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Phylum Platyhelminythes. Platyhelminthes ~ 20,000 extant species Parasitic + free-living Unsegmented flatworms.

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Presentation on theme: "Phylum Platyhelminythes. Platyhelminthes ~ 20,000 extant species Parasitic + free-living Unsegmented flatworms."— Presentation transcript:

1 Phylum Platyhelminythes

2 Platyhelminthes ~ 20,000 extant species Parasitic + free-living Unsegmented flatworms

3 Platyhelminthes Triploblastic, acoelomate, bilaterally symmetrical Incomplete gut; absent in some parasitic forms Cephalization of nervous system Protonephridia: excretion and osmoregulation Hermaphroditic

4 Support Hydrostatic skeleton Elastic body wall Body musculature

5 Taxonomy Class Turbellaria Class Monogenea Class Trematoda Class Cestoda

6 Class Turbellaria – –Free-living flatworms – –Most are aquatic – –Epidermis cellular and ciliated

7 Feeding and digestion in Turbellaria Consume invertebrates (few herbivores and omnivores) Locate food via chemoreception A few are symbiotic

8 Turbellaria digestive system Mouth, pharynx, intestine = incomplete gut Pharyngeal glands produce mucus and proteolytic enzymes Digestion extracellular, then phagocytization in intestine

9 Turbellaria nervous system Sense organs – –Tactile receptors cover body - concentrated anteriorly – –Chemoreception = location of food – –Statocysts = gravity detection and orientation – –Photoreceptors Inverted pigment cup ocelli Negative phototaxis

10 Turbellaria nervous system Variable: simple net-like to cephalized & bilateral Ladder-like NS = more recently evolved

11 Class Monogenea Monogenetic flukes (life cycle = one host) – –Body covered by tegument – –Oral sucker reduced or absent – –Ectoparasitic (usually fish)

12 Class Monogenea Monogenetic flukes (life cycle = one host) – –Eggs hatch into ciliated larvae = oncomiracidia – –Mature and find host

13 Class Trematoda Digenetic flukes (multiple hosts) – –Body with tegument – –One or more suckers present – –Internal parasite

14 Fluke Digestive System Feed on host tissues and fluids (muscular pharynx) – –Or, material in host gut One-way digestive tract: mouth, muscular pharynx, short esophagus, intestinal cecae

15 Fluke Nervous System Ladder-like Cerebral ganglion Suckers with tactile receptors (bristles and spines)

16 Sexual repro flukes Hermaphroditic Mutual cross fertilization Male structures – –Variable testes Monogenetic = many Digenetic = two – –Sperm-to sperm duct, copulatory apparatus, eversible cirrus

17 Sexual repro flukes Female Structures – –Ovary to oviduct to ootype – –Oviduct joined by vitelline duct – –Seminal receptacle = blind pouch off of oviduct – –Single uterus sometimes modified as vagina near female gonopore

18 Fluke reproduction Mutual cross-fertilization Sperm stored in seminal receptacle Eggs - oviduct to ootype then fertilized r-selected strategy (high fecundity)

19 a – acetabulum d - vitelline ducts f - vitelline follicles o - oral sucker oe – oesophagus oo – ootype ov – ovary ph – pharynx sr - seminal receptable t – testis u - uterus

20 Fluke life-cycles Monogenetic – –One host – –Mostly external parasites of fish Digenetic – –Two or more hosts – –Mostly internal parasites

21 Fluke life-cycles: Chinese liver fluke

22 Fluke life-cycles Digenetic Fasciola = sheep liver fluke – –Multiple hosts – –Internal parasite of vertebrates – –Intermediate host usually gastropod

23 Fluke life-cycles Schistosoma mansoni Schistosomiasis = disease with problems from egg production, fevers, eggs lodged in various tissues

24 Schistosomiasis

25 Schistosoma spp. cause swimmers itch

26 Class Cestoda Tapeworms – –Internal parasite – –Body with tegument – –Body with anterior scolex, short neck and proglottids – –No digestive system

27 Tapeworms = cestodes Locomotion – –Sedentary: adult on host intestinal wall – –Capable of muscular undulations Attachment – –Scolex – –Anterior with hooks or adhesive pad

28 Tapeworm digestion No mouth, no digestive tract Nutrients absorbed across tegument

29 Tapeworm Nervous System Cerebral ganglion; nerve ring in scolex Each proglottid has additional ganglia; connect to longitudinal nerve cords Sensory organs reduced, tactile receptors in scolex

30 Sexual Repro: tapeworms Hermaphroditic Mutual cross-fertilization Self-fertilization in some

31 Proglottids – –Numerous testes along margins – –Collecting tubules to coiled sperm duct – –Vas deferens to genital pore

32 Proglottids – –Two ovaries – –Uterus = blind sac

33 Tapeworm sex and fertilization Cirrus of each mate inserted into genital pores Sperm stored, eggs fertilized in oviduct Capsule material and yolk cells stored in uterus When mature, proglottids break free

34 Beef Tapeworm Life Cycle

35 Pork Tapeworm Life Cycle

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