Presentation on theme: "EGG CHARACTERISTICS Nugraha E. Suyatma and Joko Hermanianto"— Presentation transcript:
1EGG CHARACTERISTICS Nugraha E. Suyatma and Joko Hermanianto 4th Revision, 12 Nopember 2010Nugraha E. Suyatma and Joko HermaniantoDepartment of Food Science and TechnologyBogor Agricultural University
2EGGAn egg is a round or oval cell laid by the female of any number of different species, consisting of an ovum surrounded by layers of membranes and an outer casing, which acts to nourish and protect a developing embryo.Which came first,the chicken or the egg?
4Commercial Egg:These are hen eggs in shell, suitable for consumption in the state, or use by food industries, excluding broken eggs and boiled eggs (CEE Regulation No. 1907/90).Most laying hens are White Leghorns .
5Formation of the eggThe egg is formed gradually over a period of about 25 hours.The female chick (Hen) has up to 4000 tiny ova (reproductive cells), from some of which full-sized yolks may develop when the hen matures.Each yolk (ovum) is enclosed in a thin-walled sac, or follicle, attached to the ovaryThe mature yolk is released when the sac ruptures, and is received by the funnel of the left oviduct
6Approximate time egg spends in this section Section of oviductApproximate time egg spends in this sectionFunctions of section of oviduct1 Funnel (infundibulum)15 minutesReceives yolk from ovary. If live sperm present, fertilisation occurs here (commercially produced table eggs are not fertilised)2 Magnum3 hoursInner and outer shell membranes are added, as are some water and mineral salts3 Isthmus1 hourAlbumen (white) is secreted and layered around the yolk4 Shell gland (uterus)21 hoursInitially some water is added, making the outer white thinner. Then the shell material (mainly calcium carbonate) is added. Pigments may also be added to make the shell brown5 Vagina/cloacaless than 1 minuteThe egg passes through this section before laying. It has no other known function in the egg’s formation
12SHELL (10 %)calcium carbonate (CaCO3) %, 3-6 % Organic material and PigmentShell strength is depend on the content of CaCO3, Mg, P, dan vit DThickness: mmPores: 700 pores/cm2 = 17,000 tiny poresSemipermeable membrane: air and moisture can pass through has a thin outermost coating called the bloom or cuticle that helps keep out bacteria and dust.Mucin : covered shell and pores
13INNER AND OUTER MEMBRANES AND AIR CELL INNER AND OUTER MEMBRANES Lye between the eggshell and egg white, these two transparent protein membranes provide efficient defense against bacterial invasion. If you give these layers a tug, you’ll find they’re surprisingly strong. They’re made partly of keratin, a protein that’s also in human hair.AIR CELLAn air space forms when the contents of the egg cool and contract after the egg is laid
14ALBUMEN (60 %)The egg white is known as the albumen, which comes from albus, the Latin word for “white.”contain approximately 40 different proteins:OVALBUMIN, CANALBUMIN, OVOTRANSFERIN, LYSOZYM, OVOMUCIN, AVIDIN, ETC
15ALBUMENConsist of 4 parts: inner thick, inner thin white, outer thick white dan outer thin white.cloudy appearance due to CO2 content.
16AlbumenThe egg white is approximately two-thirds of the total egg's weight out of its shell with nearly 90% of that weight coming from water.ProteinsLipidsCarbohydratesAshWater%,0.03%%%%Composition of Albumen (Powrie 1973)
17MAJOR PROTEINS IN ALBUMEN OF TOTAL PROTEINS (Powrie 1973) Egg white contains approximately 40 different proteins:Ovalbumin54%Conalbumin13%Ovomucoid11%Lysozyme3.5%Globulins (G2, G3)8.0 %Ovomucin1.5%Other protein components include, flavoprotein (0.8%), ovoglycoprotein (0.5%), ovomacroglobulin (0.5%), ovoinhibitor (0.l%) and avidin (0.05%).
18YOLK Less water, more protein and fat than the white egg Contains most of the vitamins and minerals of the egg, including Fe, vitamin A, vitamin D, phosphorus, calcium, thiamine, and riboflavin.Source of lecithin (emulsifier).Yolk color ranges from just a hint of yellow to a magnificent deep orange, according to the feed and breed of the hen.Umur: kuning telur mengabsorbsi air dari albumen: ukuran kuning telur membesar , strukturnya meregang, membran vitelin rusak, bentuk lebih flat.
19CHALAZAE AND VITELIN CHALAZAE Opaque ropes of egg white, the chalazae hold the yolk in the center of the egg. Like little anchors, they attach the yolk’s casing to the membrane lining the eggshell. The more prominent they are, the fresher the egg.Vitelline MembraneThe clear casing that encloses the yolk.
25Phosphorus for bone health. MineralsIodine thyroid hormonePhosphorus for bone health.Zinc for wound healing, growth and fighting infectionSelenium an important antioxidantCalcium for bone and growth structure and nervous function.also contain significant amounts of iron, the vital ingredient of red blood cells.
26Lipids in YolkEgg lipids are found mostly in yolk, only 0,05% is contained in albumen.Fatty acid content:monounsaturated (46.5%) > saturated (37.5%) > polyunsaturated (16.5%)Highest fatty acid content:monounsaturated: oleic acid (18:1) approximately 40% from lipid total.
27Fatty acid content in 100 g of fresh yolk GramSaturated1.59Miristat (14:0)0.02Palmitat (16:0)1.14Stearat (18:0)0.40Monounsaturated1.95Palmitoleat (16:1)0.15Oleat (18:1)1.78Eicosenoat (20:1)0.01Polyunsaturated0.70Linoleat (18:2)0.59Linolenat (18:3)Arakidonat (20:4)0.07Dokosaheksanoat (22:6)Cholesterol0.21TOTAL4.43
29Important Nutritional Value of Egg One medium egg contains between 4-5 grams of fatHigh cholesterol~200 mg/eggHigh in Complete Protein (EPR=93.7%); > milk (84.5%), fish (76%), beef meat (74.3%), soy bean (72.8%), corn (60%)Little to no CHOHigh in vitamins & mineralsVitamins ADEK, some B vitamins, selenium, iodine, zinc, iron, copper
30Energy value of eggs Protein 78 kilocalories (324 kilojoules) only around 3% of the average energy requirement of an adult man and 4% for an adult woman.ProteinProtein12.5% of the weight of the egg in both the yolk and the albumen.Egg protein is of high biological value as it contains all the essential amino acids needed by the human body.
31Functional Properties of Egg Flavor, color, nutritionFoaming agentEmulsifying agentAids in thickening/structureBinding/coating agentLeavening agent
32FOAMING PROPERTIES Air trapped in a liquid In egg foam, air trapped by protein.Denatured and then coagulatesHeat expands protein/airImportant to souffles, meringues, omelet, and sponge cake.
33EMULSIFIER CAPACITYEgg yolk is a source of lecithin, an emulsifier and surfactant.Lechitin is a substance that helps an emulsion form, or helps keep an emulsion from separatingAplication :Mayonnaisebutter saucessalad dressingStabilizer of bakery productsWhipped egg
34Properties Application Thickening Eggs thicken foods like custards puddings, sauces,and creamy fillingsLeaveningSouffles, sponge & butter cakes, quick breads, andpuffy omelets are leavened by eggsCoatingMeat dishes, breads, and cookies are some foodswith egg components as the base ingredients forcoatingsBindingEggs bind other ingredients for making meat loaves,casseroles, and croquettesEmulsifyingEggs prevent mixture separation in mayonnaise,salad dressing, and cream puff fillingClarifyingTiny particles are coagulated in soups and coffee tocreate a clear solutionRetardingCrystallizationCrystallization of sugar is slowed in cake icings andcandies
35ANTIMICROBIAL AND ALERGEN ON ALBUMIN LYSOZYMEImmunoglobulin E (IgE) memicu histaminOVOMUCIN (hambat enzim tripsin)AVIDIN: mengkompleks biotin (Avidin+Biotin komplek): Biotin tak dpt dicerna
36Daily Needed Nutritional analysis of egg without its shell For a medium egg (Av 58g)Constituent of EggAmount per egg% of Reference Nutrient Intake (RNI)Amount per 100g eggFor adult female yearsFor adult male19-50 yearsWeight151.6-100.0Waterg38.875.1Energykjoules/ kcalories324/7843627/151Protein6.5141212.5CarbohydratetraceFat5.8**11.2Inc saturated f.a.1.73.2Monounsaturated f.a2.34.4Polyunsaturated fa.t0.9
37Benefit of Egg Components Sialic acid could prevent infectionImmunoglobulin in yolk can play a role as antibody.PHOSVITIN has a function as food antioxidant.Choline: aids brain function and enhances thinking capacity and memory. It is an important part of a neurotransmitter that helps preserve the integrity of the electrical transmission across the gaps between nerves.Lutein and zeaxanthin: contribute to improving eye health and protecting eyes from ultraviolet rays
38Allergen in EggThere are 4 proteins in egg white may provoque an allergy:- ovomucoid (11%)- ovalbumin (54%)- ovotransferrin (12%)- lysozyme (3.5%)
39Egg Allergy SymptomsEgg allergy is like most food allergy reactions: It usually happens within minutes to hours after eating eggs.the skin - in the form of red, bumpy rashes (hives), eczema, or redness and swelling around the mouththe gastrointestinal tract - in the form of belly cramps, diarrhea, nausea, or vomitingthe respiratory tract - symptoms can range from a runny nose, itchy, watery eyes, and sneezing to the triggering of asthma with coughing and wheezing
41Egg QualityExterior egg quality – shell quality based on shell cleanliness, shell soundness, shell texture, shell shape.Interior egg quality – based on relative viscosity of the albumen, freedom from foreign matter in the albumen, shape and firmness of the yolk, and freedom from yolk defects.
42Shape Index of Egg Ideal shape (USDA) Shape index of egg = A/B x 100 A = the biggest diameter (cm)B = The longest of length (cm)
43CandlingCandling is the process of holding a strong light above or below the egg to observe:cracks, checks and weak shellsblood or meat spots.Egg air cellsize of yolk and its movementdouble yolk, yolkless, etc.Become familiar with interior quality.
50Sizing Peewee: less than 42 g Small: at least 42 g Medium: Large:at least 56 gExtra Large:at least 64 gJumbo:at least 70 g
51Sizing is not related to grading in any way. Eggs are sold in cartons by various sizes determined by a minimum weight for a dozen eggs in their shell.
52Grading Grade AA Grade A Grade B Break Out Appearance Covers a small area.Covers a moderate area.Covers a wide area.Albumen AppearanceWhite is thick and stands high; chalaza prominent.White is reasonably thick, stands fairly high; chalaza prominent.Small amount of thick white; chalaza small or absent. Appears weak and watery.Yolk AppearanceYolk is firm, round and high.Yolk is firm and stands fairly high.Yolk is somewhat flattened and enlarged.Shell AppearanceApproximates usual shape; generally clean,* unbroken; ridges/rough spots that do not affect the shell strength are permitted.Abnormal shape; some slight stained areas permitted; unbroken; pronounced ridges/thin spots permitted.UsageIdeal for any use, but are especially desirable for poaching, frying and cooking in shell.Good for scrambling, baking, and as an ingredient in other foods.
53Grading GRADE A: sold at retail store yolk is round, well centred white is thicksmall air cell (less than 5 mm deep)shell is clean, uncracked and of normal shapeGRADE B : only a small percentage sold at retail stores; most go to further processing marketyolk is slightly enlarged or flattenedwhite is moderately thinshell uncracked GRADE C: not sold at retail stores; all go to further processing marketyolk is enlarged or flattenedwhite is thin and wateryshell may be cracked and stained
55GradeGrade Grade AA egg covers small area and stands high; white is thick and firm; yolk is high and round.Grade A egg covers moderate area; white is reasonably firm and stands fairly high; yolk is high.There are three consumer grades for eggs: U.S. Grade AA, A, and B. The grade is determined by the interior quality of the egg and the appearance and condition of the egg shell. Eggs of any quality grade may differ in weight (size).
61Egg HandlingEgg quality is affected by temperature and relative humidity of storage room.Need to preservationEgg preservation principles:Avoid spoilage microorganisme enterMinimize the loss of water and gas from egg.Aplication:freezing, chilling, dry packaging, coating with essential oil, dipping in various liquid.
66Commercial Egg Production and Processing Courtesy of Ryan A. Meunier & Dr. Mickey A. Latour; Purdue University
67Courtesy of Ryan A. Meunier & Dr. Mickey A. Latour; Purdue University Egg ProductionThe objective of this presentation is to provide a general overview of commercial egg production and processing.The slides are ordered in a sequential series as they occur in the production cycle.This particular egg production facility is considered an “in-line” operation. This means the eggs are produced and packaged for shipping to retail markets on the farm. There are also many “off-line” operations that produce eggs in one location and transport them to another location for processing.Courtesy of Ryan A. Meunier & Dr. Mickey A. Latour; Purdue University
68Courtesy of Ryan A. Meunier & Dr. Mickey A. Latour; Purdue University On the horizon is an in-line commercial egg production facility. This facility is vertically integrated or self-contained, i.e., the company owns the feed mill, hens, buildings, egg processing facility, and transportation vehicles.Courtesy of Ryan A. Meunier & Dr. Mickey A. Latour; Purdue University
69Courtesy of Ryan A. Meunier & Dr. Mickey A. Latour; Purdue University BAAAThis facility represents one level of vertical integration, the feed mill. Based on demand, raw grains (from bins “A”) are mixed into designated poultry rations and augured (“B”) to the layer houses.Courtesy of Ryan A. Meunier & Dr. Mickey A. Latour; Purdue University
70Courtesy of Ryan A. Meunier & Dr. Mickey A. Latour; Purdue University The auger system delivers grain into high-rise layer houses (“C”). These houses are approximately 500 feet long and may contain as many as 150,000 laying hens.Courtesy of Ryan A. Meunier & Dr. Mickey A. Latour; Purdue University
71Courtesy of Ryan A. Meunier & Dr. Mickey A. Latour; Purdue University BBABBThis is a view of the inside of a layer facility. Hens are housed on slanted wire-mesh floors. Nipple waterers (“A”) serve as the hen’s source of water and the feed is transported through the house via an auger system in feeders (“B”).Courtesy of Ryan A. Meunier & Dr. Mickey A. Latour; Purdue University
72Courtesy of Ryan A. Meunier & Dr. Mickey A. Latour; Purdue University This is another view of the egg transporting mechanisms within a layer house. The use of advanced mechanical engineering has greatly reduced the occurrence of human egg handling to the point that eggs are rarely touched by human hands.Courtesy of Ryan A. Meunier & Dr. Mickey A. Latour; Purdue University
73Courtesy of Ryan A. Meunier & Dr. Mickey A. Latour; Purdue University As the eggs reach the end of each level, automatic collectors place the eggs into plastic egg handlers (“D”). Plastic egg handlers carry the eggs directly to the egg processing facility via a large overhead belt.Courtesy of Ryan A. Meunier & Dr. Mickey A. Latour; Purdue University
74Courtesy of Ryan A. Meunier & Dr. Mickey A. Latour; Purdue University These eggs are traveling to the egg processing/breaker facility.Courtesy of Ryan A. Meunier & Dr. Mickey A. Latour; Purdue University
75Courtesy of Ryan A. Meunier & Dr. Mickey A. Latour; Purdue University Eggs are mechanically washed with a mild detergent and sanitized (“E”). Eggs are washed in 120oF water.Courtesy of Ryan A. Meunier & Dr. Mickey A. Latour; Purdue University
76Courtesy of Ryan A. Meunier & Dr. Mickey A. Latour; Purdue University Here the eggs are entering the first stage in the egg grading process. The eggs are evaluated by an automated computerized detection system. Eggs are graded into categories of AA, A, B, and Loss Quality Standards.Courtesy of Ryan A. Meunier & Dr. Mickey A. Latour; Purdue University
77Courtesy of Ryan A. Meunier & Dr. Mickey A. Latour; Purdue University Brushes transport eggs away from the egg graders to the packaging area of the plant. It is at this point that eggs will either be placed into cartons or be sent to the breakers.Courtesy of Ryan A. Meunier & Dr. Mickey A. Latour; Purdue University
78Courtesy of Ryan A. Meunier & Dr. Mickey A. Latour; Purdue University This is a view of the entire “carton line.” Each stack of cartons (blue, white, yellow, pink) represents a different egg size.Courtesy of Ryan A. Meunier & Dr. Mickey A. Latour; Purdue University
79Courtesy of Ryan A. Meunier & Dr. Mickey A. Latour; Purdue University Eggs are mechanically placed into cartons for shipping to the grocery market.Courtesy of Ryan A. Meunier & Dr. Mickey A. Latour; Purdue University
80Courtesy of Ryan A. Meunier & Dr. Mickey A. Latour; Purdue University Eggs awaiting processing within the plant are placed on plastic skids. These skids are washed and sanitized on a daily basis.Courtesy of Ryan A. Meunier & Dr. Mickey A. Latour; Purdue University
81On the left, eggs are stacked in cardboard flats for shipment to the retail market. Eggs on the right are stacked in plastic flats and are awaiting transfer to the egg further processing (breaker) room. Again, plastic is used inside the plant for sanitation and recycling purposes.
82Courtesy of Ryan A. Meunier & Dr. Mickey A. Latour; Purdue University
83Courtesy of Ryan A. Meunier & Dr. Mickey A. Latour; Purdue University This is an egg breaker machine. This machine cracks the egg shells and separates the yolk (yellow) from the albumen (white). The separation process works exactly like a household egg strainer. This machine will process 18,000 eggs per hour.Courtesy of Ryan A. Meunier & Dr. Mickey A. Latour; Purdue University
84Courtesy of Ryan A. Meunier & Dr. Mickey A. Latour; Purdue University This is also egg breaker machine. However, this machine will process 500,000 eggs per hour.Courtesy of Ryan A. Meunier & Dr. Mickey A. Latour; Purdue University
87These are bulk bins full of pasteurized egg yolks awaiting shipment These are bulk bins full of pasteurized egg yolks awaiting shipment. Egg pasteurization occurs at 145oF for seven minutes for 3,000 pounds of egg.
88Courtesy of Ryan A. Meunier & Dr. Mickey A. Latour; Purdue University Processed egg products leave the facility via 1/2 gallon “milk” cartons, bagged product, and bulk semi-trailers. Processed egg products also include hard-boiled eggs.Courtesy of Ryan A. Meunier & Dr. Mickey A. Latour; Purdue University
89Courtesy of Ryan A. Meunier & Dr. Mickey A. Latour; Purdue University Eggshells are processed in the plant. The shells have been dried and ground for use in animal feeds and other products.Courtesy of Ryan A. Meunier & Dr. Mickey A. Latour; Purdue University
91TULISKAN NAMA DAN NRP ANDA ! ****************************** QUIZ TIME..TULISKAN NAMA DAN NRP ANDA !******************************SUKSES ITU LAHIR DARI KEJUJURAN, KEULETAN DAN KETEKUNAN YANG DIIRINGI DENGAN DOA