed and sanitized on a daily basis. Courtesy of Ryan A. Meunier & Dr. Mickey A. Latour; Purdue University

81 On the left, eggs are stacked in cardboard flats for shipment to the retail market. Eggs on the right are stacked in plastic flats and are awaiting transfer to the egg further processing (breaker) room. Again, plastic is used inside the plant for sanitation and recycling purposes.

82 Courtesy of Ryan A. Meunier & Dr. Mickey A. Latour; Purdue University

83 Courtesy of Ryan A. Meunier & Dr. Mickey A. Latour; Purdue University
This is an egg breaker machine. This machine cracks the egg shells and separates the yolk (yellow) from the albumen (white). The separation process works exactly like a household egg strainer. This machine will process 18,000 eggs per hour. Courtesy of Ryan A. Meunier & Dr. Mickey A. Latour; Purdue University

84 Courtesy of Ryan A. Meunier & Dr. Mickey A. Latour; Purdue University
This is also egg breaker machine. However, this machine will process 500,000 eggs per hour. Courtesy of Ryan A. Meunier & Dr. Mickey A. Latour; Purdue University

85 Video: Egg Breaker

86 Video: Egg Breaker

87 These are bulk bins full of pasteurized egg yolks awaiting shipment
These are bulk bins full of pasteurized egg yolks awaiting shipment. Egg pasteurization occurs at 145oF for seven minutes for 3,000 pounds of egg.

88 Courtesy of Ryan A. Meunier & Dr. Mickey A. Latour; Purdue University
Processed egg products leave the facility via 1/2 gallon “milk” cartons, bagged product, and bulk semi-trailers. Processed egg products also include hard-boiled eggs. Courtesy of Ryan A. Meunier & Dr. Mickey A. Latour; Purdue University

89 Courtesy of Ryan A. Meunier & Dr. Mickey A. Latour; Purdue University
Eggshells are processed in the plant. The shells have been dried and ground for use in animal feeds and other products. Courtesy of Ryan A. Meunier & Dr. Mickey A. Latour; Purdue University

90 TERIMAKASIH

91 TULISKAN NAMA DAN NRP ANDA ! ******************************
QUIZ TIME.. TULISKAN NAMA DAN NRP ANDA ! ****************************** SUKSES ITU LAHIR DARI KEJUJURAN, KEULETAN DAN KETEKUNAN YANG DIIRINGI DENGAN DOA


Download ppt "EGG CHARACTERISTICS Nugraha E. Suyatma and Joko Hermanianto"

Similar presentations


Ads by Google