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Lecture Goals Introduction to the major groups of zooplankton Discussion of common and distinguishing characteristics of these groups Important controls.

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Presentation on theme: "Lecture Goals Introduction to the major groups of zooplankton Discussion of common and distinguishing characteristics of these groups Important controls."— Presentation transcript:

1 Lecture Goals Introduction to the major groups of zooplankton Discussion of common and distinguishing characteristics of these groups Important controls on distribution and abundance of zooplankton

2 Approach to Freshwater Animals Descriptions of major groups, organized taxonomically when possible Some morphology, but I will focus on life history and ecology Life History: changes experienced by an individual between birth and death that determine habitat requirements, ecology, and reproductive output Ecology: interactions among species, or between the focal species (stage) and physical habitat

3 What are zooplankton? Microscopic animals that float freely in the water column Very important as primary consumers – converting energy from phytoplankton to a form that can be used by larger animals Important food base for secondary consumers, including fish

4 Major groups of freshwater zooplankton Rotifers Cladocerans Copepods

5 Rotifers 50 μm – 3 mm Smallest metazoan

6 Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus Species Taxonomy

7 Kingdom: Animalia Phylum: Rotifera Class Order Family Genus Species Rotifer Taxonomy

8 Rotifer Diversity **High diversity in morphology

9 STRESS Cyclical Parthenogenesis*

10 Resting Eggs

11 Cyclical Parthenogenesis

12 Rotifer Life Cycle No Molting Cell Expansion

13 Rotifer Colonies

14 Major groups of freshwater zooplankton Rotifers Cladocerans Copepods

15 Cladocerans 0.5 mm – 3 mm

16 Kingdom: Animalia Phylum: Arthropoda Class: Crustacea Orders: Cladocera Family: Daphniidae and Bosminidae Genus Species Cladoceran Taxonomy

17 Cladoceran Families DaphniidaeBosminidae **High diversity in morphology

18 Cyclical Parthenogenesis*

19 Cladoceran Eggs

20 Cladoceran Life Cycle

21 Cyclical Parthenogenesis

22 Ephippium

23 Cyclical Parthenogenesis

24 Major groups of freshwater zooplankton Rotifers Cladocerans Copepods

25 1.0 mm – 8.5 mm

26 Kingdom: Animalia Phylum: Arthropoda Class: Crustacea Orders: Cyclopoida, Calanodia, Harpacticoid Family Genus Species Copepod Taxonomy

27 Copepod Orders CyclopoidCalanoidHarpacticoid **Low diversity in morphology

28 Copepod Egg Sacs Cyclopoid

29 Copepod Egg Sacs Calanoid

30 Copepod Egg Sacs Harpacticoid

31 Copepod Life Cycle

32 Controls on Zooplankton Distribution and Abundance Temperature Nutrients Physical Phactors Phish Phytoplankton Vertical Migration Parthenogenic Sexual Cycles Predation among Zooplankton

33 Controls on Zooplankton Distribution and Abundance Temperature Nutrients Physical Phactors Phish Phytoplankton Vertical Migration Parthenogenic Sexual Cycles Predation among Zooplankton

34 Zoop Distribution and Abundance: Temperature Nutrients

35 Controls on Zooplankton Distribution and Abundance Temperature Nutrients Physical Phactors Phish Phytoplankton Vertical Migration Parthenogenic Sexual Cycles Predation among Zooplankton

36 Physical Phish Phytoplankton Zoop Distribution and Abundance:

37 Zooplankton Population Dynamics

38 Controls on Zooplankton Distribution and Abundance Temperature Nutrients Physical Phactors Phish Phytoplankton Vertical Migration Parthenogenic Sexual Cycles Predation among Zooplankton

39 Vertical Migration Pattern Zoop Distribution and Abundance: Variation with stage and sex Light is proximal cue 3 main hypotheses

40 Vertical Migration Hypotheses: Predation

41 Vertical Migration Hypotheses: Food Quality

42 Vertical Migration Hypotheses: Growth and Feeding Efficiency as a Function of Temperature Hunt warm, rest cool High Feeding Efficiency High Growth Efficiency

43 Controls on Zooplankton Distribution and Abundance Temperature Nutrients Physical Phactors Phish Phytoplankton Vertical Migration Parthenogenic Sexual Cycles Predation among Zooplankton

44 Parthenogenic -Sexual Cycles Zoop. Distribution and Abundance: VS.

45 Asplanchna Paramecium + = Amictic Parthenogenic -Sexual Cycles

46 Asplanchna Paramecium + = + Euglena Chlamydomonas Amictic Parthenogenic -Sexual Cycles

47 Mictic Parthenogenic -Sexual Cycles = Large Mictic Enlargement Mictic withHumps Sex

48 Controls on Zooplankton Distribution and Abundance Temperature Nutrients Physical Phactors Phish Phytoplankton Vertical Migration Parthenogenic Sexual Cycles Predation among Zooplankton

49 Predation among zooplankton Zoop. Distribution and Abundance:

50 Predation Among Zooplankton Cyclomorphosis

51 Cyclomorphosis: Elongation

52 Cyclomorphosis: Enlargement Mictic Large Mictic Asplanchna

53 Cyclomorphosis: Production of Lateral Spines

54 Cyclomorphosis: Reduction in Spines Keratella

55 Zooplankton in Streams and Rivers Backwaters Reservoirs Low-Flow Areas

56 Alternate Copepod Life Cycle Cocopods Copepuffs


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