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David G. Roseneau, Paul R. Becker, Steven J. Christopher, Glenn K. Chen, W. Clay Davis, Rusty D. Day, Michael B. Ellisor, David Point, Rebecca S. Pugh,

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Presentation on theme: "David G. Roseneau, Paul R. Becker, Steven J. Christopher, Glenn K. Chen, W. Clay Davis, Rusty D. Day, Michael B. Ellisor, David Point, Rebecca S. Pugh,"— Presentation transcript:

1 David G. Roseneau, Paul R. Becker, Steven J. Christopher, Glenn K. Chen, W. Clay Davis, Rusty D. Day, Michael B. Ellisor, David Point, Rebecca S. Pugh, Kristin Simac, Stacy S. Vander Pol, and Geoffrey S. York

2 Long History of Using Seabird Eggs for Environmental Monitoring and Research Canadian Wildlife Service has used seabird eggs for monitoring chemicals in the environment since 1968 Canadian Wildlife Service has used seabird eggs for monitoring chemicals in the environment since 1968

3 Advantages of using seabird eggs for monitoring Contain bioaccumulative contaminants Contain bioaccumulative contaminants Representative of female exposure Representative of female exposure Indicative of the contaminant burden of the next generation Indicative of the contaminant burden of the next generation Relatively easily collected Relatively easily collected Relatively low inter-colony variability (enhanced statistical power) Relatively low inter-colony variability (enhanced statistical power)

4 Factors to consider when using seabird eggs Effect of egg laying sequence Effect of egg laying sequence Representation of area (where bird is exposed) Representation of area (where bird is exposed) Position of species in food web Position of species in food web Shifts in food source Shifts in food source ­ Effect on contaminant concentration in the food ­ Effect on energy content of the food Egg collection logistics Egg collection logistics

5 POPs - common murre (Marth et al. 2000) 2.POPs & PBDEs – common murre (Bignert et al. 1995) PBDEs – common murre (Kierkegaard et al. 1999) 3.POPs & Hg - herring gull, common & thick-billed murre, black-legged kittiwake, razorbill, puffin (Barrett et al. 1985; 1996) 4.POPs & Hg - thick-billed murre, black-legged kittiwake, northern fulmar (Braune et al. 2001; 2002) 5.POPs – herring gull (Elliott 1985; Wakeford & Kasserra 1997; Hebert 1999) PBDEs – herring gull (Norstrom et al. 2002) 6.First biomagnifying natural POPs reported - Leachs storm petrel (Tittlemier et al. 1999; 2002)* 7.Dioxin, PCBs, & PBDEs - Caspian, Forsters, least tern(She et al. 2004) Forsters, least tern (She et al. 2004) *(halogenated dimethyl bypyrroles)

6 Use of Seabird Eggs for Environmental Monitoring in Alaska Bering Sea & Gulf of Alaska - 15 species: geographic comparison of POPs in 18 colonies from collections during 1970s (Ohlendorf et al. 1982) Bering Sea & Gulf of Alaska - 15 species: geographic comparison of POPs in 18 colonies from collections during 1970s (Ohlendorf et al. 1982) Chukchi Sea, Bering Sea, & Gulf of Alaska – herring, glaucous, glaucous-winged gull: geographic comparisons of POPs and heavy metals in 5 colonies (Jack and Martinez 2003) Chukchi Sea, Bering Sea, & Gulf of Alaska – herring, glaucous, glaucous-winged gull: geographic comparisons of POPs and heavy metals in 5 colonies (Jack and Martinez 2003)

7 Organohalogen Compounds (OCs): ­ Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) – 50 congeners ­ DDT compounds - 6 dominated by 4,4-DDE ­ Chlordane compounds - 5 dominated by trans-nonachlor and oxychlordane ­ Heptachlor epoxide ­ Dieldrin ­ Hexachlorobenezene (HCB) ­ Hexachlorocyclohexane ( -, -, -) ­ Mirex ­ Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) – 11 congeners Metals and Organometallic Compounds: ­ Mercury, methylmercury, butyltin compounds (mono-, di-, tri-)

8 St. Lazaria I. Viesokoi Rock Hooper Bay Little Diomede I. Bogoslof I. St. George I. East Amatuli I. Colonies with analytical results Noatak Thick-billed murres (Uria lomvia) Common murres (U. aalge) Glaucous gulls (Larus hyperboreus) Glaucous-winged gulls (L. glaucescens) Togiak OCs Hg, MeHg Butyl-Sn OCs Hg, MeHg OCs PBDEs Hg, MeHg Butyl-Sn OCs Hg, MeHg Butyl-Sn MeHg OCs Hg, MeHg Butyl-Sn MeHg Butyl-Sn MeHg OCs St. Lawrence I. Cape Lisburne

9 Why murres? Global distribution Do not migrate great distances Diving fish feeders Lay large single egg Eggs important in subsistence diets COMU TBMU

10 Why gulls? Global distribution Feed on: ­ fish and invertebrates ­ other birds eggs ­ garbage dumps ­ animal carcasses Eggs important in subsistence diets egg clutch GWGU GLGU

11 Geographic Patterns?

12 n=9 n=11 n=11 n=9 n=10 East Amatuli I. St. George I. Bogoslof I. Little Diomede Total Mercury, Common Murres From: Christopher et al > 95 % in the form of methyl-Hg St. Lazaria I.

13 n=9 n=11 n=11 n=9 n=10 From: Vander Pol et al Common Murres

14 Gulf of Alaska Bering Sea From: Vander Pol et al & Vander Pol, unpublished Common & Thick-billed Murres Chukchi Sea

15 Total Mercury BO = Bogoslof I LD = Little Diomede I SG = St. George I EA = East Amatuli I SL = St. Lazaria I CO = Common murre TB = Thick-billed murre BOCO LDCO SGCOSGTB BOTB EACO SLCO1999 SLCO2001 SLTB Bering Sea Gulf of Alaska From: Christopher et al. 2002; Day, et al. in press

16 Common Murre Thick-Billed Murre Stora Karlsö E. Finmark & Kola Peninsula Svaldbard Prince Leopold I. Farrallon I. STAMP Colonies Comparisons to other colonies

17 CA, USA 1993 Norway Alaska, USA E. Canada ± 91 ng/g wet mass CO TB SP

18 Common Murre Thick-billed Murre Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers (PBDEs Wide variation in values; no significant differences between species; BDEs 17, 71, 66, 85, and 138 were below the limit of detection From: Vander Pol, unpublished St. Lazaria I., Gulf of Alaska

19 Species Differences?

20 From: Vander Pol et al. 2004; Vander Pol unpublished; Day et al. in press Murres Hg: St. Lazaria – COMU > TBMU Bogoslof & St. George – TBMU > COMU OCs:St. Lazaria – COMU = TBMU Bogoslof & St. George – TBMU > COMU (except for HCB) (except for HCB)

21 Murres sampled in 1999 Gulls sampled in 2005 Pelicans sampled in 2005 Common murre Little Diomede n=6Commonmurre St. George I. n=6 Commonmurre East Amatuli I. n=6Commonmurre St. Lazaria I. n=7 Glaucous gull Noatakn=5 Hooper Bay n=5 Glaucous -winged gull Togiakn=6 Sitkan=5 Brown pelican Charleston, SC n=2 Organotin Compounds MBT = monobutyltin DBT = dibutyltin TBT = tributyltin Chukchi Sea Bering Sea Gulf of Alaska Atlantic

22 Temporal Trends?

23 Bogoslof I. St. George I * * * * Values are ng/g wet mass From: Ohlendorf et al & Vander Pol et al St. George I. Bogoslof I.

24 For most OCs & Hg: Gulf of Alaska > Bering Sea (HCB shows a reverse pattern) For most OCs & Hg: Gulf of Alaska > Bering Sea (HCB shows a reverse pattern) OCs & Hg: Alaska murres murres from other parts of the northern hemisphere OCs & Hg: Alaska murres murres from other parts of the northern hemisphere Differences in TBMU vs COMU vary by region Differences in TBMU vs COMU vary by region Organotin: murres > gulls Organotin: murres > gulls Too early to see temporal trends Too early to see temporal trends Difficult to compare to 1970s work of Ohlendorf, but contemporary murres generally have lower OCs, except for HCB Difficult to compare to 1970s work of Ohlendorf, but contemporary murres generally have lower OCs, except for HCB Summary - Murres

25 Based on recommendations resulting from the STAMP Long-Range Planning Workshop held at the Alaska Islands and Ocean Visitors Center, Homer, Alaska, February 2005

26 St. Lazaria I. St. George I. Improve temporal trends information Thick-billed murres Common murres Gulf of Alaska Chukchi Sea Cape Lisburne Bering Sea

27 St. Lazaria I. Viesokoi Rock Hooper Bay Gull I. Middleton I. Establish baseline data on gulls Noatak R. Delta Glaucous gulls Glaucous-winged gulls Safety Sound Penny R. Ualik Lake Kikertalik Lake Shaiak I.

28 St. Lazaria I. St. Lawrence I. Middleton I. St. George I. East Amatuli I. Improve geographical trends information Cape Lisburne Thick-billed murres Common murres 2003 Common murres Gulf of Alaska 2002 Thick-billed murres

29 Additional Analytes Hexabromochlorododecane (HBCD) – another BFR Perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) – PFOS; PFOA, etc. Stable isotopes – trophic position Fatty acids– food web/prey selection differences

30 Acknowledgments Funding: USGS/BRD, USFWS, NIST, BIA, NPRB Partners and Collaborators: Point Hope IRA CouncilEarl Kingik, Wildlife and Parks Director and Russel Lane, resident); Maniilaq AssociationEnoch Schiedt and residents of Deering; Little Diomede Island residents; Kawerak Inc.Austin Ahmasuk, Subsistence Director, and residents of Nome and Shaktoolik; St. Lawrence Island (Brandon Waghiyi and local residents); Paimiut Traditional CouncilAlbert Simon, Hooper Bay; Native Village of MekoryukMarvin Kiokun, Natural Resources Director; Togiak Traditional CouncilFrancisca Kamkapak, Tribal Environmental Program Manager and Peter Lockuk Sr.; St. George Traditional CouncilAnthony Merculieff, Executive Director, and Andy Malavansky, Island Sentinel; Sitka Tribe and Jack Lorrrigan, Tribal Fisheries Biologist; Loran Buck, Kodiak local biologist; Seldovia TribeMichael Opheim, Environmental Coordinator and Paul McCollum, Seldovia Tribe Environmental Program Consultant; Nick Tanape Sr., Traditional Ecological Knowledge Specialist, Nanwalek; Paul McCollum, Nanwalek IRA Council Environmental Program Consultant; University of Alaska; USGS/BRD; USFWS; BIA; ADF&G; Canadian Wildlife Service. Special Thanks to: Glenn Chen (BIA); Vern Byrd (USFWS); Tony DeGange (USGS- BRD); Michael Smolen, WWF; Lyman Thorsteinson (USGS-BRD); Minerals Management Service (MMS)


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