2 Flours White wheat flour Whole Wheat flour Rye flour Contains 7% to 15% gluten (protein)High gluten flour (strong flour) makes chewy productsLow gluten flour (weak flour) makes tender productsGluten is developed by mixing a dough – the more a dough is mixed the more gluten will develop and the product will be firmer and chewier.Whole Wheat flourThe entire kernel of wheat is ground, including the bran (outer covering) and the germThe ground bran has sharp edges and cuts gluten strands. The germ contains oil which also shortens the gluten strands. This is why whole wheat products cannot be as firm or chewy as white flour products.Rye flourDoes not contain gluten and so cannot make a crisp or chewy product. Usually some wheat flour must be added.
3 FatsFats coat the strands of gluten and prevent them from holding together, thus fats shorten the strands and help create a tender product.Solid fats are called shortening.Fats tenderize baked goods, create moisture and richness, add flavor and increase keeping qualities.In some cases they act as a leavening agent…
4 …FatsShorteningUsually vegetable based, although butter or lard may be used.Regular shortenings have a tough, waxy texture and hold together in particles within a dough or batter.Emulsified shortenings are soft and spread easily and are used to make cake batters. They are used when there is more sugar than flour in a formula and are sometimes called high ratio shortenings.Puff pastry shortening is very firm and is used for making rolled-in doughs when it is important that the fat stay in distinct layers between the layers of dough.Oils Little used in baking except in some muffins & cakes.Lard Used less and less today, however it is excellent for pastry.ButterThe best flavor for most baked goods.Melts at a low temperature so it “melts in your mouth”, unlike some fats. Its low melting point can make it hard to work with.
5 Sugars Sugars create sweetness Sugars also create tenderness because they weaken glutenThey add color to the crust when they bakeSugars improve keeping qualities because sugar is hydroscopic, meaning it absorbs water.Sugars act as a creaming agent with fats…
6 …Sugars Refined sugar Molasses and brown sugar Corn syrup Granulated sugar is the most commonly used.Very fine sugars are used in cakes and cookies.3. Coarse sugars are called sanding sugars, for topping baked goods4. Icing sugar is very fine and is used in icings or for dusting finished products.Molasses and brown sugarMolasses is concentrated sugar cane syrup with the sugar removed.Brown sugar is simple white sugar with some of the molasses left in. You can make it by mixing molasses with sugar.Corn syrupA liquid sweetener containing natural sugars called fructose.HoneyA natural sweetener containing fructose and glucose.
7 LiquidsLiquids are essential in the baking process because gluten cannot develop without the presence of some liquidWaterThe basic liquid used in bakingMilk and creamAdd texture, flavor, nutritional value and color to baked goodsWhole milk and cream contain fat, which must be accounted for as part of the shortening in baking formulasButtermilk is slightly acidic and is often used in quickbreadsCream is more often used in fillings & puddings than in doughsPowdered dry milk is often used because of low cost and convenience
8 Eggs Available whole, frozen or dried Add structure because the proteins in eggs coagulate when baked. This is important for baked goods with a high ratio of fat which weakens the gluten structure.Emulsification of fats-egg yolks help make smooth batters.Leavening-beaten eggs contain air bubbles which expand when baked.The fat in egg yolks help shorten gluten strands, making a tender product.Eggs also add moisture, flavor, nutritional value and color to baked goods.
9 For example, bread dough rises when proofed because of the gas CO2. Leavening agentsLeavening is the production of gases in baked goods which increases their volume.For example, bread dough rises when proofed because of the gas CO2.YeastA microscopic plantYeast ferments, which means it converts carbohydrates into CO2 and alcohol when it gets warmth and moisture.Below 6 to 7 degrees C yeast is inactiveAt 15 to 20 degrees C yeast grows slowly20 to 32 C yeast grows best (proofing temperature)Yeast dies at 60C or 140FYeast is available as compressed yeast, which must be refrigerated, or as active dry yeast, which must be dissolved in warm water before use.
10 …Leavening agents Baking soda Baking powder A chemical leavener When moisture and an acid are added to baking soda it releases CO2Baking soda releases CO2 as soon as moisture and acid are added and thus must be baked immediately after mixing. It needs no proofing, unlike yeastbreads.Baking powderAlso a chemical leavenerBaking powder is actually just baking soda with the acid already added.Single-action baking powder releases CO2 as soon as water is added to it.Double-action baking powder releases CO2 when water is added to it and again when it is heated.Adding too much baking powder or baking soda gives an undesireable taste.
11 …Leavening agents Baking ammonia Air Steam A chemical leavener Usually used only in large-scale commercial cookie baking.The ammonia evaporates when the cookies bake.AirCreaming is the process of beating fats and sugar together to incorporate air into the mixture.Usually used in cake and cookie baking.Air beaten into the mixture during creaming may be the only leavening agent.SteamWhen water is heated and turns to steam it expands to 1600 times its original volume, thus moisture is an important leavening agent in baking.Pie crusts, cream puffs and puff pastry are all leavened by the action of water flashing to steam when heated.
12 Chocolate and CocoaChocolate and cocoa are made from cocoa or cacao beansThe beans are roasted and ground to make a paste called chocolate liquorThe fat content of this is called cocoa butterCocoa is the dry powder left after cocoa butter is separated from chocolate liquorUnsweetened chocolate (bitter chocolate) is just hardened chocolate liquor. Popular in Europe.Sweet chocolate is bitter chocolate with sugar addedMilk chocolate is sweet chocolate with milk solids added. Popular in North America.White chocolate is cocoa butter with milk solids and sugar added. It can be dyed with food coloring.
13 SaltSalt strengthens gluten and makes it more stretchable in bread doughsSalt helps control yeast growth in doughs because it acts against the yeastSalt enhances the flavor of most foods, even sweet foods because it turbocharges your taste buds
14 Spices Spices add flavor and interest to baked goods The most commonly used are cinnamon, nutmeg, mace, cloves and gingerMost spices are made from the bark, nuts, seeds or roots of tropical plantsIndonesia was originally known as “The Spice Islands” and European countries fought wars for control of them
15 Extracts and emulsions Extracts are oils dissolved in alcoholVanilla extract is a common exampleVanilla beans are processed to extract the oils from them and this is dissolved in alcohol. True vanilla extract and vanilla beans are quite expensive, partly because of the current popularity of novelty items such as vanilla flavored soft drinks and vanilla scented cosmetics and soapsEmulsions are oils mixed with waterLemon and orange emulsions are the most commonLemon or orange oil is extracted from the skin, where most of the flavor is and mixed with water. You can zest or grate lemon or orange skins yourself to add to baked goods for the same flavor
16 Most baked goods are made from only a very few ingredients. ReviewMost baked goods are made from only a very few ingredients.A good understanding of ingredients is necessary so you can produce the type of baked goods you want
17 …Flour Flour forms the basis of most baked goods Wheat flour contains proteins called glutenA strong flour contains a high percentage of gluten and will make crisp, chewy products like baguettes or bagelsA weak flour contains less gluten and will make tender products, like cakes or pastryWhole wheat flour includes the bran and the germ. It is weaker than white flourRye flour contains no gluten and will not form a strong structure unless some white wheat flour is added
18 …FatsFats coat the strands of gluten and prevent them from holding together, thus fats shorten the strands and help create a tender product.Solid fats are called shortening.Fats tenderize baked goods, create moisture and richness, add flavor and increase keeping qualities.In some cases they act as a leavening agentFats include vegetable shortening, butter and lard
19 …Sugars Sugars create sweetness Sugars also create tenderness because they weaken gluten structureThey add color to the crust when they bakeSugars improve keeping qualities because sugar is hydroscopic, meaning it absorbs water.Sugars include white granulated sugar, icing sugar, brown sugars, corn syrup and honey
20 …LiquidsLiquids are essential in the baking process because gluten cannot develop without some liquidWater is the basic liquid used in bakingMilk or cream may be used for flavor, to develop color or to add nutritional valueButtermilk is slightly acidic and is often used in quickbreadsCream is most often used in custards and fillings
21 …Eggs Eggs add structure because they contain proteins Eggs contain fats and make a product tender because they shorten gluten strandsEggs add flavor and nutritional valueBeaten eggs contain air bubbles which expand when baked and thus leaven some baked goods
22 …Leavening agentsLeavening is the production of gases in baked goods which increases volumeYeast is a microscopic plant which produces CO2 when it gets warmth and moistureBaking soda also produces CO2 when moisture and an acid are added to itBaking powder produces CO2 when it gets warmth and moistureWater in baked goods leavens because it expands to 1600 times its original volume when it flashes to steamYeast, baking powder, baking soda and water all leaven baked goods and increase their volume
23 …Chocolate and cocoaChocolate is made from roasted cocoa or cacao beans. The beans are ground to make chocolate liquour.Hardened chocolate liquour is just bitter chocolateThe addition of sugar makes it into sweet chocolate and milk solids make it into milk chocolateChocolate liquor can be separated into cocoa powder and cocoa butter. Cocoa butter becomes white chocolate with the addition of sugar and milk solids
24 …Salt …Spices …Extracts and emulsions Salt strengthens gluten and weakens yeast growth. Most importantly it turbocharges your taste buds to bring out flavors…SpicesSpices such as nutmeg, cloves, ginger, mace and cinnamon add flavor and interest…Extracts and emulsionsExtracts are flavorful oils, such as vanilla, dissolved in alcoholEmulsions are oils like lemon or orange oil mixed with water