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Evolution in the Animal Kingdom Review

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1 Evolution in the Animal Kingdom Review

2 1. What’s the difference between a chordate and an invertebrate?
Chordates exhibit 4 characteristics during at least one stage of life: Dorsal, hollow nerve cord, notochord, tail, and a pharyngeal pouch Invertebrates = animals without backbones Chordates can be in 2 groups: chordates and invertebrate chordates

3 2. What type of body cavity do most groups have?
True coelom – a body cavity completely lined with mesoderm (middle germ tissue layer)

4 3. Which invertebrate group has the closest evolutionary relationship to chordates?

5 4. How is embryology of echinoderms similar to that of vertebrates
4. How is embryology of echinoderms similar to that of vertebrates? What might this similarity indicate about their evolutionary relationship? Both deuterostomes Indicates they are closely related, came from common ancestor

6 5. Why would animals need to adapt their formation of limbs?
Each animal’s forelimbs is adapted to survival in their particular environment Ex: ability to find and capture food, evade predators, move through various types of terrain

7 6. How is an animal’s body plan like an “evolutionary experiment”?
An animal starts the ‘evolutionary experiment’ with one type of body plan Over time, in order to survive and reproduce, their body plan adapts Body plans that aren’t successful go extinct If successful, they will be able to survive and reproduce

8 7. Name 6 nonchordate invertebrates
7. Name 6 nonchordate invertebrates. What were some of the 1st characteristics that evolved in invertebrates? Sponges, echinoderms, arthropods, worms, mollusks, echinoderms

9 8. List 3 traits that arthropods have that cnidarians do not:
Organs Bilateral symmetry 3 germ layers True coelom Segmentation Cephalization

10 9. Why do you think we don’t have much fossil evidence of early invertebrates?
Early invertebrates were tiny and soft-bodied, making it nearly impossible to make a fossil

11 10. What characteristics have evolved in fish?
Vertebrae Jaws Paired appendages Fins Bony skeleton Scales

12 11. What characteristics have evolved in birds?
Lungs Endothermy Feathers Hollow bones 2 legs covered with scales Wings

13 12. What characteristics have evolved in reptiles?
Lungs 4 limbs Amniotic egg Eggs don’t develop in water Dry, scaly skin

14 13. What characteristics have evolved in mammals?
Endothermy Four limbs Amniotic egg Hair Mammary glands

15 14. Name the group of invertebrate animals whose ancestors were related to the earliest chordates.

16 15. What characteristic do reptiles have that amphibians do not?
Reptiles have lungs, amniotic eggs, eggs don’t develop in water; dry, scaly skin Amphibians 1st stage of life- no lungs, eggs in water

17 16. How have animals’ body plans evolved over time?

18 17. What pattern or relationship exists between type of body symmetry and the evolution of animals?
Sponges – asymmetrical (no symmetry) Cnidarians – radial symmetry More advanced – bilateral symmetry (*Exception – echinoderms)

19 18. What is the single most important characteristic that separates birds from other living animals?
Although birds have defining characteristics such as wings, beaks, four limbs, or ability to fly, these characteristics are also found in other animals The single characteristic separating birds from other animals is FEATHERS This allows them to regulate their internal body temperature

20 19. Which two major groups of fishes evolved from the early jawless fish and still survive today?
Early jawless fishes (Hagfish, lamprey) Chondrichthyes (Cartilaginous fish - Sharks) Osteichthyes (Bony fish)

21 20. The evolution of jaws and paired fins was an important development in the rise of which group of animals? Sharks (Cartilaginous fish)

22 21. List 2 ways that bony fish differ from the other two fish groups:
1. Have bone (Sharks don’t, jawless fish don’t) 2. Have jaws (Jawless fish don’t)

23 22. What adaptation enables birds to live in environments that are colder than those in which most reptiles live? Endothermy Feathers – can use to regulate body temperature

24 23. How do nonvertebrate chordates differ from other chordates?
Nonvertebrate = no backbone Chordates includes vertebrates and invertebrates Therefore, not all chordates have a backbone

25 24. What evidence exists to indicate that annelids and mollusks are closely related?
Levels of organization, body symmetry, 3 germ layers, true coelom, protostomes, and cephalization

26 25. The only animal to have an asymmetrical body plan is:

27 26. Which of the worm groups has the characteristic of a segmented body?

28 28. List the 5 types of animals in Phylum Chordata
Fish Amphibians Reptiles Birds Mammals

29 29. What was the 1st group of animals to have cephalization?

30 30. What are 2 general characteristics that ALL animals have?
To be included in the Animal Kingdom, an animal must: Be multicellular Be heterotrophic (need food from others) Lack cell walls

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