Before You Eat That Breakfast Sandwich, Read This… ex: What is in McDonalds eggs? Pasteurized whole eggs with sodium phosphate (preservative), citric acid and monosodium phosphate (added to preserve color), nisin preparation (preservative). Prepared with liquid margarine: Liquid soybean oil and hydrogenated cottonseed and soybean oils, water, partially hydrogenated soybean oil, salt, soy lecithin, mono-and diglycerides, sodium benzoate and potassium sorbate (preservatives), artificial flavor, citric acid, vitamin A palmitate, beta carotene (color).
Yolk: Fats, Protein & Cholesterol vitamin A, D, E,K and iron, calcium, and phosphorus. White (albumen):Protein Healthy adults can enjoy an egg a day without increasing their risk for heart disease, Dietary Guidelines for Americans and the American Heart Association recommend that individuals consume, on average, less than 300 mg of cholesterol per day. A single large egg contains 185 mg cholesterol.
Egg Sizes: Recipes use size Large eggs 2 eggs whites = 1 large egg.
1 egg = 1 oz of meat serving.
How can you tell if eggs are fresh?
Fresh eggs: Have small air pocket Sink to bottom of bowl of water. Lay on side. Whites are cloudy. Older eggs: Have larger air pockets. Will float upright. ****If they float to top of bowl of water, discard.
Fresh eggs are best for: Frying & poaching Older eggs are best for : Baked goods Hard boiled eggs- easier to peel.
Egg Grades Grades are given to high-quality eggs that have: Clean, unbroken shells Small air cells Egg whites are thick and clear Egg yolks are firm and stand high above the whites.
Egg Grades Three Grades: U.S. Grade AA U.S. Grade A U.S. Grade B What were grade B eggs used for?
Egg Color and Type The breed determines color Types of eggs: Chicken Guinea Duck Geese
Are brown-shelled eggs more nutritious than white-shelled eggs?
Buy Right Store eggs in their original carton and use them within 3 weeks for best quality. Buy eggs only if sold from a refrigerator or refrigerated case. Open the carton and make sure that the eggs are clean and the shells are not cracked. Refrigerate promptly.
Playing It Safe With Eggs Salmonella Prevention: Safe Handling Instructions: To prevent illness from bacteria: keep eggs refrigerated, cook eggs until yolks are firm, and cook foods containing eggs thoroughly.
Keep Everything Clean Wash hands, utensils, equipment, and work surfaces with hot, soapy water before and after they come in contact with eggs and egg-containing foods
Chill Properly Cooked eggs, including hard-boiled eggs, and egg-containing foods should not sit out for more than 2 hours. Within 2 hours either reheat or refrigerate. Use hard-cooked eggs (in the shell or peeled) within 1 week after cooking
Preparing Eggs: Coagulate: Eggs become firm during cooking. Use Medium to Low heat when cooking eggs.
Over cooked eggs: Tough and rubbery texture turn gray green
Functions of Eggs as Ingredients Emulsifiers Structure Thickeners Binding Agents Nutrition, Flavor, Color Foams
Emulsifiers Emulsion: A mixture that forms when you combine liquids that ordinarily do not mix. Egg yolk: excellent emulsifying agent Yolk surrounds the oil droplets in an emulsion Keeps the droplets suspended in the water- based liquid so the 2 liquids do not separate. Example: mayonnaise
Binding and Interfering Agents Act as binding ingredients that hold together the ingredients in foods such meatloaf. Act a interfering agent in foods such as ice cream and sherbet Eggs inhibit formation of large ice crystals which would ruin the texture of frozen desserts.
Thickeners Heat causes egg proteins to coagulate (thicken). Tempering Eggs: when a hot liquid (usually milk) is carefully streamed into them, bringing the eggs up to a very high temperature without cooking them. When properly incorporated, eggs have thickening properties that will help bring a custard to the appropriate consistency. custard
Structure CREAM PUFFS: Eggs are a leavening agent (makes it puff ) and the yolks add fat for a tender and light texture. Egg proteins add to the structure of the cream puff.
Nutrition, Flavor, and Color
Foams Egg foams are used to add air to foods: Beat air into egg whites Many air cells form A thin film of egg white protein surrounds each cell. As beating continues, cells become smaller and more numerous Protein film becomes thinner Result: the foam thickens
Temperature on foams Two temperatures needed: Separate eggs when they are cold: Use egg separator Store egg yolks Egg whites reach maximum volume when they are room temperature: Let sit 20 minutes before beating
Factors Affecting Egg Foams Temperature Beating time Fat Acid Sugar All affect the formation of egg white foams.
Factors Affecting Egg Foams Beating: Too little or too much beating causes foam to lose volume and not hold shape Fat and fat-containing ingredients: Inhibit formation of egg white foam Acid: Makes foam more stable and adds whiteness Example: Cream of Tarter Sugar: Increases the stability of egg white foam Increases beating time: usually added after foam has reached most of the volume.
Write directions for each type of egg cookery: Page 478 in text. Eggs cooked in shell: hard cooked Fried Eggs Poached eggs Scrambled eggs ***Indicate heat settings, equipment, steps This will be your directions/recipe for Tomorrows Lab.
How do you like your eggs?
*Cook Thoroughly* Cook eggs until both the yolk and the white are firm. Scrambled eggs should not be runny. Casseroles and other dishes containing eggs should be cooked to 160°F (72°C). Use a food thermometer to be sure. For recipes that call for eggs that are raw or undercooked when the dish is servedCaesar salad dressing and homemade ice cream are two examples use either shell eggs that have been treated to destroy Salmonella, by pasteurization or another approved method, or pasteurized egg products.
Serve Safely Serve cooked eggs and egg-containing foods immediately after cooking. For buffet-style serving, hot egg dishes should be kept hot, and cold egg dishes kept cold. Eggs and egg dishes, such as quiches or soufflés, may be refrigerated for serving later but should be thoroughly reheated to 165°F (74°C) before serving.
Chill Properly Use frozen eggs within one year. Eggs should not be frozen in their shells. To freeze whole eggs, beat yolks and whites together. Egg whites can also be frozen by themselves. Refrigerate leftover cooked egg dishes and use within 3- 4 days. When refrigerating a large amount of a hot egg- containing leftover, divide it into several shallow containers so it will cool quickly.
Nutritional Value of Eggs MyPyramid: 5-7 ounces equivalent/day of protein one egg counts as 1 ounce Complete Protein Iron, vitamin A, vitamin D, phosphorus, calcium, thiamine, and riboflavin Cholesterol: eggs whites are cholesterol free
What could have gone wrong? Did your water boil too long? Lose moisture needed for steam to raise. Did you let batter cool slightly before adding eggs? Did you add eggs one at a time? Beat quickly until shiny?
What did you learn about making cream puffs? Pudding? 3 tips for making the recipe turn out correctly. mS7ik4&feature=related mS7ik4&feature=related
Complete Cream Puffs Cut in half horizontally. Fill with pudding. Sift powdered sugar over top. Serve on plate.
3 Stages of Egg Foams Foamy Have bubbles and foam on the surface Soft Peak Form peaks that bend at the tips when you lift the beater Stiff Peak Form peaks that stand straight when you lift the beater
Using Egg Foams Soft meringues pie toppings Hard Meringues Kiss cookies
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Using Raw Eggs Pasteurized shell eggs: Whole eggs that have been treated using the same heating process used to kill harmful bacteria in milk. Process does not affect taste or cooking performance of eggs Use pasteurized egg product
Egg Substitutes Option for people who want to limit cholesterol and saturated fat in diets. Egg substitutes are pasteurized Made largely from real egg whites, contain no egg yolks Cholesterol-free, fat-free, lower in calories than whole eggs. Cost factor: often 3 times more than eggs Use ¼ c. of egg substitute for 1 whole egg or egg yolk
Food Science Principles of Cooking Eggs Coagulate: To thicken or form a congealed mass. Proteins are coagulated by heat and can cause a food to thicken Temperature Use low-moderate temp. when cooking eggs High temps and cooking too long cause egg proteins to lose moisture, shrink, and toughen. Time Addition of other ingredients Changes coagulation temperature because they dilute the proteins found in eggs. Adding milk allows eggs to coagulate at higher temp. Acid and salt lower coagulation temperature of eggs
Methods of Cooking Eggs Safety cooked eggs have completely set whites and thickened yolks Internal temperature 160°F for casseroles, soufflés, and other egg dishes
When Cooking In a Skillet Pan should be moderately hot before adding the egg Fat should be added to skillet before heating Add the eggs and turn heat down to low to cook eggs
Methods of Cooking Eggs Scrambling Poached Frying Baking Cooking in the shell Microwaving Omelets Soufflés Meringues Custards
References Playing It Safe With Eggs: Direct from: X13.aspx