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Chapter Menu Lesson 1:Sexual Reproduction and MeiosisSexual Reproduction and Meiosis Lesson 2:Plant ReproductionPlant Reproduction Lesson 3:Animal ReproductionAnimal.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter Menu Lesson 1:Sexual Reproduction and MeiosisSexual Reproduction and Meiosis Lesson 2:Plant ReproductionPlant Reproduction Lesson 3:Animal ReproductionAnimal."— Presentation transcript:

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3 Chapter Menu Lesson 1:Sexual Reproduction and MeiosisSexual Reproduction and Meiosis Lesson 2:Plant ReproductionPlant Reproduction Lesson 3:Animal ReproductionAnimal Reproduction Lesson 4:Asexual ReproductionAsexual Reproduction Click on a hyperlink to view the corresponding lesson.

4 sexual reproduction egg sperm fertilization zygote 3.1 Sexual Reproduction and Meiosis meiosis diploid haploid

5 What is sexual reproduction? Reproduction in organisms produces new offspring. Sexual reproduction is the production of an offspring that results when the genetic materials from two different cells combine. 3.1 Sexual Reproduction and Meiosis

6 What is sexual reproduction? (cont.) Half the genetic material in sexual reproduction is contained in: –an egg cell –a sperm cell In a process called fertilization, the sperm and egg cells fuse together forming a zygote. 3.1 Sexual Reproduction and Meiosis Meiosis and Fertilization

7 Advantages of Sexual Reproduction Genetic variation –Variety of genetic traits in a population of the same species –Can help a species survive changes in environmental conditions 3.1 Sexual Reproduction and Meiosis

8 Advantages of Sexual Reproduction (cont.) Selective breeding –Male and female organisms with certain preferred traits are selected to be the parents of offspring with those preferred traits –Produces groups of organisms with similar traits –Reduces genetic variation 3.1 Sexual Reproduction and Meiosis

9 Disadvantages of Sexual Reproduction Getting egg and sperm together for fertilization can be difficult Time is needed for organisms to grow and develop before they can reproduce 3.1 Sexual Reproduction and Meiosis

10 Why is meiosis important? Meiosis is cell division that produces sperm or eggs from certain reproductive cells in an organism. –Meiosis ensures that a species offspring inherit the correct chromosome number. –Without meiosis, the chromosome number would double with each generation. 3.1 Sexual Reproduction and Meiosis

11 Maintaining Diploid Cells A diploid cell in an organism contains pairs of homologous chromosomes that equal the chromosome number of that organisms species. –A diploid human cell has 23 pairs of homologous chromosomes. –Homologous chromosomes are similar, but not identical. 3.1 Sexual Reproduction and Meiosis

12 Creating Haploid Cells A haploid cell contains one chromosome from each homologous pair. 3.1 Sexual Reproduction and Meiosis

13 Creating Haploid Cells (cont.) 3.1 Sexual Reproduction and Meiosis

14 Phases of Meiosis I 3.1 Sexual Reproduction and Meiosis Prophase I Nuclear membrane breaks apart and chromosomes condense. Metaphase ISister chromatids line up along the center of the cell. Cytoskeleton fibers attach to sister chromatids.

15 Phases of Meiosis I (cont.) 3.1 Sexual Reproduction and Meiosis Telophase INuclear membrane forms around each set of sister chromatids and the cytoplasm divides, forming two daughter cells. Anaphase ISister chromatids move to opposite ends of the cell.

16 Phases of Meiosis II 3.1 Sexual Reproduction and Meiosis Metaphase II Chromosomes line up along the center of the cell. Prophase II Nuclear membrane breaks apart.

17 Phases of Meiosis II (cont.) 3.1 Sexual Reproduction and Meiosis Anaphase IISister chromatids of each chromosome begin to separate and move to opposite ends of the cells. Telophase IIA nuclear membrane forms around each set of chromatids, and the cytoplasm divides.

18 Comparison of Meiosis and Mitosis 3.1 Sexual Reproduction and Meiosis

19 Lesson 1 Review What is the new cell that forms from fertilization called? Asperm Begg Chaploid Dzygote 3.1 Sexual Reproduction and Meiosis 1.A 2.B 3.C 4.D

20 Lesson 1 Review How many chromosomes from each homologous pair does a haploid cell contain? Aone Btwo Cthree Dfour 3.1 Sexual Reproduction and Meiosis 1.A 2.B 3.C 4.D

21 Lesson 1 Review How many daughter cells are produced in meiosis? Aone Btwo Cthree Dfour 3.1 Sexual Reproduction and Meiosis 1.A 2.B 3.C 4.D

22 End of Lesson 1

23 spore pollen grain ovule seed angiosperm stamen anther 3.2 Plant Reproduction filament pistil stigma style ovary pollen tube fruit

24 What is alternation of generations? –One generation has primarily diploid cells, the other generation has only haploid cells. –Organisms that alternate between diploid and haploid generations have an alternation of generations. Some organisms, including plants, have two life stages called generations. 3.2 Plant Reproduction

25 What is alternation of generations? (cont.) 3.2 Plant Reproduction

26 How do seedless plants reproduce? Seedless plants, such as mosses and ferns, grow from haploid spores, not seeds. –Haploid spores that grow by mitosis and cell division into haploid plants. –Fertilization results in a diploid zygote that grows by mitosis and cell division into the diploid generation. –The diploid generation produces haploid spores by meiosis, and the cycle repeats. 3.2 Plant Reproduction

27 How do seed plants reproduce? Most of the land plants that cover Earth grew from seedscalled seed plants. –There are flowerless seed plants and flowering seed plants. –The haploid generation is within diploid tissue. –Separate diploid male and diploid female reproductive structures produce haploid sperm and haploid eggs. 3.2 Plant Reproduction

28 The Role of Pollen Grains A pollen grain forms from tissue in a male reproductive structure of a seed plant. Pollination occurs when pollen grains land on a female reproductive structure of a plant of the same species. 3.2 Plant Reproduction

29 The Role of Ovules and Seeds The female reproductive structure of a seed plant contains one or more ovules. After fertilization, a seed develops from the ovule. 3.2 Plant Reproduction

30 Flowerless Seed Plant Reproduction In flowerless seed plantsgymnosperms the seeds are not surrounded by a fruit. –Cones are the male and female reproductive structures of conifers. –Male cones produce pollen grains. –Female cones produce eggs. –Seeds form as part of the female cone. 3.2 Plant Reproduction

31 Flowering Seed Plant Reproduction Flowering seed plantsangiosperms include most of the plants you see. 3.2 Plant Reproduction Seed Plants Fruits and vegetables come from flowering seed plants.

32 Reproduction and the Flower A typical flower has male and female reproductive organs surrounded by petals. The stamen is the male reproductive organ. Pollen grains form at the tip of the stamen, in the anther. The filament is a long stalk that supports the anther and connects it to the base of the flower. 3.2 Plant Reproduction

33 Reproduction and the Flower (cont.) The female reproductive organ of a flower is the pistil. Pollen can land at the tip of the pistil on the stigma, which is at the top of a long tube called the style. At the base of the style is an ovary containing one or more ovules which eventually will contain a haploid egg. 3.2 Plant Reproduction

34 Reproduction and the Flower (cont.) 3.2 Plant Reproduction

35 An Angiosperms Cycle 3.2 Plant Reproduction

36 Fruit and Seed Dispersal Fruits and seed are important sources of food for people and animals. Fruits and seeds can be dispersed by: –Air currents –Animals –Water –Gravity 3.2 Plant Reproduction What is the life cycle of a simple plant?

37 Lesson 2 Review In alternation of generations, the haploid structures of the diploid generation produces daughter cells called what? Azygotes Bspores Cpollen Dseeds 3.2 Plant Reproduction 1.A 2.B 3.C 4.D

38 Lesson 2 Review What is an immature diploid plant that develops from the zygote of a seed plant called? Aembryo Bseed Cfruit Dstigma 3.2 Plant Reproduction 1.A 2.B 3.C 4.D

39 Lesson 2 Review What is another name for a flowering seed plant? Azygote Bconifer Cgymnosperm Dangiosperm 3.2 Plant Reproduction 1.A 2.B 3.C 4.D

40 End of Lesson 2

41 gonad testes ovary metamorphosis 3.3Animal Reproduction

42 –Ovaries are female gonads that produce egg cells. Animal Reproductive Organs Gonads are specialized organs that produce sperm or eggs. –Testes are male gonads that contain a network of coiled tubes in which sperm cells form. 3.3 Animal Reproduction

43 Internal Fertilization Internal fertilization happens inside the body of an organism. –Internal fertilization ensures that an embryo is protected and nourished until it leaves the females body. 3.3 Animal Reproduction Examples –Earthworms, spiders, insects, reptiles, birds, and mammals

44 External Fertilization External fertilization occurs in the environment, outside of an animals body. –Most animals that reproduce using external fertilization do not care for the eggs or young. 3.3 Animal Reproduction Examples –Jellyfishes, clams, sea urchins, sea stars, many fish species, and amphibians

45 External Embryo Development Animals whose embryos develop outside the mother are usually protected inside an egg. 3.3 Animal Reproduction

46 Metamorphosis A developmental process in which the form of the body changes as an animal grows from egg to adult 3.3 Animal Reproduction

47 Internal Development The embryos of some animals, including most mammals, develop inside the mother. –A tissue or organ transfers nourishment from the mother to the embryo. –Other embryossome snakes, insects, and fishesdevelop in an egg with a yolk inside the mother. 3.3 Animal Reproduction

48 Gestation Gestation is the length of time between fertilization and the birth of an animal. Gestation varies by species and usually relates to the size of the animal at birth smaller animals have shorter gestation. 3.3 Animal Reproduction

49 Lesson 3 Review Where are sperm formed in male animals? Aeggs Bovaries Ctestis Dglands 3.3 Animal Reproduction 1.A 2.B 3.C 4.D

50 Lesson 3 Review How is the embryo in an egg nourished? Athe outer covering Ban organ transfers nourishment from the mother Cfluid produced in glands near the testes Dthe yolk 3.3 Animal Reproduction 1.A 2.B 3.C 4.D

51 Lesson 3 Review What is the developmental process in which the form of the body changes as an animal grows from egg to adult? Ametamorphosis Bgestation Cfertilization Dinternal development 3.3 Animal Reproduction 1.A 2.B 3.C 4.D

52 End of Lesson 3

53 asexual reproduction fission budding regeneration cloning 3.4 Asexual Reproduction

54 Asexual Reproduction The production of offspring by one parent without a sperm and an egg joining Results in offspring that are genetically identical to the parent organism 3.4 Asexual Reproduction

55 Advantages of Asexual Reproduction No time or energy expended finding a mate. Less time to produce offspring Parent and offspring are genetically identicalequally well-adapted to the same environmental conditions. 3.4 Asexual Reproduction

56 Disadvantages of Asexual Reproduction Lack of genetic variation. Harmful mutations in the cells of an organism will be passed to offspring 3.4 Asexual Reproduction

57 Types of Asexual Reproduction Prokaryotes reproduce asexually by cell division that does not involve mitosis. Eukaryotes reproduce asexually by mitosis and cell division. 3.4 Asexual Reproduction

58 Fission Bacteria reproduce by a process called fission which produces two genetically identical cells very rapidly. 3.4 Asexual Reproduction

59 Mitotic Cell Division Some single-celled eukaryotes reproduce by mitotic cell divisionmitosis followed by cell division. –Produces two identical cells. –Each cell is an organism. 3.4 Asexual Reproduction

60 Budding Asexual reproduction in which a new organism forms on the parent organism The new organisma budforms by mitosis and cell division, and eventually separates from the parent Example –Some single-cell (yeast) and multicellular eukaryotes (hydra) 3.4 Asexual Reproduction

61 Plant Cuttings If you cut a green stem from a houseplant and put it in water, roots and leaves can grow, producing a new plant. Some plants propagate themselves asexually. Examples –Strawberry plants and kalanchoe plants 3.4 Asexual Reproduction

62 Animal Regeneration Some animals have cells that can change into other cell types. Regeneration is asexual reproduction that produces new animals from pieces of an animals body. Regeneration is sometimes used to describe growth that replaces a missing part of an animal. 3.4 Asexual Reproduction

63 What is cloning? Cloning refers to a method of asexual reproduction developed by scientists and performed in laboratories. Cloning produces identical individuals from a cell or cells taken from a multicellular organism. 3.4 Asexual Reproduction

64 Plant Cloning 3.4 Asexual Reproduction

65 Animal Cloning The first animal to be successfully cloned was a sheep named Dolly, in Asexual Reproduction

66 Lesson 4 Review What type of asexual reproduction involves reproduction by cell division only? Afission Bbudding Cregeneration Dcloning 3.4 Asexual Reproduction 1.A 2.B 3.C 4.D

67 Lesson 4 Review What type of asexual reproduction involves a new organism forming on the parent organism? Amitotic cell division Bcloning Cregeneration Dbudding 3.4 Asexual Reproduction 1.A 2.B 3.C 4.D

68 Lesson 4 Review What type of asexual reproduction involves producing a new animal from pieces of an animals body? Aplant cuttings Bcloning Cregeneration Dbudding 3.4 Asexual Reproduction 1.A 2.B 3.C 4.D

69 End of Lesson 4

70 Chapter Resources Menu Click on a hyperlink to view the corresponding feature. Chapter Assessment California Standards Practice Concepts in Motion Image Bank Science Online Virtual Lab BrainPOP

71 What is the name for the process of a sperm cell and an egg cell fusing together? Asexual reproduction Bfertilization Cmeiosis Dpollination Chapter Assessment 1 1.A 2.B 3.C 4.D

72 What is one advantage of sexual reproduction? Aproduces many offspring Boffspring are genetically identical Coffspring have more genetic variation Dcan produce offspring quickly Chapter Assessment 2 1.A 2.B 3.C 4.D

73 Where are pollen grains formed? Aanther Bovule Ctestes Dpollen tube Chapter Assessment 3 1.A 2.B 3.C 4.D

74 What are animal reproductive organs called? Azygotes Bgonads Cembryos Dbuds Chapter Assessment 4 1.A 2.B 3.C 4.D

75 What is not an advantage of asexual reproduction? Aorganism does not have to spend time and energy finding a mate Bcan produce a number of offspring faster than with sexual reproduction Coffspring have more genetic variation Dparent and offspring are equally well adapted to the same environmental conditions Chapter Assessment 5 1.A 2.B 3.C 4.D

76 What type of organism can reproduce asexually by regeneration? Ahuman Bsea star Cbacterium Dyeast CA Standards Practice 1 SCI 2.a 1.A 2.B 3.C 4.D

77 What flower structure becomes fruit surrounding the seed? Astamen Bpollen tube Covary Dpistel CA Standards Practice 2 SCI 2.a 1.A 2.B 3.C 4.D

78 What term describes the development of a ladybug larva to an adult ladybug? Aalternation of generations Basexual reproduction Cmetamorphosis Dmitotic cell division CA Standards Practice 3 SCI 2.a 1.A 2.B 3.C 4.D

79 What type of seed plant does not produce flowers? Aseedless plants Bgymnosperms Cangiosperms Dstrawberry plants CA Standards Practice 4 SCI 2.a 1.A 2.B 3.C 4.D

80 How many times does division of the nucleus and cytokinesis happen in meiosis? Aone Btwo Cthree Dfour CA Standards Practice 5 SCI 2.a 1.A 2.B 3.C 4.D

81 Concepts in Motion 1 Meiosis and Fertilization

82 Concepts in Motion 2

83 Image Bank

84 End of Resources


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