Flours White wheat flour 1.C ontains 7% to 15% gluten (protein) 2.H igh gluten flour (strong flour) makes chewy products 3.L ow gluten flour (weak flour) makes tender products 4.G luten is developed by mixing a dough – the more a dough is mixed the more gluten will develop and the product will be firmer and chewier. Whole Wheat flour 1.T he entire kernel of wheat is ground, including the bran (outer covering) and the germ 2.T he ground bran has sharp edges and cuts gluten strands. The germ contains oil which also shortens the gluten strands. This is why whole wheat products cannot be as firm or chewy as white flour products. Rye flour 1.D oes not contain gluten and so cannot make a crisp or chewy product. Usually some wheat flour must be added.
Fats Fats coat the strands of gluten and prevent them from holding together, thus fats shorten the strands and help create a tender product. Solid fats are called shortening. Fats tenderize baked goods, create moisture and richness, add flavor and increase keeping qualities. In some cases they act as a leavening agent…
…Fats Shortening 1.U sually vegetable based, although butter or lard may be used. 2.R egular shortenings have a tough, waxy texture and hold together in particles within a dough or batter. 3.E mulsified shortenings are soft and spread easily and are used to make cake batters. They are used when there is more sugar than flour in a formula and are sometimes called high ratio shortenings. 4.P uff pastry shortening is very firm and is used for making rolled-in doughs when it is important that the fat stay in distinct layers between the layers of dough. Oils Little used in baking except in some muffins & cakes. Lard Used less and less today, however it is excellent for pastry. Butter 1.T he best flavor for most baked goods. 2.M elts at a low temperature so it melts in your mouth, unlike some fats. Its low melting point can make it hard to work with.
Sugars Sugars create sweetness Sugars also create tenderness because they weaken gluten They add color to the crust when they bake Sugars improve keeping qualities because sugar is hydroscopic, meaning it absorbs water. Sugars act as a creaming agent with fats…
…SugarsRefined sugar 1.G ranulated sugar is the most commonly used. 2.V ery fine sugars are used in cakes and cookies. 3.Coarse sugars are called sanding sugars, for topping baked goods 4.Icing sugar is very fine and is used in icings or for dusting finished products. Molasses and brown sugar 1.M olasses is concentrated sugar cane syrup with the sugar removed. 2.B rown sugar is simple white sugar with some of the molasses left in. You can make it by mixing molasses with sugar. Corn syrup A liquid sweetener containing natural sugars called fructose. Honey A natural sweetener containing fructose and glucose.
Liquids Liquids are essential in the baking process because gluten cannot develop without the presence of some liquid Water The basic liquid used in baking Milk and cream 1.A dd texture, flavor, nutritional value and color to baked goods 2.W hole milk and cream contain fat, which must be accounted for as part of the shortening in baking formulas 3.B uttermilk is slightly acidic and is often used in quickbreads 4.C ream is more often used in fillings & puddings than in doughs 5.P owdered dry milk is often used because of low cost and convenience
Eggs Available whole, frozen or dried Add structure because the proteins in eggs coagulate when baked. This is important for baked goods with a high ratio of fat which weakens the gluten structure. Emulsification of fats-egg yolks help make smooth batters. Leavening-beaten eggs contain air bubbles which expand when baked. The fat in egg yolks help shorten gluten strands, making a tender product. Eggs also add moisture, flavor, nutritional value and color to baked goods.
Leavening agents Leavening is the production of gases in baked goods which increases their volume. For example, bread dough rises when proofed because of the gas CO2. Yeast 1.A microscopic plant 2.Y east ferments, which means it converts carbohydrates into CO2 and alcohol when it gets warmth and moisture. Below 6 to 7 degrees C yeast is inactive At 15 to 20 degrees C yeast grows slowly 20 to 32 C yeast grows best (proofing temperature) Yeast dies at 60C or 140F Yeast is available as compressed yeast, which must be refrigerated, or as active dry yeast, which must be dissolved in warm water before use.
…Leavening agents Baking soda 1.A chemical leavener 2.W hen moisture and an acid are added to baking soda it releases CO2 3.B aking soda releases CO2 as soon as moisture and acid are added and thus must be baked immediately after mixing. It needs no proofing, unlike yeastbreads. Baking powder 1.A lso a chemical leavener 2.B aking powder is actually just baking soda with the acid already added. 3.S ingle-action baking powder releases CO2 as soon as water is added to it. 4.D ouble-action baking powder releases CO2 when water is added to it and again when it is heated. 5.A dding too much baking powder or baking soda gives an undesireable taste.
…Leavening agents Baking ammonia 1.A chemical leavener 2.U sually used only in large-scale commercial cookie baking. 3.T he ammonia evaporates when the cookies bake. Air 1.C reaming is the process of beating fats and sugar together to incorporate air into the mixture. 2.U sually used in cake and cookie baking. 3.A ir beaten into the mixture during creaming may be the only leavening agent. Steam 1.W hen water is heated and turns to steam it expands to 1600 times its original volume, thus moisture is an important leavening agent in baking. 2.P ie crusts, cream puffs and puff pastry are all leavened by the action of water flashing to steam when heated.
Chocolate and Cocoa Chocolate and cocoa are made from cocoa or cacao beans The beans are roasted and ground to make a paste called chocolate liquor The fat content of this is called cocoa butter Cocoa is the dry powder left after cocoa butter is separated from chocolate liquor Unsweetened chocolate (bitter chocolate) is just hardened chocolate liquor. Popular in Europe. Sweet chocolate is bitter chocolate with sugar added Milk chocolate is sweet chocolate with milk solids added. Popular in North America. White chocolate is cocoa butter with milk solids and sugar added. It can be dyed with food coloring.
Salt Salt strengthens gluten and makes it more stretchable in bread doughs Salt helps control yeast growth in doughs because it acts against the yeast Salt enhances the flavor of most foods, even sweet foods because it turbocharges your taste buds
Spices Spices add flavor and interest to baked goods The most commonly used are cinnamon, nutmeg, mace, cloves and ginger Most spices are made from the bark, nuts, seeds or roots of tropical plants Indonesia was originally known as The Spice Islands and European countries fought wars for control of them
Extracts and emulsions Extracts are oils dissolved in alcohol 1.V anilla extract is a common example 2.V anilla beans are processed to extract the oils from them and this is dissolved in alcohol. True vanilla extract and vanilla beans are quite expensive, partly because of the current popularity of novelty items such as vanilla flavored soft drinks and vanilla scented cosmetics and soaps Emulsions are oils mixed with water 1.L emon and orange emulsions are the most common 2.L emon or orange oil is extracted from the skin, where most of the flavor is and mixed with water. You can zest or grate lemon or orange skins yourself to add to baked goods for the same flavor
Review Most baked goods are made from only a very few ingredients. A good understanding of ingredients is necessary so you can produce the type of baked goods you want
…Flour Flour Flour forms the basis of most baked goods Wheat flour contains proteins called gluten Astrong flour contains a high percentage of gluten and will make crisp, chewy products like baguettes or bagels Aweak flour contains less gluten and will make tender products, like cakes or pastry Whole Whole wheat flour includes the bran and the germ. It is weaker than white flour Rye Rye flour contains no gluten and will not form a strong structure unless some white wheat flour is added
…Fats Fats Fats coat the strands of gluten and prevent them from holding together, thus fats shorten the strands and help create a tender product. Solid Solid fats are called shortening. Fats Fats tenderize baked goods, create moisture and richness, add flavor and increase keeping qualities. In In some cases they act as a leavening agent Fats Fats include vegetable shortening, butter and lard
…Sugars Sugars Sugars create sweetness also create tenderness because they weaken gluten structure They They add color to the crust when they bake Sugars Sugars improve keeping qualities because sugar is hydroscopic, hydroscopic, meaning it absorbs water. Sugars Sugars include white granulated sugar, icing sugar, brown sugars, corn syrup and honey
…Liquids Liquids Liquids are essential in the baking process because gluten cannot develop without some liquid Water Water is the basic liquid used in baking Milk Milk or cream may be used for flavor, to develop color or to add nutritional value Buttermilk Buttermilk is slightly acidic and is often used in quickbreads Cream Cream is most often used in custards and fillings
…Eggs Eggs Eggs add structure because they contain proteins contain fats and make a product tender because they shorten gluten strands add flavor and nutritional value Beaten Beaten eggs contain air bubbles which expand when baked and thus leaven some baked goods
…Leavening agents Leavening Leavening is the production of gases in baked goods which increases volume Yeast Yeast is a microscopic plant which produces CO2 when it gets warmth and moisture Baking Baking soda also produces CO2 when moisture and an acid are added to it powder produces CO2 when it gets warmth and moisture Water Water in baked goods leavens because it expands to 1600 times its original volume when it flashes to steam Yeast, Yeast, baking powder, baking soda and water all leaven baked goods and increase their volume
…Chocolate and cocoa Chocolate is made from roasted cocoa or cacao beans. The beans are ground to make chocolate liquour. Hardened chocolate liquour is just bitter chocolate The addition of sugar makes it into sweet chocolate and milk solids make it into milk chocolate Chocolate liquor can be separated into cocoa powder and cocoa butter. Cocoa butter becomes white chocolate with the addition of sugar and milk solids
…Salt Salt strengthens gluten and weakens yeast growth. Most importantly it turbocharges your taste buds to bring out flavors …Spices Spices such as nutmeg, cloves, ginger, mace and cinnamon add flavor and interest …Extracts and emulsions Extracts are flavorful oils, such as vanilla, dissolved in alcohol Emulsions are oils like lemon or orange oil mixed with water