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Chapter 24 Breakfast Preparation Copyright © 2011 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 24 Breakfast Preparation Copyright © 2011 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All Rights Reserved."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 24 Breakfast Preparation Copyright © 2011 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All Rights Reserved

2 Eggs The Composition of Eggs Yolk High in both fat and protein. Contains iron and several vitamins. Color ranges from light to dark yellow, depending on the diet of the chicken. 2 Understanding Eggs

3 Eggs The Composition of Eggs White Primarily albumin protein. Clear and soluble when raw but white and firm when coagulated. Contains sulfur. 3 Understanding Eggs

4 Eggs The Composition of Eggs Shell Fragile and also porous. Allows odors and flavors to be absorbed by the egg. Allows the egg to lose moisture even if unbroken. 4 Understanding Eggs

5 An egg contains the highest quality food protein known It is so nearly perfect, in fact, that egg protein is often the standard by which all other proteins are judged. Based on the essential amino acids it provides, egg protein is second only to mother's milk for human nutrition. On a scale with 100 representing top efficiency, these are the biological values of proteins in several foods. Protein Whole egg93.7 Milk84.5 Fish76.0 Beef74.3 Soybeans72.8 Rice, polished64.0 Wheat, whole64.0 Corn60.0 Beans, dry58.0 5

6 The best grade (AA) has a firm yolk and white that stand up high when broken onto a flat surface and do not spread over a large area. Use for fried or poached eggs. Eggs 6 Understanding Eggs: Grades and Quality

7 Grade B eggs, as seen from the top and side. Note how the white and yolk lose thickness and spread more in the lower grades. Use for scrambled eggs and baking. Eggs 7 Understanding Eggs: Grades and Quality

8 TEST FOR FRESHNESS The air cell, or the empty space between the white and shell at the large end of the egg, gets larger as the egg ages. When an egg is first expelled, it is warm. As it cools, the contents contract and the inner shell membrane separates from the outer shell membrane to form the air cell. If you immerse an egg in (cool) water, you can judge how fresh it is by how high it floats. Really fresh eggs won't float at all; the higher it floats, the less likely it is to be fresh. Another way is to shake the egg. Fresh eggs make no sound. Old eggs slosh in the shell. 8

9 Eggs Maintaining Quality Proper storage is essential for maintaining quality. Eggs keep for weeks if held at 36°F (2°C) but lose quality quickly if held at room temperature. Eggs can lose a full grade in one day at warm kitchen temperatures. Store eggs away from foods that might pass on undesirable flavors or odors. 9 Understanding Eggs

10 Eggs Egg Size Classifications* Size U.S.Metric__ Jumbo 30 oz 850 g Extra-large 27 oz 765 g Large 24 oz 680 g Medium 21 oz 595 g Small 18 oz510 g Peewee 15 oz 425 g * Minimum Weight per Dozen 10 Understanding Eggs

11 Eggs Market Forms 1.Fresh eggs or shell eggs 2.Frozen eggs Whole eggs Whites Yolks Whole eggs with extra yolks 3.Dried eggs Whole eggs Yolks Whites 11 Understanding Eggs

12 Eggs Sanitation In recent years, cases of salmonella food poisoning have been caused by raw or undercooked eggs. As a result, cooks have been made more aware of egg-related sanitation concerns. Pasteurized egg products are used in more operations. 12 Understanding Eggs

13 PRACTICE EGG SAFETY CLEAN: Wash hands and surfaces frequently. Thoroughly wash all utensils used. COOK: To proper temperatures. SEPARATE: Do not cross contaminate. CHILL: Refrigerate properly When cracked, discard any raw eggs that contain large bloodspots or have an unusual odor 13

14 Eggs Egg Substitutes Efforts to reduce cholesterol in the diet have led to the development of commercial egg substitutes. These are of two types: 1.Egg substitutes that are made of pasteurized egg whites with the addition of a blend of ingredients to substitute for the yolks. 2.Eggless egg substitutes that contain no egg product. 14 Understanding Eggs

15 Eggs General Cooking Principles The most important rule of egg cookery is simple: Avoid high temperatures and long cooking times. Overcooking produces tough eggs, causes discoloration, and affects flavor. 15 Understanding Eggs

16 Eggs Coagulation Eggs coagulate at the following temperatures: Whole eggs, beaten, about 156°F (69°C). Whites 140°–149°F (60°–65°C). Yolks 144°–158°F (62°–70°C). Custard (whole eggs plus liquid) 175°–185°F (79°–85°C). When eggs are mixed with a liquid, they become firm at a higher temperature. 16 Understanding Eggs

17 Eggs Coagulation An overcooked egg is tough and rubbery. Low temperatures produce the best-cooked eggs. If egg-liquid mixtures such as custards and scrambled eggs are overcooked, the egg solids separate from the liquids, or curdle. This is often seen as tough, watery scrambled eggs. 17 Understanding Eggs

18 Eggs Sulfur The familiar green ring you often see in hard-cooked eggs is caused by cooking at high temperatures or cooking too long. This ring results when the sulfur in the egg whites reacts with the iron in the yolk to form iron sulfide. A compound that has a green color and a strong odor and flavor. Use low temperatures and short cooking and holding times. 18 Understanding Eggs

19 Eggs Foams Whipped egg whites are used to give lightness and rising power. When foaming egg whites: 1.Fat inhibits foaming. 2.Mild acids help foaming. 3.Egg whites foam better at room temperature. 4.Do not overbeat. 5.Sugar makes foams more stable. 19 Understanding Eggs

20 Eggs 20 Understanding Eggs Foaming Egg Whites The whites are just beginning to whip into a foam. The whites have reached the soft-peak stage. The whites have reached the firm-peak stage. Note the smooth texture. Whipping beyond this stage will cause the foam to break.

21 Cooking Eggs The term hard-boiled egg is not a good one to use because eggs should be simmered instead of boiled. Eggs may be simmered in water to the following stages: Soft-cooked Medium-cooked Hard-cooked 21 Simmering in the Shell

22 Cooking Eggs Standards of Quality for poached eggs: Bright, shiny appearance Compact, round shape, not spread or flattened Firm but tender whites; warm, liquid yolks 22 Poaching

23 Cooking Eggs Fried eggs are an especially popular breakfast preparation. They should always be cooked to order and served immediately. The choice of cooking fat is a matter of taste and budget. Butter has the best flavor. Margarine or oil may be used. Use bacon fat only if that flavor is desired by the customer. 23 Fried Eggs

24 Cooking Eggs 24 Lift the handle of the pan and slide the eggs to the far edge with a quick jerk. With a quick flip of the wrist turn the eggs over. Do not flip the eggs too hard, or the yolks may break when they land. Fried Eggs

25 Cooking Eggs 25 Fried Eggs When frying eggs on a griddle: Turn them with one smooth motion of the spatula. The left corner of the egg never actually leaves the surface of the griddle.

26 Cooking Eggs Sunny side up White is completely set but yolk is still soft and yellow. Basted Thin film of coagulated white will cover the yolk, which should remain liquid. Over easy Cook just until the white is just set but the yolk is still liquid. Over medium Cook until the yolk is partially set. Over hard Cook until the yolk is completely set. 26 Fried Eggs

27 Cooking Eggs Standards of Quality for Fried Eggs 1.White should be shiny, uniformly set, and tender. Not browned, blistered, or crisp at edges. 2.Yolk should be set properly according to desired doneness. Sunny-side-up yolks should be yellow and well rounded. In other styles, the yolk is covered with a thin layer of coagulated white. 3.Relatively compact, standing high, and not spread out and thin. 27 Fried Eggs

28 Cooking Eggs Baked eggs are baked in individual serving dishes. They are also called shirred eggs and eggs en cocotte. They may also be baked with or garnished with a variety of meats and sauces. 28 Baked Eggs

29 Cooking Eggs Should be undercooked if they are to be held for volume service. They will cook more in the steam table. Do not overcook scrambled eggs or hold them too long. Overcooked eggs are tough and watery. They eventually turn green in the steam table. Scrambled eggs should be soft and moist, unless the customer requests scrambled hard. 29 Scrambled Eggs

30 Cooking Eggs Two elements are necessary for making omelets: 1.High heat The omelet cooks so fast that its internal temperature never has time to get too high. 2.A conditioned omelet pan The pan must have sloping sides and be the right size so the omelet can be shaped properly. It must be well seasoned or conditioned to avoid sticking. 30 French Omelet

31 Cooking Eggs 31 Making a French Omelet As soon as the eggs are added to the hot pan, shake the pan back and forth with one hand and stir the eggs in a circular motion with a fork. When the eggs are almost set, tilt the pan and shake the eggs down to the opposite side of the pan. Rapping the handle sharply helps move the eggs. French Omelet

32 Cooking Eggs 32 Making a French Omelet Spoon the filling, if used, across the center. Fold over the side of the omelet to make an oval shape. French Omelet

33 Cooking Eggs 33 Making a French Omelet Grasp the handle of the pan with your palm underneath and tilt the omelet onto a plate. The finished omelet should have a neat, oval shape. Some chefs prefer omelets that are lightly browned. Others feel they should not be browned at all. French Omelet

34 Cooking Eggs American-Style Omelet It is made somewhat like a French omelet, except low heat is used and the eggs are not stirred or agitated. The edges of the cooked portion are lifted with a fork or spatula, allowing the uncooked portion to flow underneath. Soufflé Omelet Made by beating the egg whites separately and folding them into the beaten yolks, which may have some milk added. The mixture is poured into a hot, buttered omelet pan. Omelet is finished in the oven. It is folded in half for service. 34 Frittatas and Other Omelets

35 Cooking Eggs Frittata A frittata is a flat omelet that originated in Italy. Flat omelets are made by mixing beaten eggs with a variety of ingredients and cooking the mixture over low heat without stirring. To finish, it is either flipped over or run under the broiler or into the oven until the top is set. 35 Frittatas and Other Omelets

36 Cooking Eggs A standard entrée soufflé consists of three elements: Base: usually a heavy béchamel sauce. Flavor ingredient: cheese, vegetables, seafood, etc. Egg whites, beaten. 36 Soufflés

37 Cooking Eggs Custard is a liquid that is thickened or set by the coagulation of egg protein. There are two basic kinds of custard: 1.Stirred custard, which is stirred as it cooks and remains pourable when done. 2.Baked custard, which is not stirred and sets firm. One basic rule governs the preparation of both custards: Do not heat custards higher than an internal temperature of 185°F (85°C). Quiche is a custard baked in a pastry shell. 37 Custards


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