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Stored-Product Insects: Biology (Continued) Stored-Product Insects: Biology (Continued)

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Presentation on theme: "Stored-Product Insects: Biology (Continued) Stored-Product Insects: Biology (Continued)"— Presentation transcript:

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2 Stored-Product Insects: Biology (Continued) Stored-Product Insects: Biology (Continued)

3 Cigarette Beetle, Lasioderma serricorne Stout, oval, mm long Stout, oval, mm long Light brown in color Light brown in color Elytra smooth, without striae, but with short hairs Elytra smooth, without striae, but with short hairs 11-segmented antennae (4-10 th are serrate) 11-segmented antennae (4-10 th are serrate) When disturbed adult head is concealed under pronotum When disturbed adult head is concealed under pronotum

4 Cocoa, tobacco, tobacco products and processed food, oil seeds Cocoa, tobacco, tobacco products and processed food, oil seeds Holes in produce, and pupal cells in infested material Holes in produce, and pupal cells in infested material 4-6 instars 4-6 instars Adults live for 2-6 weeks Adults live for 2-6 weeks oC, temperature limits ( days from egg-to-adult). 25% RH low end oC, temperature limits ( days from egg-to-adult). 25% RH low end Mycetomes, yeast-like structures in hindgut Mycetomes, yeast-like structures in hindgut Adults are active fliers Adults are active fliers Female lays 110 eggs Female lays 110 eggs

5 Drug Store Beetle, Stegobium paniceum Last 3 antennal segments are large and appear as loosely segmented Last 3 antennal segments are large and appear as loosely segmented Striae on elytra Striae on elytra Less common in tropics Less common in tropics Chocolate, confectionary, biscuits, herbs, spices, pharmaceuticals. Chocolate, confectionary, biscuits, herbs, spices, pharmaceuticals o C at RH > 35% o C at RH > 35% Adults live for days Adults live for days Female lays 75 eggs Female lays 75 eggs

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7 Sawtoothed and Merchant Grain Beetles, Oryzaephilus spp. Sawtoothed grain beetle, O. surinamensis. Sawtoothed grain beetle, O. surinamensis. Merchant grain beetle, O. mercator. Merchant grain beetle, O. mercator.Foods: Stored grain, cereal products, dried fruit, oilseeds, and processed oilseeds. Stored grain, cereal products, dried fruit, oilseeds, and processed oilseeds. O. mercator - household pest of processed cereals, especially those of high oil content. O. mercator - household pest of processed cereals, especially those of high oil content.

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10 O. surinamensis does not develop on foods without carbohydrates. O. surinamensis does not develop on foods without carbohydrates. Unable to attack sound grain, but attacks grain with small lesions in pericarp. Unable to attack sound grain, but attacks grain with small lesions in pericarp. Feeds on germ Feeds on germ Cannot complete development on endosperm alone. Cannot complete development on endosperm alone. Can feed on eggs and dead adults of storage moths. Can feed on eggs and dead adults of storage moths.

11 Both species have similar life histories. Eggs laid singly or in small clusters. Eggs laid singly or in small clusters. In coarse foods, eggs are deposited in crevices; in finely ground material they are laid loosely. In coarse foods, eggs are deposited in crevices; in finely ground material they are laid loosely. Instars, 3-4 (> in mercator than surinamensis). Instars, 3-4 (> in mercator than surinamensis). Temperature limits: 20 – 38 o C. Temperature limits: 20 – 38 o C. Optimum range = o C for surinamensis and o C for mercator. Optimum range = o C for surinamensis and o C for mercator. Low RH prevents development of only mercator. Low RH prevents development of only mercator. Rate of development increases with humidity Rate of development increases with humidity For example, for both species: For example, for both species: At 30 o C, 74% RH-- 19 days (egg-to-adult). At 12% RH,-- 24 days. Mortality > 30% at RH below 33%. At 30 o C, 74% RH-- 19 days (egg-to-adult). At 12% RH,-- 24 days. Mortality > 30% at RH below 33%.

12 Fecundity highest at 54% RH (surinamensis) and 74% RH (mercator). Fecundity highest at 54% RH (surinamensis) and 74% RH (mercator). Oviposition, 1 week after eclosion. Max. 2 nd and 3 rd week after emergence. Rate of egg laying high for 10 weeks. Oviposition, 1 week after eclosion. Max. 2 nd and 3 rd week after emergence. Rate of egg laying high for 10 weeks eggs/female (both species). RH affects length of oviposition period and no. eggs laid. At 12% RH, 52 eggs are laid eggs/female (both species). RH affects length of oviposition period and no. eggs laid. At 12% RH, 52 eggs are laid. Life span of mated females : 4 – 19 weeks (12% RH and 74% RH). Life span of mated females : 4 – 19 weeks (12% RH and 74% RH). Adults and larvae are somewhat tolerant to cold. Adults and larvae are somewhat tolerant to cold.

13 Flour Beetles, Trobolium spp. 9 species. 9 species. castaneum, confusum, madens, audax, destructor, anaphe, thusa, brevicorne, and parallelum. castaneum, confusum, madens, audax, destructor, anaphe, thusa, brevicorne, and parallelum. T. castaneum – warmer climates. T. castaneum – warmer climates. T. confusum – cooler climates. T. confusum – cooler climates. Become established in heated facilities. Become established in heated facilities. T. castaneum – grain and grain products. T. castaneum – grain and grain products. T. confusum – flour. T. confusum – flour. Peas, beans, cacao, cottonseed, nuts, dried fruit, vegetables, drugs, milk, chocolate, peanuts (only T. castaneum). Peas, beans, cacao, cottonseed, nuts, dried fruit, vegetables, drugs, milk, chocolate, peanuts (only T. castaneum). Milled products are favored diets. Milled products are favored diets.

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15 Differences Between T. castaneum and T. confusum

16 Both species: eggs are laid singly. Tacky. Both species: eggs are laid singly. Tacky. Instars: 7-8. Instars: 7-8. E-to-A development: see handout for T. castaneum. E-to-A development: see handout for T. castaneum.

17 Minimum, Optimum, Maximum temps. For development: 2.5 o C lower for T. confusum compared with T. castaneum. Minimum, Optimum, Maximum temps. For development: 2.5 o C lower for T. confusum compared with T. castaneum. Minimum: o C. Maximum: o C. Optimum = o C. Minimum: o C. Maximum: o C. Optimum = o C. Development < 1 month at 30 o C. Development < 1 month at 30 o C. Progeny production varies with diet. Progeny production varies with diet. Can feed on eggs and dead adults of the Indianmeal moth. Can feed on eggs and dead adults of the Indianmeal moth. Egg laying period: At 27 o C, 148 (castaneum) to 235 days (confusum). Egg laying period: At 27 o C, 148 (castaneum) to 235 days (confusum). No. eggs laid: eggs/female (low to high temps). No. eggs laid: eggs/female (low to high temps). Average life span = 1-2 years. Average life span = 1-2 years.

18 Both species can breed on seed-borne fungi. Can feed on 24 species of fungi. Oviposited on 16 species. Completed development on 7-8 species. Both species can breed on seed-borne fungi. Can feed on 24 species of fungi. Oviposited on 16 species. Completed development on 7-8 species. Rate of self multiplication: 1.29 at 22.5 o C to 2.71 at 35 o C for T. castaneum at 70% RH. Rate of self multiplication: 1.29 at 22.5 o C to 2.71 at 35 o C for T. castaneum at 70% RH. T. confusum rate of increase is slightly lower than that of T. castaneum. T. confusum rate of increase is slightly lower than that of T. castaneum.

19 Cadelle, Tenebroides mauritanicus Family: Trogositidae. Family: Trogositidae. Adults are 5-11 mm long Adults are 5-11 mm long Larvae and adults feed on many nuts, seeds, grains and grain products. Larvae and adults feed on many nuts, seeds, grains and grain products. Can eat adults of R. dominica, S. oryzae, and O. surinamensis. Can eat adults of R. dominica, S. oryzae, and O. surinamensis. Larval development: 69 days on corn and wheat. Larval development: 69 days on corn and wheat. Eggs laid in batches (10-60). Incubation: days at 22C. Eggs laid in batches (10-60). Incubation: days at 22C. Instars, 7-8. Larvae overwinter. Instars, 7-8. Larvae overwinter. Mature larvae burrow into soft wood and create a chamber for pupating. Mature larvae burrow into soft wood and create a chamber for pupating. Can bore into hard woods. Can bore into hard woods. With overwintering: E-to-A = days. With overwintering: E-to-A = days.

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21 Adults live for a year. Adults live for a year. Lay eggs throughout adult life (mean fecundity = 910 eggs total). Lay eggs throughout adult life (mean fecundity = 910 eggs total). 2-3 generations per year. 2-3 generations per year.

22 Dermestids Family: Dermestidae. Family: Dermestidae. 700 species. 700 species. 3 categories: 3 categories: breed only on animal protein (Dermestes spp.) breed only on animal protein (Dermestes spp.) breed on plant and animal materials (Attagenus spp., Trogoderma spp.) breed on plant and animal materials (Attagenus spp., Trogoderma spp.) breed on cereals and cereal products (Trogoderma spp.). breed on cereals and cereal products (Trogoderma spp.). Trogoderma granarium (Khapra beetle). Trogoderma granarium (Khapra beetle). Serious pest of stored grain. Serious pest of stored grain. Eradicated from US (CA, AZ, NM). Eradicated from US (CA, AZ, NM).

23 Oval in shape Oval in shape Colored hairs on body Colored hairs on body Short antennae with segments Short antennae with segments Larvae hairy; some hairs detachable Larvae hairy; some hairs detachable

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25 Larvae unable to penetrate intact seeds. Larvae unable to penetrate intact seeds. Larvae feed on germ and endosperm. Larvae feed on germ and endosperm. On wheat, eat only the germ. On wheat, eat only the germ. Eggs laid singly. Eggs laid singly. Instars, 4-5. Instars, 4-5. Optimum temp. 35C. Optimum temp. 35C. Maximum = 40C. Maximum = 40C. Develop at 23-73% RH. Develop at 23-73% RH. Adults are short-lived. Adults are short-lived. They do not feed. They do not feed. One mating – eggs/female. One mating – eggs/female. Starvation: retrogressive molting. Starvation: retrogressive molting. Temperature, food, population density, and genetic makeup – influences diapause. Temperature, food, population density, and genetic makeup – influences diapause.

26 Stored-Product Moths Adult wings covered with scales Adult wings covered with scales Coiled mouth parts Coiled mouth parts Larvae – caterpillars, 3 pairs of true lesgs on thorax and 5 pairs of false prolegs on abdominal segments 3-6 Larvae – caterpillars, 3 pairs of true lesgs on thorax and 5 pairs of false prolegs on abdominal segments families: 2 families: Pyralidae – Indianmeal moth, almond moth Pyralidae – Indianmeal moth, almond moth Gelechidae – Angoumois grain moth Gelechidae – Angoumois grain moth

27 Angoumois grain moth, Sitotroga cerealella Hind wings sharply pointed, and have long fringes Hind wings sharply pointed, and have long fringes Fore wings have a dark spot distally Fore wings have a dark spot distally Adults live for 5-10 days Adults live for 5-10 days Female lays 200 eggs Female lays 200 eggs Dev C and 50-90% RH Dev C and 50-90% RH Adults are strong fliers Adults are strong fliers

28 Indianmeal Moth, Plodia interpunctella Forewings, basal 1/3 rd cream colored; distal 2/3 rd copper colored Forewings, basal 1/3 rd cream colored; distal 2/3 rd copper colored Feeds on germ, endosperm of kernels Feeds on germ, endosperm of kernels Webbing Webbing 400 eggs/female 400 eggs/female Larvae undergo diapause Larvae undergo diapause Wandering stage Wandering stage 20-36C; RH 20-90% C; RH 20-90%.

29 Almond moth, Cadra cautella Fore wings grayish brown with a distinct pattern Fore wings grayish brown with a distinct pattern Hind wings have broadly rounded tips Hind wings have broadly rounded tips 300 eggs/female 300 eggs/female 15-36C, 20-90% RH 15-36C, 20-90% RH Mandibular secretions: female egg-laying. Also acts as dispersal pheromone. Mandibular secretions: female egg-laying. Also acts as dispersal pheromone. Moth activity Moth activity Both species: pop. Increase 50X/lunar month Both species: pop. Increase 50X/lunar month

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34 Storage Moths: Temperature vs Egg- to-adult development Source: Subramanyam and Hagstrum (1992)

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