Presentation on theme: "QUAIL FARMING AS DIVERSIFICATION VENTURE IN RURAL INDIA"— Presentation transcript:
1 QUAIL FARMING AS DIVERSIFICATION VENTURE IN RURAL INDIA ByDr. Avishek BiswasSenior ScientistAvian Nutrition & Feed Technology DivisionCentral Avian Research InstituteIzatnagar, Bareilly (U.P.), India
2 Introduction Class : Aves Family : Phasianidae Genus : Coturnix Scientific name : Coturnix coturnix JaponicaHindi name : “Bater”
3 History First domesticated in Japan in 1595. There are two species of quail in India:a) The black-breasted quail found in jungle (Coturnix Coromandelica)b) The brown-coloured Japanese Quail (Coturnix Coturnix Japonica)Introduced in India in 1974 from California.There are 45 species of quail although the Japanese quail is the largest speciesWhy quail farming?HardyEasy to handleAdopt to varied environmentFast growing bird and short generation interval3-4 generations in a yearPilot animal for genetic, nutritional and physiological studies.As a source of egg and meat productionPopular in the countries like Japan, Hongkong, Singapore and France.
4 Advantages of quail farming Requires minimum floor spaceNeeds low investmentQuails are comparatively sturdy birdsCan be marketed at an early age ie. five weeksEarly sexual maturity - starts laying eggs in about six to seven weeks of ageHigh rate of egg laying -280 eggs per yearQuail meat is tastier than chicken and has less fat content. It promotes body and brain development in children.Nutritionally, the quail eggs are on par with that of chicken eggs. Moreover, they contain less cholesterol.Quail meat and eggs are a nutritious diet for pregnant and nursing mothers.
5 Quail farming as economically viable and technically feasible Very short generation intervalQuails are very robust to diseasesNo vaccination is requiredLow space requirementEarly maturityVery high laying intensity- female starts laying at an age of 42 daysPractical UtilityQuail offered an opportunity to alternative the chicken farmingIt is useful as table delicacyPilot animal for research and education
6 Difference b/w Male & Female Females are heavier ( g) than male ( g)Female: long & pointed feathers with black speckles on the throat and upper breast.Male: rusty brown throat and breast feathers, cloacal gland.Female/Male Japanese Quail
7 Housing Age Cage Size No.of birds First 2 weeks 3 x 2.5 x 1.5 ft. 100 Deep litter system6 quails can be reared in a sq.ft. of floor space.After 2 weeks, Quails can be reared in cages.This will help to gain good body weight.Each unit is about 6 feet in length and 1 foot in width, and subdivided into 6 subunits.The cages can be arranged up to 6 tiers high.Bottom of the cage is fixed with removable wooden platesLong narrow feed troughs are placed in front of the cages.Water troughs are placed at the back of the cages.Commercial egg layers are usually housed in colonies of birds per cage.Cage SystemAgeCage SizeNo.of birdsFirst 2 weeks3 x 2.5 x 1.5 ft.1003- 6 weeks4 x 2 .5 x 1.5 ft.50
8 Feed Management Feed can be formulated as follows. Feed Ingredients Chick mashGrower mash0-3 weeks4-6 weeksMaize2731Sorghum1514Deoiled RiceBran8Groundnut Cake17Sunflower Cake12.5Soya meal-Fishmeal10Mineral Mixture2.5Shell grit5Feed material should be made of small particlesA 5 weeks old quail consumes about 500 gms of feedQuails of 6 month old, consumes about gms of feed per day.Quails require about 400 gms feed for the production of 12 eggs.The particle size is reduced by grinding the feed for one more time.
9 FeedingClassified as, Starter (0-4 wks), Finisher (4-6wks) and layer or breeder (6 wks onwards).Starter period is more crucial and needs special management and feeding care.Balanced and higher nutrient is requiredFeed conversion ratio (FCR) is an averageNutrientsBroiler QuailsLayer Quail (For Egg)Starter (0-4 wks.)Finisher (4-6 wks.)Starter (0-4 wks.)Grower (4-5 wks.)Layer (> 6 wks.)Energy (Kcal /Kg)280027502700Protein %27242019Calcium %0.80.63.0Phosphorus %0.30.45
10 Egg production Composition of Quail Egg (Whole, Raw) Smaller eggs than chickenAverage age at first egg production is about 50 daysAverage egg production /yearEggs laid between 3-5 pmEggs are multicoloured (dark brown, white, buff, blue etc)Eggs wt. is g7-8% of the hen’s body weight.Composition of Quail Egg (Whole, Raw)WaterProteinFatCarbohydrateTotal ashCalorific Value74%13%11%1%649 k J/100g liquid
11 Quail meatDressed quail meat weighs 70-73% weight of live quail.Hundred grams of quail meat is usually obtained from a quail weighing 140 gThe Comparision in Composition (Raw Meat) (Ref.: Pande and Srivastava, 1987)MoistureProteinFatCarbohydrateMineralsQuail73.93%20.54%3.85%0.56%1.12%Chicken73.87%20.66%3.61%0.78%1.08%What is the acceptance or popularity of Quail meat and egg?Quail meat / egg are now widely accepted in India.Small size of quail egg as alternative to chicken egg.They make attractive snacks or salad ingredients.Value addition is possible with products like egg pickles, brined quail eggs etc.
12 Is quail meat preferred over chicken meat? YESAccording to Gourmets, it is tastier than chicken.Quail meat promotes body and brain development in childrenBest balanced feed for pregnant and nursing mothers.Less fat content (Low calorific value) but more of phospholipds.Is quail farming a suitable option in terms of meat and egg production?Early marketing ageEarly sexual maturityHigh rate of lay ( eggs per year)Occupation of a minimum floor spaceEight to ten birds can be kept in the same space housing a single chicken
13 Through 45 deg. 5-6 times a day. Incubation and hatchingIncubators that are used for hatching chicken eggs can be usedA wire mesh or grid of 1.5 x 1 inch should be fitted on the setter traysIncubation period for quail eggs is 18 days.Eggs should be stored at 130C at 80% RH for 5-7 daysFumigated with formaldehyde gas for 20 minutes before storage.Incubation requirement are as follows:Duration (Days)Temperature (deg.F)Humidity (%)Turning of Eggs0-1499.560Through 45 deg. 5-6 times a day.15 to 1898.570Not required
14 Management of quail chicks If you are going for such operations of producing chicks at your farm, following information may be of help to you:Male / female ratio in the parent stock should be 1:2 or less.Quails start laying eggs at the age of 6 weeks, Quails lay most of the eggs during evening hours (Between 3 to 6 PM).Fertile eggs from the female of age 10 to 20 weeks can be collectedEggs should be collected very frequently and carefullyEggs should be stored at 550 F with 70% relative humidity before incubation.Management of quail chicksThe day old quail chicks usually weigh 8-10 g.The quail chicks need more temperature.Absence of adequate temperature and exposure to high speed cool wind leads to clustering of young ones, which results in high mortality.
15 Quail diseasesQuails are very sensitive during first 2 wks of their lifeQuails are not vaccinatedNo dewormer usedResistant to 8 starins of Eimeria pathogenic to chickenBrooder pneumonia reported in quails (use calcium feed).Ulcerative enteritis (Clostridium colinum)Sterptomycin, bacitricin, and of feed.Mortality rate 5-10%
16 Where to get parent birds or adult quails? Director, Central Avian Research Institute, Izatnagar, Dist. Bareilly,Uttar Pradesh, Pin:A.V.M Hatcheries & Poultry Breeding Center Pvt. Ltd. 25 / 327, Rangai Gauder Street, Coimbatore Pin:Director, Central Poultry Breeding Farm, Govt of India located ata. Aarey colony, Goregaon (E), Mumbaib. Hessarghatta, Bangalore (North)c. Nayapalli, Bhubaneshward. Industrial Area, Chandigarh4. M/s Venkateshwar Hacheries Pvt. Ltd. Quail Unit at Naigaon, Pune, C/o Dr. B.V. Rao, IPMT At/PO - Urulikanchan, Pune –