Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

EGG CHARACTERISTICS 4th Revision, 12 Nopember 2010 Nugraha E. Suyatma and Joko Hermanianto Department of Food Science and Technology Bogor Agricultural.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "EGG CHARACTERISTICS 4th Revision, 12 Nopember 2010 Nugraha E. Suyatma and Joko Hermanianto Department of Food Science and Technology Bogor Agricultural."— Presentation transcript:

1 EGG CHARACTERISTICS 4th Revision, 12 Nopember 2010 Nugraha E. Suyatma and Joko Hermanianto Department of Food Science and Technology Bogor Agricultural University 1

2 EGG An egg is a round or oval cell laid by the female of any number of different species, consisting of an ovum surrounded by layers of membranes and an outer casing, which acts to nourish and protect a developing embryo. 2 Which came first, the chicken or the egg?

3 Edible egg: Chicken egg Quail egg Duck egg Goose egg Ostrich egg Turtle egg Fish egg: roe and caviar 3

4 Commercial Egg: These are hen eggs in shell, suitable for consumption in the state, or use by food industries, excluding broken eggs and boiled eggs (CEE Regulation No. 1907/90). Most laying hens are White Leghorns. 4

5 Formation of the egg 5 The egg is formed gradually over a period of about 25 hours. The female chick (Hen) has up to 4000 tiny ova (reproductive cells), from some of which full-sized yolks may develop when the hen matures. Each yolk (ovum) is enclosed in a thin- walled sac, or follicle, attached to the ovary The mature yolk is released when the sac ruptures, and is received by the funnel of the left oviduct

6 6 Section of oviductApproximate time egg spends in this section Functions of section of oviduct 1 Funnel (infundibulum) 15 minutesReceives yolk from ovary. If live sperm present, fertilisation occurs here (commercially produced table eggs are not fertilised) 2 Magnum3 hoursInner and outer shell membranes are added, as are some water and mineral salts 3 Isthmus1 hourAlbumen (white) is secreted and layered around the yolk 4 Shell gland (uterus) 21 hoursInitially some water is added, making the outer white thinner. Then the shell material (mainly calcium carbonate) is added. Pigments may also be added to make the shell brown 5 Vagina/cloacaless than 1 minute The egg passes through this section before laying. It has no other known function in the eggs formation

7 7 Video of the Hen and Egg Formation

8 Anatomy of an Egg 1.Eggshell 2.Outer membrane 3.Inner membrane 4.Chalaza 5.Exterior albumen 6.Middle albumen 7.Vitelline membrane 8.Nucleus of pander 9.Germinal disk 10.Yellow yolk 11.White yolk 12.Internal albumen 13.Chalaza 14.Air cell 15.Cuticula 8

9 9

10 10

11 11 Video of the Egg composition

12 SHELL (10 %) calcium carbonate (CaCO3) %, 3-6 % Organic material and Pigment Shell strength is depend on the content of CaCO3, Mg, P, dan vit D Thickness: mm Pores: 700 pores/cm 2 = 17,000 tiny pores Semipermeable membrane: air and moisture can pass through has a thin outermost coating called the bloom or cuticle that helps keep out bacteria and dust. Mucin : covered shell and pores 12

13 INNER AND OUTER MEMBRANES AND AIR CELL INNER AND OUTER MEMBRANES Lye between the eggshell and egg white, these two transparent protein membranes provide efficient defense against bacterial invasion. If you give these layers a tug, youll find theyre surprisingly strong. Theyre made partly of keratin, a protein thats also in human hair. AIR CELL An air space forms when the contents of the egg cool and contract after the egg is laid 13

14 ALBUMEN (60 %) The egg white is known as the albumen, which comes from albus, the Latin word for white. contain approximately 40 different proteins: OVALBUMIN, CANALBUMIN, OVOTRANSFERIN, LYSOZYM, OVOMUCIN, AVIDIN, ETC 14

15 Consist of 4 parts: inner thick, inner thin white, outer thick white dan outer thin white. cloudy appearance due to CO 2 content. ALBUMEN 15

16 Albumen ProteinsLipidsCarbohydratesAshWater %,0.03% % % % Composition of Albumen (Powrie 1973) 16 The egg white is approximately two-thirds of the total egg's weight out of its shell with nearly 90% of that weight coming from water.

17 Ovalbumin54% Conalbumin13% Ovomucoid11% Lysozyme3.5% Globulins (G2, G3)8.0 % Ovomucin1.5% Other protein components include, flavoprotein (0.8%), ovoglycoprotein (0.5%), ovomacroglobulin (0.5%), ovoinhibitor (0.l%) and avidin (0.05%). MAJOR PROTEINS IN ALBUMEN OF TOTAL PROTEINS (Powrie 1973) 17 Egg white contains approximately 40 different proteins:

18 YOLK Less water, more protein and fat than the white egg Contains most of the vitamins and minerals of the egg, including Fe, vitamin A, vitamin D, phosphorus, calcium, thiamine, and riboflavin. Source of lecithin (emulsifier). Yolk color ranges from just a hint of yellow to a magnificent deep orange, according to the feed and breed of the hen. Umur: kuning telur mengabsorbsi air dari albumen: ukuran kuning telur membesar, strukturnya meregang, membran vitelin rusak, bentuk lebih flat. 18

19 CHALAZAE AND VITELIN CHALAZAE Opaque ropes of egg white, the chalazae hold the yolk in the center of the egg. Like little anchors, they attach the yolks casing to the membrane lining the eggshell. The more prominent they are, the fresher the egg. Vitelline Membrane The clear casing that encloses the yolk. 19

20 CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF EGG 20

21 Chemical composition of eggs Animal Water (%) Protein (%) Lipid (%) CHO (%) Ash (%) Chicken73,712,911,50,91 Duck70,413,314,50,71,1 Goose70,413,913,31,5 Pigeon72,813,8120,80,9 Quail73,713,111,111,1 Ostrich72,613,111,81,70,8 Turtle66,716,511,63,31,9 21

22 Composition of egg Component (%) Telur Utuh Putih telur Kuning telur Kulit telur Water3787,651,1- Protein12,910,9164 Lipid11,5-30- Carbohydrate1,1 - Free Carbohydrate0,30,40,2- Ash10,71,7- Mineral11,

23 Vitamin contain most of the recognised vitamins with the exception of vitamin C 23

24 VITAMINS Component Amount per 100 g egg Vitamin A190 µg Vitamin D1,8 µg Vitamin E1,1 mg Vitamin Cnone Thiamin (B1)0,09 mg Riboflavin (B2)0,47 mg Niacin0.1 mg Vitamin B60.12 mg Folate50 µg Vitamin B12 2,5 µg Biotin20 µg Panthotenic acid 1.77 µg 24

25 Minerals Iodine thyroid hormone Phosphorus for bone health. Zinc for wound healing, growth and fighting infection Selenium an important antioxidant Calcium for bone and growth structure and nervous function. also contain significant amounts of iron, the vital ingredient of red blood cells. 25

26 Lipids in Yolk Egg lipids are found mostly in yolk, only 0,05% is contained in albumen. Fatty acid content: monounsaturated (46.5%) > saturated (37.5%) > polyunsaturated (16.5%) Highest fatty acid content: monounsaturated: oleic acid (18:1) approximately 40% from lipid total. 26

27 Fatty acid content in 100 g of fresh yolk Fatty AcidGram Saturated1.59 Miristat (14:0)0.02 Palmitat (16:0)1.14 Stearat (18:0)0.40 Monounsaturated1.95 Palmitoleat (16:1)0.15 Oleat (18:1)1.78 Eicosenoat (20:1)0.01 Polyunsaturated0.70 Linoleat (18:2)0.59 Linolenat (18:3)0.02 Arakidonat (20:4)0.07 Dokosaheksanoat (22:6)0.02 Cholesterol0.21 TOTAL

28 Chemical composition change: Liquid /Dry Egg (per100g) Liquid*/FrozenDried Whole EggsYolkWhiteWhole EggsYolk Stabilized White SOLIDS-g pH-g PROTEIN-g LIPIDS-g FREE GLUCOSE-g < <0.10 ASH-g MOISTURE-g

29 29 1.One medium egg contains between 4-5 grams of fat 2.High cholesterol ~200 mg/egg 3.High in Complete Protein (EPR=93.7%); > milk (84.5%), fish (76%), beef meat (74.3%), soy bean (72.8%), corn (60%) 4.Little to no CHO 5.High in vitamins & minerals Vitamins ADEK, some B vitamins, selenium, iodine, zinc, iron, copper

30 Energy value of eggs Protein 78 kilocalories (324 kilojoules) only around 3% of the average energy requirement of an adult man and 4% for an adult woman. Protein 12.5% of the weight of the egg in both the yolk and the albumen. Egg protein is of high biological value as it contains all the essential amino acids needed by the human body. 30

31 Functional Properties of Egg 31 1.Flavor, color, nutrition 2.Foaming agent 3.Emulsifying agent 4.Aids in thickening/structure 5.Binding/coating agent 6.Leavening agent

32 FOAMING PROPERTIES 32 1.Air trapped in a liquid 2.In egg foam, air trapped by protein. 3.Denatured and then coagulates 4.Heat expands protein/air Important to souffles, meringues, omelet, and sponge cake.

33 EMULSIFIER CAPACITY Egg yolk is a source of lecithin, an emulsifier and surfactant. Lechitin is a substance that helps an emulsion form, or helps keep an emulsion from separating Aplication : Mayonnaise butter sauces salad dressing Stabilizer of bakery products Whipped egg 33

34 PropertiesApplication ThickeningEggs thicken foods like custards puddings, sauces, and creamy fillings LeaveningSouffles, sponge & butter cakes, quick breads, and puffy omelets are leavened by eggs CoatingMeat dishes, breads, and cookies are some foods with egg components as the base ingredients for coatings BindingEggs bind other ingredients for making meat loaves, casseroles, and croquettes EmulsifyingEggs prevent mixture separation in mayonnaise, salad dressing, and cream puff filling ClarifyingTiny particles are coagulated in soups and coffee to create a clear solution Retarding Crystallization Crystallization of sugar is slowed in cake icings and candies 34

35 ANTIMICROBIAL AND ALERGEN ON ALBUMIN LYSOZYME Immunoglobulin E (IgE) memicu histamin OVOMUCIN (hambat enzim tripsin) AVIDIN: mengkompleks biotin (Avidin+Biotin komplek): Biotin tak dpt dicerna 35

36 Daily Needed Nutritional analysis of egg without its shell For a medium egg (Av 58g) Constituent of EggAmount per egg % of Reference Nutrient Intake (RNI) Amount per 100g egg For adult female years For adult male19-50 years Weight Waterg Energykjoules/ kcalories 324/ /151 Proteing Carbohydrategtrace-- Fatg5.8** 11.2 Inc saturated f.a.g1.7** 3.2 Monounsaturated f.a g2.3** 4.4 Polyunsaturated fa.t g0.9**

37 Benefit of Egg Components Sialic acid could prevent infection Immunoglobulin in yolk can play a role as antibody. PHOSVITIN has a function as food antioxidant. Choline: aids brain function and enhances thinking capacity and memory. It is an important part of a neurotransmitter that helps preserve the integrity of the electrical transmission across the gaps between nerves. Lutein and zeaxanthin: contribute to improving eye health and protecting eyes from ultraviolet rays 37

38 Allergen in Egg There are 4 proteins in egg white may provoque an allergy: - ovomucoid (11%) - ovalbumin (54%) - ovotransferrin (12%) - lysozyme (3.5%) 38

39 Egg Allergy Symptoms Egg allergy is like most food allergy reactions: It usually happens within minutes to hours after eating eggs. the skin - in the form of red, bumpy rashes (hives), eczema, or redness and swelling around the mouth the gastrointestinal tract - in the form of belly cramps, diarrhea, nausea, or vomiting the respiratory tract - symptoms can range from a runny nose, itchy, watery eyes, and sneezing to the triggering of asthma with coughing and wheezing 39

40 EGG QUALITY 40

41 Egg Quality 41 Exterior egg quality – shell quality based on shell cleanliness, shell soundness, shell texture, shell shape. Interior egg quality – based on relative viscosity of the albumen, freedom from foreign matter in the albumen, shape and firmness of the yolk, and freedom from yolk defects.

42 Shape Index of Egg Ideal shape (USDA) 42 Shape index of egg = A/B x 100 A = the biggest diameter (cm) B = The longest of length (cm)

43 Candling 43 Candling is the process of holding a strong light above or below the egg to observe: cracks, checks and weak shells blood or meat spots. Egg air cell size of yolk and its movement double yolk, yolkless, etc. Become familiar with interior quality.

44 44

45 45

46 46

47 47

48 Video: Candling an egg 48

49 Egg Grading Grade size 49

50 Sizing 50 Peewee:less than 42 g Small:at least 42 g Medium:at least 49 g Large:at least 56 g Extra Large:at least 64 g Jumbo:at least 70 g

51 51 Sizing is not related to grading in any way. Eggs are sold in cartons by various sizes determined by a minimum weight for a dozen eggs in their shell.

52 Grading 52 Grade AAGrade AGrade B Break Out Appearance Covers a small area.Covers a moderate area. Covers a wide area. Albumen Appearance White is thick and stands high; chalaza prominent. White is reasonably thick, stands fairly high; chalaza prominent. Small amount of thick white; chalaza small or absent. Appears weak and watery. Yolk Appearance Yolk is firm, round and high. Yolk is firm and stands fairly high. Yolk is somewhat flattened and enlarged. Shell Appearance Approximates usual shape; generally clean,* unbroken; ridges/rough spots that do not affect the shell strength are permitted. Abnormal shape; some slight stained areas permitted; unbroken; pronounced ridges/thin spots permitted. UsageIdeal for any use, but are especially desirable for poaching, frying and cooking in shell. Good for scrambling, baking, and as an ingredient in other foods.

53 Grading 53 GRADE A: sold at retail store yolk is round, well centred white is thick small air cell (less than 5 mm deep) shell is clean, uncracked and of normal shape GRADE B : only a small percentage sold at retail stores; most go to further processing market yolk is slightly enlarged or flattened white is moderately thin shell uncracked GRADE C: not sold at retail stores; all go to further processing market yolk is enlarged or flattened white is thin and watery shell may be cracked and stained

54 Video: EXTERIOR EGG QUALITY 54

55 Grade Grade Grade AA egg covers small area and stands high; white is thick and firm; yolk is high and round. Grade A egg covers moderate area; white is reasonably firm and stands fairly high; yolk is high. There are three consumer grades for eggs: U.S. Grade AA, A, and B. The grade is determined by the interior quality of the egg and the appearance and condition of the egg shell. Eggs of any quality grade may differ in weight (size). 55

56 Video: BROKEN OUT EGG QUALITY 56

57 Egg White Index Egg white index (EWI) Height of thick albumen EWI = diameter of thick albumen (longest+shortest)/2 Newlaid Egg has the value: – Good quality if the value: 0,090 – 0,120 57

58 Egg Yellow Index (EYI) height of yolk EYI = diameter of yolk Good quality if EYI : 0,33 – 0,50 Average value:

59 Haugh Unit Haugh unit (HU) HU= 100 log [h-(G(3w )+1,9] 100 HU= Haugh unit h = heigh of thick albumen (mm) G= 32,2 w= whole egg weight (g) 59 Fresh egg: HU=100 Good quality: HU = 75; acceptable until 50 Bad quality (Spoiled egg): HU < 50

60 Changes in quality as the egg ages 60

61 Egg Handling Egg quality is affected by temperature and relative humidity of storage room. Need to preservation Egg preservation principles: Avoid spoilage microorganisme enter Minimize the loss of water and gas from egg. Aplication: freezing, chilling, dry packaging, coating with essential oil, dipping in various liquid. 61

62 62

63 63

64 Video: Commercial Egg Production 64

65 Video: Egg Processing 65

66 Commercial Egg Production and Processing Courtesy of Ryan A. Meunier & Dr. Mickey A. Latour; Purdue University 66

67 Egg Production The objective of this presentation is to provide a general overview of commercial egg production and processing. The objective of this presentation is to provide a general overview of commercial egg production and processing. The slides are ordered in a sequential series as they occur in the production cycle. The slides are ordered in a sequential series as they occur in the production cycle. This particular egg production facility is considered an in- line operation. This means the eggs are produced and packaged for shipping to retail markets on the farm. There are also many off-line operations that produce eggs in one location and transport them to another location for processing. This particular egg production facility is considered an in- line operation. This means the eggs are produced and packaged for shipping to retail markets on the farm. There are also many off-line operations that produce eggs in one location and transport them to another location for processing. 67 Courtesy of Ryan A. Meunier & Dr. Mickey A. Latour; Purdue University

68 On the horizon is an in-line commercial egg production facility. This facility is vertically integrated or self-contained, i.e., the company owns the feed mill, hens, buildings, egg processing facility, and transportation vehicles. 68 Courtesy of Ryan A. Meunier & Dr. Mickey A. Latour; Purdue University

69 A A A This facility represents one level of vertical integration, the feed mill. Based on demand, raw grains (from bins A) are mixed into designated poultry rations and augured (B) to the layer houses. B 69 Courtesy of Ryan A. Meunier & Dr. Mickey A. Latour; Purdue University

70 The auger system delivers grain into high-rise layer houses (C). These houses are approximately 500 feet long and may contain as many as 150,000 laying hens. C C 70 Courtesy of Ryan A. Meunier & Dr. Mickey A. Latour; Purdue University

71 This is a view of the inside of a layer facility. Hens are housed on slanted wire-mesh floors. Nipple waterers (A) serve as the hens source of water and the feed is transported through the house via an auger system in feeders (B). B B B A B 71 Courtesy of Ryan A. Meunier & Dr. Mickey A. Latour; Purdue University

72 This is another view of the egg transporting mechanisms within a layer house. The use of advanced mechanical engineering has greatly reduced the occurrence of human egg handling to the point that eggs are rarely touched by human hands. 72 Courtesy of Ryan A. Meunier & Dr. Mickey A. Latour; Purdue University

73 As the eggs reach the end of each level, automatic collectors place the eggs into plastic egg handlers (D). Plastic egg handlers carry the eggs directly to the egg processing facility via a large overhead belt. D D D 73 Courtesy of Ryan A. Meunier & Dr. Mickey A. Latour; Purdue University

74 These eggs are traveling to the egg processing/breaker facility. 74 Courtesy of Ryan A. Meunier & Dr. Mickey A. Latour; Purdue University

75 Eggs are mechanically washed with a mild detergent and sanitized (E). Eggs are washed in 120 o F water. E E 75 Courtesy of Ryan A. Meunier & Dr. Mickey A. Latour; Purdue University

76 Here the eggs are entering the first stage in the egg grading process. The eggs are evaluated by an automated computerized detection system. Eggs are graded into categories of AA, A, B, and Loss Quality Standards. 76 Courtesy of Ryan A. Meunier & Dr. Mickey A. Latour; Purdue University

77 Brushes transport eggs away from the egg graders to the packaging area of the plant. It is at this point that eggs will either be placed into cartons or be sent to the breakers. 77 Courtesy of Ryan A. Meunier & Dr. Mickey A. Latour; Purdue University

78 This is a view of the entire carton line. Each stack of cartons (blue, white, yellow, pink) represents a different egg size. 78 Courtesy of Ryan A. Meunier & Dr. Mickey A. Latour; Purdue University

79 Eggs are mechanically placed into cartons for shipping to the grocery market. 79 Courtesy of Ryan A. Meunier & Dr. Mickey A. Latour; Purdue University

80 Eggs awaiting processing within the plant are placed on plastic skids. These skids are washed and sanitized on a daily basis. 80 Courtesy of Ryan A. Meunier & Dr. Mickey A. Latour; Purdue University

81 On the left, eggs are stacked in cardboard flats for shipment to the retail market. Eggs on the right are stacked in plastic flats and are awaiting transfer to the egg further processing (breaker) room. Again, plastic is used inside the plant for sanitation and recycling purposes. 81

82 82 Courtesy of Ryan A. Meunier & Dr. Mickey A. Latour; Purdue University

83 This is an egg breaker machine. This machine cracks the egg shells and separates the yolk (yellow) from the albumen (white). The separation process works exactly like a household egg strainer. This machine will process 18,000 eggs per hour. 83 Courtesy of Ryan A. Meunier & Dr. Mickey A. Latour; Purdue University

84 This is also egg breaker machine. However, this machine will process 500,000 eggs per hour. 84 Courtesy of Ryan A. Meunier & Dr. Mickey A. Latour; Purdue University

85 85 Video: Egg Breaker

86 86 Video: Egg Breaker

87 These are bulk bins full of pasteurized egg yolks awaiting shipment. Egg pasteurization occurs at 145 o F for seven minutes for 3,000 pounds of egg. 87

88 Processed egg products leave the facility via 1/2 gallon milk cartons, bagged product, and bulk semi-trailers. Processed egg products also include hard-boiled eggs. 88 Courtesy of Ryan A. Meunier & Dr. Mickey A. Latour; Purdue University

89 Eggshells are processed in the plant. The shells have been dried and ground for use in animal feeds and other products. 89 Courtesy of Ryan A. Meunier & Dr. Mickey A. Latour; Purdue University

90 TERIMAKASIH 90

91 QUIZ TIME.. TULISKAN NAMA DAN NRP ANDA ! ****************************** SUKSES ITU LAHIR DARI KEJUJURAN, KEULETAN DAN KETEKUNAN YANG DIIRINGI DENGAN DOA ******************************


Download ppt "EGG CHARACTERISTICS 4th Revision, 12 Nopember 2010 Nugraha E. Suyatma and Joko Hermanianto Department of Food Science and Technology Bogor Agricultural."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google