Presentation on theme: "VECTOR CONTROL SERVING THE FOLLOWING MARKETS: Parties Caterers Small towns/cities Backyards/homes Cabins Golf courses Resorts Campgrounds Business facilities."— Presentation transcript:
SERVING THE FOLLOWING MARKETS: Parties Caterers Small towns/cities Backyards/homes Cabins Golf courses Resorts Campgrounds Business facilities Parks Outdoor weddings Church events Ball parks City/civic events Theme parks
MOSQUITO AS VECTORS These vectors are the #1 killers of human beings throughout the world: Malaria – from Anopheles species Yellow Fever – from Aedes species Dengue – from Aedes spp. (recent outbreak in Hawaii) Encephalitis diseases – many kinds, including West Nile Virus – most species are capable of spreading it, but Culex is the most important in New Jersey
WEST NILE CASES First detected in US in 1999 1999 62 cases of Severe WNV 7 deaths all in New York City area. 2000 21 cases 2 deaths all in NYC area. 2001 66 cases 9 deaths. 2003 9122 cases 223 deaths nation wide.
WEST NILE VIRUS The virus is stored in the mosquitos salivary gland and is transmitted when the mosquito takes a blood meal. As of January 2004 – 37 species of mosquitoes have tested positive for the WNV
WEST NILE VIRUS 37 Mosquito Species can be infected with WNV. Culex is primary vector (Southern House Mosquito) breeds in septic water. Not spread person to person or animal to animal. Dead birds in area indicator (Jays & Crows) 40-60% mortality. Sparrows are probably main transmitter as WNV propagates at high levels in blood People over 50 highest risk of infection Most serious manifestation of WNV is fatal encephalitis type (inflammation of the brain).
NEW JERSEY LICENSING CATEGORY (8B) MOSQUITO ONLY CATEGORY THAT WILL COVER APPLICATIONS FOR MOSQUITO CONTROL IN NEW JERSEY
LIFE CYCLE All mosquitoes undergo complete metamorphosis and have four distinct stages in their life cycle: Egg, larva, pupa and adult. The eggs, larva and pupa life stages are all aquatic; the adults are terrestrial.
All mosquitoes must have water in which to complete their life cycle. Mosquitoes never develop in grass or shrubbery, although the flying adults frequently rest there during daylight hours. Only female mosquitoes feed on blood – males feed on nectar and other plant juices Female mosquitoes may travel up to 30 miles from their breeding location
MOSQUITO BIOLOGY Eggs laid directly on water usually hatch within 2 or 3 days Eggs laid by the tree hole or flood water species – in pockets that will later fill with water – can survive up to 5 years without hatching if water is not present
MOSQUITO EGGS When first deposited eggs are white; they become dark brown to black within an hour or two. Shape varies, with most being football or boat shaped. Species may be divided by where and how they lay their eggs.
LARVAE OR WIGGLERS Growth and development phase. Head capsule equipped with a pair of well developed biting jaws or mandibles. Abdomen contains a siphon tube (for breathing) in most species. Larva will be seen near the surface of water with the breathing tube protruding. Most feed on plankton, decaying organic matter, some are predaceous.
LARVAE Development time varies by species, available food and temperature. May be as few as 5 days or as long as 30 days or even more.
PUPAL STAGE Called tumblers, shaped like a comma Non-feeding stage When undisturbed congregate at surface of water. Disturbed – tumble toward the bottom of pool.
PUPAL STAGE Depending on spp and temperature, pupal stage may only last 1 or 2 days or up to 10 or more.
AEDES AEGYPTI IS THE PRIMARY VECTOR OF HUMAN DENGUE FEVER AND YELLOW FEVER SURVIVAL IS POOR IN HOT DRY CLIMATES MEDIUM SIZED BLACKISH MOSQUITO HAS SILVERY WHITE LYRE- SHAPED PATTERN ON SCALES
AEDES AEGYPTI EGGS ARE DEPOSITED ON DAMP ARTIFICIAL CONTAINERS ONE OF TOP PRODUCERS IN TIRE PILES OR CONTAINERS EGGS CAN RESIST DESSICATION FOR UP TO ONE YEAR EGGS HATCH WHEN FLOODED BY DEOXYGENATED WATER LARVAE DEVELOP FROM EGG TO ADULT FROM 4-10 DAYS.
AEDES AEGYPTI FOUND ABUNDANTLY IN TOWNS AND CITIES EARLY MORNING OR LATE AFTERNOON FEEDERS PREFERS HUMAN BLOOD OVER OTHER MAMMALS WILL FREQUENTLY RESIDE INSIDE HOMES DOES NOT SURVIVE FREEZING TEMPERATURES (EGG OR ADULT)
CONSIDERED THE HOUSE MOSQUITO OF THE USA IS A LIGHT BROWN MOSQUITO WITH NO DISTINCTIVE MARKS WILL BREED IN STORM DRAINS, POLLUTED POOLS, DITCHES, SEWAGE TREATMENT PLANTS AND ANY POLLUTED BODY OF WATER
CULEX PIPIENS Lays non-dessication resistant eggs Must lay directly on water for eggs survival Eggs hatch in 1-2 days Larvae thrive in polluted water habitat Overwinters as a mated female Most common vector of St. Louis
ALSO KNOWN AS AEDES ALBOPICTUS WAS INTRODUCED INTO TEXAS IN 1985 WAS FOUND IN NJ IN 1995 KNOWN AS A CONTAINER BREEDER LAYS DESSICATION RESISTANT EGGS ON THE SIDE OF CONTAINERS
ASIAN TIGER MOSQUITO EASY TO IDENTIFY WITH WHITE STRIPES ON ITS LEGS AND ABDOMEN PREFERS TO BREED IN TIRES BUT WILL LAY EGGS IN ANY CONTAINER IS A PEST TO HOMEOWNERS BECAUSE IT WILL FEED DURING DAYLIGHT HOURS AS WELL AS AT DUSK
LARVACIDING WITH BTIS Used to treat the larval stage only Liquid, granule/pellet form Bti – Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis –great product Applied to water (breeding sites) or anticipated wet areas Usually accomplished by public entity Several treatments per season Will not get them all!
LARVACIDING WITH ALTOSID Altosid products are from Zoëcon Are effective on Larvae only Labeled for use in human drinking water Very specific to mosquitoes Residual activity depends on the formulation Some formulations penetrate vegetation better than others
1 Teaspoon treats 50 square feet or 200 gallons ½ Teaspoon treats 25 square feet or 100 gallons
ADULTICIDING Used to treat adult mosquitoes Liquid, ULV, mist, fog or aerosol form Usually applied in the early evening Provides only temporary relief Very important part of IMM Will not get them all!
SOURCE REDUCTION Can permanently impact control Requires public education and cooperation Environmentally sound approach Will not get them all!
BARRIER TREATMENTS Used in mosquito abatements Consists of focusing a residual treatment to mosquito resting sites Will not get them all!
BARRIER APPLICATION For an effective barrier treatment you would treat any surface area that a mosquito would rest on - near the structure Use Demand CS at 6 ml per 1000 sq. ft to treat with a hand tank or a power sprayer Treat limbs of shade trees, flower beds, shrubs, tall grass and shaded areas around buildings where mosquitoes congregate
BARRIER CALCULATIONS Barrier Work The following example will give 7 to 15 days of residual control depending on weather: 4 Yard Area: 100 ft wide by 100 deep = 10,000 sq ft or.26 Acres 4 As much as 10 gallons of finished spray to cover grass, foliage, trees, foundation, etc. using manual backpack or motorized backpack sprayer 4 Typical Charge: 4 Service Charge……..$50.00 4 1 cent /sq. ft………………….$100.00 (10,000 x.01) 4 TOTAL………………………… $150.00
CALCULATION EXAMPLE Actual Costs of Application: 4 Chemical: Demand CS (10 oz per 50 gallon..)…..…… $37.50 average backyard (10 gallon or 2 oz demand cs / gal).$7.50 (1/4 hour @$100 per hour)……………………………….. $25.00 4 TOTAL…………………………………………………….. $32.50