2EGGS ARE NUTRITIOUS…Whole eggs are protein-rich, low in sodium and contain varying amounts of 13 vitamins and minerals. Eggs are nutrient-rich compared to calorie intake… just 70 calories per large egg.
3PARTS OF AN EGGSHELL1. The shell surrounding the egg is porous. Odors, flavors, and moisture can pass through the microscopic holes. For this reason, the egg should be stored in an enclosed space, such as the egg carton. The color of the shell depends on the breed of the chicken, and although brown eggs may be more expensive, color makes no difference at all in any quality other than appearance. Do not wash eggs before storing them, as this removes a naturally protective coating.
4PARTS OF AN EGG INNER AND OUTER SHELL MEMBRANES 2. The inner and outer shell membranes resemble layers of skin. When an egg is very fresh (less than 3 days old) and is heated, these membranes form a bond between the shell and the egg whites. The shell will be very hard to remove in this case, without tearing the cooked egg white apart.
5PARTS OF AN EGGAIR CELL3. The air cell is always found on the wide end of the egg. When peeling a hard-cooked egg, you always want to start at this air cell.
6PARTS OF AN EGG THIN ALBUMEN THICK ALBUMEN 4 & 5. There are two types of egg whites in each egg, the thick and the thin egg whites… or albumen. Egg whites consist of protein and water. No fat. The older an egg gets, the thinner the whites become.
7PARTS OF AN EGG CHALAZAE 6. The chalazae (chă lă zuh) are two rope-like structures at either end of the egg. They hold the yolk centered in the egg. As the egg ages, the chalazae become weaker. When separating the yolk from the whites, the chalazae often becomes part of the egg white. Eggs should be stored ‘pointed end down’ to maintain the centering of the yolk and quality of the air cell.
8PARTS OF AN EGG7. The yolk is liquid, having no shape of its own. The round shape of the yolk is due entirely to the vitelline (vǐ tuh leen) membrane. It is completely transparent. When we say we ‘broke the egg yolk’, we actually mean we ‘broke the vitelline membrane’ surrounding the yolk.VITELLINE MEMBRANE
9PARTS OF AN EGGThe yolk contains protein, fat, and a natural thickener or emulsifier called ‘lecithin’. The color of the yolk depends on the diet of the chicken. The fat found in the yolk is a saturated fat called cholesterol.Cholesterol is the type of fat that can clog the arteries of the body if eaten in excess. People with heart disease may need to limit egg yolk intake.YOLK
10PARTS OF AN EGG GERM CELL 9. The germ cell appears as a whitish-colored disc on the surface of the yolk. It is the part of the yolk that would develop into a chick if the egg was fertilized. The hen will lay eggs, approximately one every 24 hours for 2 years, whether or not there is a rooster around to fertilize them before it is laid.
11Grade A eggs have a flatter yolk and less thick egg whites EGG GRADINGEgg grades are based on the shape of the yolk and the amounts of thick and thin whites.Before they are sold, eggs are graded. This is done by shining a bright light in a manner so you can see through the shell. This process is called “candling”.Grade AA eggGrade A eggs have a flatter yolk and less thick egg whitesThe egg will lose quality as it ages. Eggs must be refrigerated to maintain quality.
12EGG GRADINGGrade B eggs will not have a high quality appearance, and spreads out a lot when removed from the shell.Grade C eggs are generally considered ‘unfit for human consumption’, but may be used in pet food products.
13A larger egg does NOT denote better quality. EGG GRADINGThe size of the egg varies with the age of the chicken. The young pullet lays a much smaller egg than a mature hen.Most recipes are based on the use of large eggs. Large eggs weigh 24 oz. per dozen. You may need to adjust cooking time for smaller or larger eggs.A larger egg does NOT denote better quality.
14How can you tell a fresh egg from a spoiled one? A spoiled egg has a shiny shell and floats in water. It is only AFTER you crack open the egg that it smells bad, and by that time you may have added the egg to your other ingredients. That would be TOO LATE! If you suspect that an egg may be spoiled, use this water test first.A fresh egg has a domed yolk. There is plenty of thick egg white (notice both the thick and thin whites in the picture) and the whites are translucent (not transparent). A refrigerated egg maintains maximum freshness for one week.
15Cooking Rules for Eggs: 1. Avoid excessive temperatures2. Avoid excessive cooking time
16Cooking Rules for Eggs: As the protein in eggs heats up, it forms a network or type of web. If heating is excessive, the network becomes tough and rubbery. It also tightens up, squeezing out water. The food may become dry or has water standing on the surface.Overcooked eggs may also turn a greenish color. This is a reaction of iron in the yolk and sulfur in the whites that occurs when the cooking is excessive.
17COAGULATION & DENATURATION OF PROTEIN… Coagulation (ko-ag-yuh-LAY-shun) changes a liquid protein into a soft, semisolid clot or solid mass. It occurs when polypeptides unfold during denaturation and then collide and clump together during cooking processes. Coagulation is not reversible.Coagulation of egg protein caused by heat.Denaturation (dee-nay-chuh-RAY-shun) is a process that causes protein to become a looser, less compact structure. It can be caused by heat, freezing, sound waves, mechanical treatment like beating, the addition of ingredients that raise or lower pH levels, or the presence of minerals such as sodium, copper, potassium, or iron. Denaturation is sometimes reversible.Denaturing protein by mechanical method.
18Egg safety…According to the American Egg board, about one in every 20,000 eggs might be contaminated by Salmonella. To decrease the risk of illness, make sure to utilize fresh, whole, grade A or AA eggs that are uncracked and properly refrigerated OR use frozen or dried pasteurized eggs rather than shell eggs, OR pasteurize raw eggs before using them.When you pasteurize eggs you bring them up to about degrees for 3-5 minutes depending on the age and the size of the eggs. If the temperature goes any higher you start to cook the egg. Pasteurizing eggs won’t completely eliminate the risks that eating raw eggs bring, it will however drastically reduce the chance of contamination.
19Egg safety…Cooking eggs to a temperature of 145º F or higher kills all disease-causing microorganisms in eggs. An egg with a runny yolk is a higher risk than one with a fully-cooked yolk. Avoid holding egg dishes longer than one-half hour.Scrambled eggs are less-hazardous than sunny-side-up eggs. Hard-cooked eggs are safer than soft-cooked eggs. Higher-risk foods include mayonnaise, Caesar salad dressings, meringues, hollandaise and béarnaise sauces, and eggnog.It is no accident that we feed scrambled eggs to young children and patients in hospitals.
20Cooking eggs…The 100 pleats on a chef’s toque (tōke) (tall, white hat) are said to represent the 100 ways a chef can prepare eggs!Eggs can be baked or ‘shirred’ (shurred): Place in greased ramekin or custard cup; cover with 1 T. milk; bake for min. until whites are set.Eggs can be poached: ‘fried’ in water, milk, or broth instead of in fat. Remove the eggs with a slotted spoon and drain on paper towels. Eggs made without grease are easily digested and low-calorie.
21Eggs can be scrambled: do not stir constantly; cook until yolks and whites are firm Cooking eggs…Blindfolded/bastedOver/over-easyEggs can be fried in a small amount of fat:A. ‘sunny-side-up’ has just-cooked whites;B. ‘over’ is flipped over during cooking until yolk is hard;C. ‘over-easy’ is flipped over during cooking but yolk is soft;D. ‘blindfolded’ or ‘basted’ is like sunny side up, only adding a small amount of water and a lid forms a film on the top of the yolk
22Cooking eggs…Eggs can be cooked in the shell (since boiling is an ‘excessive temperature for eggs, they should be cooked in hot liquid just under the boiling point):Soft-cooked eggs are brought to boiling, and then allowed to sit in the hot water for 4-5 minutes; run under cold water until they are cool enough to handle.Hard-cooked eggs are brought to boiling, and then allowed to sit in hot water for 15 minutes (large eggs). Cool immediately.
23Functions of Eggs:Eggs have numerous functions when used as an ingredient in various types of foods..
24They cause foods to get thick… a thickener Functions of Eggs:They add flavorThey add colorThey cause foods to get thick… a thickenerThis hollandaise sauce is the perfect example of using eggs to add flavor, color, AND to thicken..
25Without the eggs, this meatloaf would fall apart. Functions of Eggs:4. They are a ‘binder’… they hold foods togetherWithout the eggs, this meatloaf would fall apart.
26Functions of Eggs:5. Mixing coffee grounds with egg (and even the egg shells) before brewing ‘clarifies’ the coffee… trapping the ‘dust’ from the grounds and keeping it clear and less bitter
276. They help create ‘structure’… as the protein in the egg coagulates Functions of Eggs:6. They help create ‘structure’… as the protein in the egg coagulates.
287. They cause ‘browning’… when using an ‘egg wash’ Functions of Eggs:7. They cause ‘browning’… when using an ‘egg wash’Egg washes are commonly used on pastries and breads for a glossy, brown coloring..
299. They ‘enrich’… adding nutrients such as protein Functions of Eggs:8. They preserve texture… egg yolks are natural ‘emulsifiers’, which help keep batters smooth. An emulsifier has the ability of keeping a fat and a liquid mixed together without separation.9. They ‘enrich’… adding nutrients such as protein.
30Functions of Eggs:10. They are a ‘leavening agent’… beaten eggs incorporate air, which rises up as it warmsThey addmoisture.
31Separating EggsSome recipes call just for the egg whites, while others call only for the yolks. When separating the two parts, be careful not to break the yolk. Use the method of separation that works the best for you; strive to learn the most efficient method.Most efficient method
32Separating EggsUse the sharp, jagged edge of the broken egg shell to remove any unwanted yolk or pieces of shell from your egg mixture. The edge of the shell will cut through the whites, when the edge of a spoon or knife will not.
33increasing the volume of beaten egg whites! Egg whites start out being “slimy”. As they are beaten, air is added. The whites turn from pale yellow to white in color and increase in “volume”. The more volume…the better. You should follow as many rules as possible for…increasing the volume of beaten egg whites!A. Eggs should be at room temperatureB. Don’t get any yolk mixed in with the whitesC. Use a smaller deep bowl, rather than a larger shallow oneD. Use a copper bowlE. Make sure eggs are at least 3 days oldF. No grease residue allowed! (none on beaters, bowl, etc.)
34A “meringue” is basically a mixture of beaten egg whites and sugar, baked in an oven. Although there are several types, the most common use of meringue is as a topping for pies.MERINGUEIf the oven temperature is too high, the meringue will shrivel and shrink back from the edges of the crust. Too low of temperature causes the meringue to be dry. If too much sugar is beaten into the egg whites, yellow liquid “beads” of sugar appear on the baked and cooled meringue surface. This is an undesirable quality is called “weeping”.
35What caused your egg whites to turn green while being beaten? What might have caused your egg whites to turn gray while being beaten?You were probably using an aluminum bowl or aluminum beaters, or perhaps your nickel or chrome plated beaters have a nick on the finish. Egg whites exposed to aluminum causes them to turn gray in color!What caused your egg whites to turn green while being beaten?Were you using a copper bowl that had traces of some sort of acid present…like cream of tartar or lemon juice? The metal copper in combination with acid causes egg whites to turn a greenish color!
36EGGS USED FOR HARD-COOKING MUST BE AT LEAST 3 DAYS OLD! Selecting eggs for hard-cooking (hard boiling) ...In eggs fresher than 3 days old, the outer membrane adheres to the shell during the cooking process. When you try to peel the egg, chunks of egg white cling to the shell, and are removed when the egg is peeled. What a mess!EGGS USED FOR HARD-COOKING MUST BE AT LEAST 3 DAYS OLD!
37How can you tell a raw egg from a hard-cooked egg without breaking the shell? Place the egg on it’s pointed end, and spin it like a toy top. A hard-cooked egg will spin, but a raw egg will topple over immediately! (The heavy yolk wobbles back and forth inside, causing the egg to topple over.)
38Adding egg yolks to hot mixtures... You cannot add egg yolks directly to hot mixtures or the egg will cook instantly and cause lumps! You must first “warm” the yolks. Begin by slowly adding the hot mixture to the beaten yolks while stirring the yolks constantly. Then reverse the procedure, adding the warmed yolks to the hot mixture. This process of warming the yolks first is called…tempering!
39CUSTARDS…A “custard” is any soft, egg-based dish. Unsweetened ones can be served as main or side dishes, while sweet custards are served for dessert.Real men don’t eat quiche! The delicate flavors of a custard-based quiche are often not appreciated by the “meat and potatoes” crowd. Quiche Lorraine is an egg pie with bacon and Swiss cheese.Pumpkin pie and baked custard cups (a type of steamed pudding) are two favorite dessert custards.
40CUSTARDS…Use the knife test to check a custard for doneness. Insert the knife halfway between the center and the edge of the dish. If the knife comes out clean…the custard is done.Custard cups are often set in a pan of water for baking. The water moderates the baking temperature so the outside edge does not overbake before the center gets done.Crème brûlée is a baked custard with a hard sugar coating, burned under a grill or with a blowtorch.
41Delicate egg sauces...A classic vanilla sauce is called a crème anglais (krĕm an-GLAY). It is a delicate sauce that is made from milk, egg yolks, and sugar.A hollandaise sauce, such as one over ‘Eggs Benedict’ or poured over green vegetables is a delicate lemon-butter-egg sauce.curdledSauces may need to be made in a double boiler. If they overheat, they may ‘curdle’. It will appear separated or develop lumps. Straining the sauce may help save it.
42Delicate egg sauces...A ‘pastry cream’ is a sweetened pudding-like filling for cream puffs or éclairs.Sabayon (suh-by-ŌWN) is a very fragile foam of egg yolks, sugar, and Marsala wine.Quality ice cream has a custard base (cream or milk and eggs). It does not weep or separate as it softens at room temperature.
43Challenging egg dishes... Are you looking for a challenge? Perhaps you should try making a soufflé. Served as a main or side dish, or sweetened and served as dessert…the key ingredient of any souffle’ are the beaten egg whites that are carefully folded in. The voluminous egg whites cause the souffle’ to rise, but even a slight vibration or temperature change may cause it to “fall”!This “high hat” soufflé is baked in a straight sided dish. It rises above the edge of the dish and obtains a crown-effect.
44Made by hard-BOILING the eggs COMMON EGG DISHES: DEVILLED EGGS1. Check eggs for cracks. Cover with cold water.2. Bring water to just-under-boiling. Time for 10 minutes.3. Immediately cool eggs. Overcooking allows the iron in the yolk to reach the outside of the yolk and leave a green ring around the yolk.4. Remove shells.6. Place yolks in a shallow dish, such as a pie plate.7. Thoroughly mash yolks with a fork.5. Cut eggs in half lengthwise and remove yolks.8. Moisten with mayonnaise. Add mustard and seasonings to taste.9. Fill hollows of egg whites with the yolk mixture. Garnish as desired. Paprika is a popular garnish…adding color and sweetness.
45COMMON EGG DISHES: FRENCH & SOUFFLÉD OMELETS 1. Select a skillet with sloping sides and a lid. Non-stick surfaces such as teflon are ideal.2. Beat whole eggs and seasonings. Usually 2 or 3 eggs are used.3. Melt butter in skillet (even if teflon) and add beaten eggs.4. Carefully lift edges of cooked eggs, allowing uncooked mixture to run underneath.5. If you are adding fillings such as diced ham and grated cheese, place those fillings on only ½ of the egg mixture. Adding the lid at this time will help heat the filling.6.Using a spatula/turner, carefully lift the unfilled side of the cooked egg mixture and fold it in half over the filled side of the omelet. Continue cooking ‘til filling is completely done.7. Carefully slide the omelet out of the skillet and onto a plate.8. Serve this “French omelet” plain or with condiments.A ‘fluffy’ or ‘souffléd’ omelet is one in which stiffly beaten egg whites are folded into egg yolks. It starts cooking on the stovetop and finishes in the oven. It is not filled, but often served with sauce.
46NOW IT'S YOUR TURN TO COOK THE ENDNOW IT'S YOUR TURN TO COOKTHE INCREDIBLE, EDIBLE EGGS!