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Parasitology - protozoology (protozoa), helmintology(worms), enthomology(insects ) Laboratory diagnosis: - life cycle of parasits, material v laboratory.

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Presentation on theme: "Parasitology - protozoology (protozoa), helmintology(worms), enthomology(insects ) Laboratory diagnosis: - life cycle of parasits, material v laboratory."— Presentation transcript:

1 Parasitology - protozoology (protozoa), helmintology(worms), enthomology(insects ) Laboratory diagnosis: - life cycle of parasits, material v laboratory dg Protozoa – intestinal, genital, urinary, blood, tissue Worms - Helmints: Nematodes, Cestodes,Trematodes Ectoparasits: louse, ticks, flies – important as vectors

2 Diagnosis Problematic, not ususals outside endematic areas Nonspecific clinical manigestation eosinophilia in helmintoses – not constant sign Importance of history – personal, travellers, social, economic, food, therapy Conditions for successful dg: - think on parasitosis, - také a good sample – right sample, with good method at right time, send it in appropriate conditions to the lab that is able to identify the parasit, good interpretation: Knowledge of life cycle is principal

3 Laboratory diagnosis Usually based on morphology (mikroscopic) Demonstration of the parasit in different stages of life cycle in clinical material Macroscopic examination of the sample (stool or tissue) Microscopic examination – native smear, staining, concentration method Serology – detection of antibodies, detection of antigénu Genetic probes - detection, identification Cultivation Animal model

4 Life cycle of parasits - terminology Complex life cycle – key to diagnosis Host – hosts Definitive host – parasit finishes the growing cycle and is becoming adult in it Not typical host - parasit cannot develop in in Transient host – larves are developing in it and not sexual multiplication is performed Helmints : egg - larva - (cyste) – adult worm Protozoa :trofozoit - motile, cyste – non motile - sexual multiplication - zygota - asexual- schizonts, sporogons

5 Stool for parasitological examination Macroscopy – blood, mucous, adult worms Microscopy - native smear - FS, iode – motility, eggs of helmints, cysts of protozoa, ery, leu Concentration methods – separation of cysts of protozoa and eggs of helmints from other material in the stool Staining - identification – smear of native stool + hematoxylin eosin, trichrome

6 Other material acc.to clinical manifestation Perianal - Enterobius vermicularis Sigmoidoscopy - Entamoeba histolytica Duodenal aspiration - Giardia lamblia Biopsia of abscesse of liver - Entameba histolytica Sputum - Ascaris lumbricoides, Strongyloides, Urine - Schistosoma Urogenital sample - Trichomonas Blood - (malaria, trypanosomiaois, leishmaniosis, filariosis) smear, thick drop - staining Giemsa, HeO, Serum

7 Protozoa Amoeba - Entamoeba histolytica, Entamoeba coli, Naegleria fowleri, Acanthamoeba, Endolimax nana Flagelata - Giardia lamblia, Trichomonas vaginalis, Leishmania, Trypanosoma Ciliata - Balantidium coli Coccidia a Sporosoa - Cryptosporidium, Blastocystis, Microsporidia, Plasmodia, Babesia,, Toxoplasma

8 Nematodes -worms Enterobius vermicularis, Ascaris lumbricoides, Toxocara canis,cati, Trichuris trichiura, Ancylostoma duodenale, Strongyloides stercoralis, Trichinella spiralis, Wuchereria bancrofti, Dracunculus medinensis - aesculapova palica Nonsegmented body, adult worms living in the GIT-e, - diagnosisa: identification of eggs in the stool (morphology of eggs) Filariae – tin worms parasiting in eye, skin, tissue, transmitted by insects. Larval form- microfilariae penetrate to blood and are transmitted by suckling insect

9 Cestodes - Head - scolex, segmented body Hermafrodit, male and female organs are present in every segment - dif.dg. They have not GIT, absorbtion of food. Complex life cycle with transient host (sometimes - human – larval stage of cysticerkósis, echinococcosis) Taenia solium, Taenia saginata, Diphylobotrium latum, Echinococcus granulosus, Hymenolepsis nana

10 Trematodes - Usually hermafrodits (ex Schistosoma) Need transient host Fasciolopsis, Clonorchis, Paragonimus, Schistosoma

11 Enterobius vermicularis Definitive host - human transient - none dg. – perianal sample – microscopy of eggs fecal oral transmission - autoinfection

12 Enterobius vermicularis

13 Ascaris lumbricoides Definitive host: human Larva migrans: intestin, colon - muc.membrane - blood- lung - cough - mouth - colon dg. Egg in stool Infection via contaminated food Symptoms acc.to localisation of the larva

14 Ascaris lumbricoides

15 Toxocara canis, cati Definitive host dog, cat Transient host: rat Human incidental: human (larves) dg. serology transmission: hand food

16 Taenia saginata Definitive: human transient: cattle dg. Segments in stool Transmission cysticercus in beef

17 Taenia solium Definitive: pig transient: rat incidental: human in small intestin dg. serology Contaminated food

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19 Echinococcus granulosus definitive: dog transient:sheep incidental: human dg serology transmission: cyste in meat infection: mechanic pressure from expanded cyst, prolonged growing, rupture of the cyst and dissemination

20 Echinococcus granulosus

21 Entamoeba histolytica definitive: human dg.trofosoits in stool, serology dysenteria – diarhea with blood

22 Entamoeba histolytica

23 Naegleria fowleri, Acantamoeba Free Living in water Human (via nose) dg.microscopy in CSF- identification of invasive strains) disease: purulent peracute meningitis

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26 Toxoplazma gondii Definitive: cat transient: rat incidental: human dg. serology KFR, IgA, IgG, IgM transmission: food borne, hand, annimal disease: - intrauterine primoinfection - generalised lymfadenopathy, encystation in organs – abortion, eye……..

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28 Trichomonas vaginalis Definitive: human transient: none dg. Cultivation - microscopy trophosoit - from vagina, urine Sexual transmission Therapy of both (all) partners

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30 Giardia lamblia definitive: human – small intestin,dog, cat transient: non dg.microscopy – cysts and trophosoits in stool, transient in duodenal secretion Transmission contaminated food malabsorption

31 Giardia lamblia

32 Trypanosoma gambiensis (spavá choroba) Definitive host: insect - fly tse tse transient: human, monkey dg.microscopy – thick drop Transmission bite Disease – sleeping disease, myalgia, artralgia, lymfadenopathy, hyperactivity in acute fase, lethargy, meningoencefalitis, coma

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34 Plasmodium-malariae, falciparum Definitive host:Anopheles Transient host: human, monkey dg.microscopy thick drop Transmission insect bite disease: malaria acc.to the rate of schizogonia- clinically as fever attacks - tercianna, quartana,

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