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BACKYARD & PASTURE POULTRY Dr. Jacquie Jacob Poultry Extension Associate Dept of Animal and Food Sciences, UK 2008 Fall ANR update October 20, Winchester.

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Presentation on theme: "BACKYARD & PASTURE POULTRY Dr. Jacquie Jacob Poultry Extension Associate Dept of Animal and Food Sciences, UK 2008 Fall ANR update October 20, Winchester."— Presentation transcript:

1 BACKYARD & PASTURE POULTRY Dr. Jacquie Jacob Poultry Extension Associate Dept of Animal and Food Sciences, UK 2008 Fall ANR update October 20, Winchester

2 DEFINITIONS Backyard poultry –Small flocks which may or may not be kept for profit Pure-bred breeders, 4-Hers, family flock(s) for meat and/or eggs, etc. Pasture poultry –A management method, regardless of flock size

3 BACKYARD POULTRY Pure-bred breeders –Hatcheries sell day-old chicks to poultry fanciers –Poultry fancier that breed their own flock, not necessarily for sale

4 BACKYARD POULTRY 4-Hers/FFA –Poultry projects: Very from state-to-state and within a state Meat chicken, turkey, duck, goose, pigeon, guinea fowl Egg layers: brown or white chicken eggs Purebred chicken, turkey, duck, goose, pigeon (rollers, homers), guinea fowl

5 NPIP CERTIFIED National Poultry Improvement Plan –Probably the greatest single factor which limited the early expansion of the U.S. poultry industry was the disease known as Bacillary White Diarrhea (BWD), caused by Salmonella pullorum. This disease, later called pullorum disease, was rampant in poultry and could cause upwards of 80% mortality in young poultry. The causative organism was discovered by Dr. Leo Rettger in 1899 and a diagnostic blood test was developed by Dr. F.S. Jones in Egg transmitted

6 NPIP CERTIFIED National Poultry Improvement Plan –Kentucky program run through state veterinarian in the Department of Agriculture, Division of Animal Health –Poultry program coordinator: Sue Blair Phone: ext

7 BACKYARD POULTRY Family flock(s) for meat and/or eggs –Chickens, turkeys, ducks, geese, pigeons, quail, guinea fowl, etc

8 WHITE EGG LAYERS What do they have in common? White ear lobes

9 BROWN EGG LAYERS What do they have in common? Red earlobes

10 Green eggs

11 AMERAUCANAS versus ARAUCANA Ameraucanas: Beard and muffs Tail Araucanas: No beard Tuffs, not muffs No tail

12 Dominique: Rose comb BARRED PLYMOUTH ROCK versus DOMINIQUE Barred Rock: Single comb

13 FAQs How can I tell if an egg is going to hatch a male or female, so I only set eggs for laying hens?

14 Sexing eggs before incubating: Is it possible? Old wives tale –Shape of the egg: Football shaped eggs house male chicks and more oval or round-shaped eggs house female chicks –50% accuracy which is slightly higher than for lucky guessers

15 FAQs I hatched out some chicks, but I am not allowed to keep roosters where I leave. How can I tell which is which?

16 Sexing young poultry Old wives tale –Tying a needle or weight to the end of a piece of string and hold it over the young animal. If it the motion of the object is in a circular motion it is a female. If the motion is back and forth it is a male. –50% accuracy which is slightly higher than for lucky guessers

17 Sexing young poultry Sex-linked characteristics –Requires a specific breeding program only –With proper training, is 100% accurate

18 Avian Genetics Mammals –Male XY –Female XX –Males determine sex of offspring Birds –Male ZZ –Female ZW –Females determine sex of offspring

19 BLACK SEX-LINKS (also called Rock Reds) X Offspring: -Both sexes hatch out red but males have a white dot on their heads -Males feather out with Barred Rock pattern and females feather out black Non-barred maleBarred male

20 RED SEX-LINKS Golden Comet X White rock with silver factor Offspring: -Males hatch out white -Females hatch out buff and feather out buff with white or tinted undercolor

21 RED SEX-LINKS Cinnamon Queen X Silver laced Wyandotte Offspring: -Males hatch out white -Females hatch out red and feather out red with white or tinted undercolor

22 RED SEX-LINKS Other red sex-link crosses (just referred to as red sex-links –Rhode Island White female x Rhode Island Red male –Delaware female x Production Red male

23 OTHER SEX-LINK CROSSES California Gray rooster x White Leghorn hen = California White –California Gray is a dual purpose breed that has a heavier type than a leghorn –Not flighty birds –Are excellent winter layers in cold climates Popular in northern Midwest and Canada

24 SEXING YOUNG POULTRY Vent sexing –Developed by a Japanese professor, Kiyoshi Masui –Involves holding the day-old chick upside in one hand and while visually examining the vent area for the presence or absence of a rudimentary male sex organ. –Trained, non-professionals typically 60-70% accuracy –Professionals typically have 95% accuracy

25 SEXING YOUNG POULTRY Best way to tell is to wait till they grow up Comb size Wattle size Tail feathers Spur size

26 FAQs: Why have my hens stopped laying?

27 Nutrition Disease Age Management

28 Why have my hens stopped laying? Management – Light: For most of the year require supplemental light to maintain egg production

29 FAQs related to eggs Where does the chick develop in an egg? There are these red spots in my eggs. Are these embryos?

30

31 No Fertilization Fertilization has occurred

32 Candled appearance of a blood spot

33 FAQs related to eggs Is there any chance that the eggs from the store will hatch in my fridge? If I put fertile eggs in the fridge and then decided to incubate them later, will they still hatch? Is it okay to eat fertile eggs? How can I tell if an egg is fertile without breaking it open?

34 KIDS AND CHICKS Will my kids get sick from handling baby chicks at the petting zoo? Can my kids catch chicken pox from our chicken flock?

35 KIDS AND CHICKS My kid was holding a chick and it just seemed to die in his/her hands. Is this normal? Were they stressed out? Were they sick? –The avian and mammalian respiratory systems are very different: It is possible to suffocate a bird by holding it too tight?

36 HUMANS Tidal respiration

37 Unique feature of birds: Air sacs

38 Air flow in avian lungs is in one direction

39 InspirationExpiration Birds dont have a diaphragm

40 FAQs: Housing Are there any blue-prints I can use for building a house for my small poultry flock?

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42 DEFINITIONS Backyard poultry –Small flocks which may or may not be kept for profit Pure-bred breeders, 4-Hers, family flock(s) for meat and/or eggs, etc. Pasture poultry –A management method, regardless of flock size

43 Pasture poultry

44 Portable, bottomless pens Pasture poultry

45 Feed trough Automatic waterer Pasture poultry

46

47 Remote monitoring

48 Day-range: Moveable, bottomless hoop barns Pasture area surrounded by fence, mainly to keep predators out

49 Day-range: Moveable, bottomless hoop barns To close the broilers in at night Uses up the pasture

50 Day-range: Turkeys Heritage turkeys are becoming popular

51 Day-range: Fixed housing for locking the birds up at night, free to roam around during the day

52 Day range: Geese

53 Free-range poultry Multiple-age laying flock: A different breed introduced each year so that the age of the hens can be tracked Barred Plymouth RockRhode Island RedBarred Plymouth Rock

54 Free-range poultry

55 Day range: Eggmobile

56 FAQs: Housing I want to have a small flock for meat and egg production. What kind of housing should I build? Can I renovate existing buildings?

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59 FAQs: Housing Is it okay to house different species of poultry together?

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61 FAQs: Processing Where can I get my birds processed?

62 POULTRY PROCESSING Very few independent/custom processors Mobile slaughter facility Home slaughter

63 SLAUGHTER/BLEED OUT

64 SCALDING

65 DEFEATHERING/PLUCKING

66

67 REMOVE FEET

68 FREE CROP

69 OPEN ABDOMEN

70 EVISCERATE Drop area allows for easy disposal of waste material

71 REMOVE LUNGS

72 FAQs: Processing I processed my chickens and they looked fine, but when I cooked them and went to carve the chicken for dinner, there was green disgusting meat in the breast. What is this?

73 Green Muscle Disease

74 BROILER QUALITY: Green muscle disease Also called Deep Pectoral Myopathy A non-infectious, focal bi- or uni-lateral necrosis of the deep pectoral muscle (breast tenderloin) Initially noticed in fast growing turkeys Recently observed sporadically in heavy broilers destined for deboned breast meat production –Lesions observed during processing indicate that birds are either genetically predisposed to this condition or some "stressor" acts as a trigger this condition during the pre-slaughter phase

75 ANY QUESTIONS?

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