2Eggs Understanding Eggs The Composition of Eggs Yolk High in both fat and protein.Contains iron and several vitamins.Color ranges from light to dark yellow, depending on the diet of the chicken.
3Eggs Understanding Eggs The Composition of Eggs White Primarily albumin protein.Clear and soluble when raw but white and firm when coagulated.Contains sulfur.
4Eggs Understanding Eggs The Composition of Eggs Shell Fragile and also porous.Allows odors and flavors to be absorbed by the egg.Allows the egg to lose moisture even if unbroken.
5An egg contains the highest quality food protein known It is so nearly perfect, in fact, that egg protein is often the standard by which all other proteins are judged. Based on the essential amino acids it provides, egg protein is second only to mother's milk for human nutrition. On a scale with 100 representing top efficiency, these are the biological values of proteins in several foods. Protein Whole egg 93.7Milk 84.5Fish 76.0Beef 74.3Soybeans 72.8Rice, polished 64.0Wheat, whole 64.0Corn 60.0Beans, dry 58.0
6Understanding Eggs: Grades and Quality The best grade (AA) has a firm yolk and white that stand up high when broken onto a flat surface and do not spread over a large area.Use for fried or poached eggs.
7Understanding Eggs: Grades and Quality Grade B eggs, as seen from the top and side. Note how the white and yolk lose thickness and spread more in the lower grades.Use for scrambled eggs and baking.
8TEST FOR FRESHNESSThe air cell, or the empty space between the white and shell at the large end of the egg, gets larger as the egg ages. When an egg is first expelled, it is warm. As it cools, the contents contract and the inner shell membrane separates from the outer shell membrane to form the air cell.If you immerse an egg in (cool) water, you can judge how fresh it is by how high it floats. Really fresh eggs won't float at all; the higher it floats, the less likely it is to be fresh.Another way is to shake the egg. Fresh eggs make no sound. Old eggs slosh in the shell.
9Eggs Understanding Eggs Maintaining Quality Proper storage is essential for maintaining quality.Eggs keep for weeks if held at 36°F (2°C) but lose quality quickly if held at room temperature.Eggs can lose a full grade in one day at warm kitchen temperatures.Store eggs away from foods that might pass on undesirable flavors or odors.
10Eggs Understanding Eggs Egg Size Classifications* Size U.S. Metric__ Jumbo 30 oz gExtra-large 27 oz gLarge 24 oz gMedium 21 oz gSmall 18 oz gPeewee 15 oz g* Minimum Weight per Dozen
11Eggs Understanding Eggs Market Forms Fresh eggs or shell eggs Frozen eggsWhole eggsWhitesYolksWhole eggs with extra yolksDried eggs
12Eggs Understanding Eggs Sanitation In recent years, cases of salmonella food poisoning have been caused by raw or undercooked eggs.As a result, cooks have been made more aware of egg-related sanitation concerns.Pasteurized egg products are used in more operations.
13PRACTICE EGG SAFETYCLEAN: Wash hands and surfaces frequently. Thoroughly wash all utensils used.COOK: To proper temperatures.SEPARATE: Do not cross contaminate.CHILL: Refrigerate properlyWhen cracked, discard any raw eggs that contain large bloodspots or have an unusual odor
14Eggs Understanding Eggs Egg Substitutes Efforts to reduce cholesterol in the diet have led to the development of commercial egg substitutes.These are of two types:Egg substitutes that are made of pasteurized egg whites with the addition of a blend of ingredients to substitute for the yolks.Eggless egg substitutes that contain no egg product.
15Eggs Understanding Eggs General Cooking Principles The most important rule of egg cookery is simple: Avoid high temperatures and long cooking times.Overcooking produces tough eggs, causes discoloration, and affects flavor.
16Eggs Understanding Eggs Coagulation Eggs coagulate at the following temperatures:Whole eggs, beaten, about 156°F (69°C).Whites 140°–149°F (60°–65°C).Yolks 144°–158°F (62°–70°C).Custard (whole eggs plus liquid) 175°–185°F (79°–85°C).When eggs are mixed with a liquid, they become firm at a higher temperature.
17Eggs Understanding Eggs Coagulation An overcooked egg is tough and rubbery.Low temperatures produce the best-cooked eggs.If egg-liquid mixtures such as custards and scrambled eggs are overcooked, the egg solids separate from the liquids, or curdle.This is often seen as tough, watery scrambled eggs.
18Eggs Understanding Eggs Sulfur The familiar green ring you often see in hard-cooked eggs is caused by cooking at high temperatures or cooking too long.This ring results when the sulfur in the egg whites reacts with the iron in the yolk to form iron sulfide.A compound that has a green color and a strong odor and flavor.Use low temperatures and short cooking and holding times.
19Eggs Understanding Eggs Foams Whipped egg whites are used to give lightness and rising power.When foaming egg whites:Fat inhibits foaming.Mild acids help foaming.Egg whites foam better at room temperature.Do not overbeat.Sugar makes foams more stable.
20Eggs Understanding Eggs Foaming Egg Whites The whites are just beginning to whipinto a foam.The whites have reached the soft-peak stage.The whites have reached the firm-peak stage. Note the smooth texture. Whipping beyond this stage will cause the foam to break.
21Cooking Eggs Simmering in the Shell The term hard-boiled egg is not a good one to use because eggs should be simmered instead of boiled.Eggs may be simmered in water to the following stages:Soft-cookedMedium-cookedHard-cooked
22Cooking Eggs Poaching Standards of Quality for poached eggs: Bright, shiny appearanceCompact, round shape, not spread or flattenedFirm but tender whites; warm, liquid yolks
23Cooking Eggs Fried Eggs Fried eggs are an especially popular breakfast preparation.They should always be cooked to order and served immediately.The choice of cooking fat is a matter of taste and budget.Butter has the best flavor.Margarine or oil may be used.Use bacon fat only if that flavor is desired by the customer.
24Cooking Eggs Fried Eggs Lift the handle of the pan and slide the eggs to the far edge with a quick jerk.With a quick flip of the wrist turn the eggs over. Do not flip the eggs too hard, or the yolks may break when they land.
25Cooking Eggs Fried Eggs When frying eggs on a griddle: Turn them with one smooth motion of the spatula.The left corner of the egg never actually leaves the surface of the griddle.
26Cooking Eggs Fried Eggs Sunny side up Basted Over easy Over medium White is completely set but yolk is still soft and yellow.BastedThin film of coagulated white will cover the yolk, which should remain liquid.Over easyCook just until the white is just set but the yolk is still liquid.Over mediumCook until the yolk is partially set.Over hardCook until the yolk is completely set.
27Cooking Eggs Fried Eggs Standards of Quality for Fried Eggs White should be shiny, uniformly set, and tender.Not browned, blistered, or crisp at edges.Yolk should be set properly according to desired doneness.Sunny-side-up yolks should be yellow and well rounded.In other styles, the yolk is covered with a thin layer of coagulated white.Relatively compact, standing high, and not spread out and thin.
28Cooking Eggs Baked Eggs Baked eggs are baked in individual serving dishes.They are also called shirred eggs and eggs en cocotte.They may also be baked with or garnished with a variety of meats and sauces.
29Cooking Eggs Scrambled Eggs Should be undercooked if they are to be held for volume service.They will cook more in the steam table.Do not overcook scrambled eggs or hold them too long.Overcooked eggs are tough and watery.They eventually turn green in the steam table.Scrambled eggs should be soft and moist, unless the customer requests “scrambled hard.”
30Cooking Eggs French Omelet Two elements are necessary for making omelets:High heatThe omelet cooks so fast that its internal temperature never has time to get too high.A conditioned omelet panThe pan must have sloping sides and be the right size so the omelet can be shaped properly.It must be well seasoned or conditioned to avoid sticking.
31Cooking Eggs French Omelet Making a French Omelet As soon as the eggs are added to the hot pan, shake the pan back and forth with one hand and stir the eggs in a circular motion with a fork.When the eggs are almost set, tilt the pan and shake the eggs down to the opposite side of the pan. Rapping the handle sharply helps move the eggs.
32Cooking Eggs French Omelet Making a French Omelet Spoon the filling, if used,across the center.Fold over the side of the omelet to make an oval shape.
33Cooking Eggs French Omelet Making a French Omelet Grasp the handle of the panwith your palm underneath and tilt the omelet onto a plate.The finished omelet should have a neat, oval shape. Some chefs prefer omelets that are lightly browned. Others feel they should not be browned at all.
34Frittatas and Other Omelets Cooking EggsFrittatas and Other OmeletsAmerican-Style OmeletIt is made somewhat like a French omelet, except low heat is used and the eggs are not stirred or agitated.The edges of the cooked portion are lifted with a fork or spatula, allowing the uncooked portion to flow underneath.Soufflé OmeletMade by beating the egg whites separately and folding them into the beaten yolks, which may have some milk added.The mixture is poured into a hot, buttered omelet pan.Omelet is finished in the oven.It is folded in half for service.
35Frittatas and Other Omelets Cooking EggsFrittatas and Other OmeletsFrittataA frittata is a flat omelet that originated in Italy.Flat omelets are made by mixing beaten eggs with a variety of ingredients and cooking the mixture over low heat without stirring.To finish, it is either flipped over or run under the broiler or into the oven until the top is set.
36Cooking EggsSoufflésA standard entrée soufflé consists of three elements:Base: usually a heavy béchamel sauce.Flavor ingredient: cheese, vegetables, seafood, etc.Egg whites, beaten.
37Cooking EggsCustardsCustard is a liquid that is thickened or set by the coagulation of egg protein.There are two basic kinds of custard:Stirred custard, which is stirred as it cooks and remains pourable when done.Baked custard, which is not stirred and sets firm.One basic rule governs the preparation of both custards: Do not heat custards higher than an internal temperature of 185°F (85°C).Quiche is a custard baked in a pastry shell.