2 1. What’s the difference between a chordate and an invertebrate? Chordates exhibit 4 characteristics during at least one stage of life:Dorsal, hollow nerve cord, notochord, tail, and a pharyngeal pouchInvertebrates = animals without backbonesChordates can be in 2 groups: chordates and invertebrate chordates
3 2. What type of body cavity do most groups have? True coelom – a body cavity completely lined with mesoderm (middle germ tissue layer)
4 3. Which invertebrate group has the closest evolutionary relationship to chordates?
5 4. How is embryology of echinoderms similar to that of vertebrates 4. How is embryology of echinoderms similar to that of vertebrates? What might this similarity indicate about their evolutionary relationship?Both deuterostomesIndicates they are closely related, came from common ancestor
6 5. Why would animals need to adapt their formation of limbs? Each animal’s forelimbs is adapted to survival in their particular environmentEx: ability to find and capture food, evade predators, move through various types of terrain
7 6. How is an animal’s body plan like an “evolutionary experiment”? An animal starts the ‘evolutionary experiment’ with one type of body planOver time, in order to survive and reproduce, their body plan adaptsBody plans that aren’t successful go extinctIf successful, they will be able to survive and reproduce
8 7. Name 6 nonchordate invertebrates 7. Name 6 nonchordate invertebrates. What were some of the 1st characteristics that evolved in invertebrates?Sponges, echinoderms, arthropods, worms, mollusks, echinoderms
9 8. List 3 traits that arthropods have that cnidarians do not: OrgansBilateral symmetry3 germ layersTrue coelomSegmentationCephalization
10 9. Why do you think we don’t have much fossil evidence of early invertebrates? Early invertebrates were tiny and soft-bodied, making it nearly impossible to make a fossil
11 10. What characteristics have evolved in fish? VertebraeJawsPaired appendagesFinsBony skeletonScales
12 11. What characteristics have evolved in birds? LungsEndothermyFeathersHollow bones2 legs covered with scalesWings
13 12. What characteristics have evolved in reptiles? Lungs4 limbsAmniotic eggEggs don’t develop in waterDry, scaly skin
14 13. What characteristics have evolved in mammals? EndothermyFour limbsAmniotic eggHairMammary glands
15 14. Name the group of invertebrate animals whose ancestors were related to the earliest chordates.
16 15. What characteristic do reptiles have that amphibians do not? Reptiles have lungs, amniotic eggs, eggs don’t develop in water; dry, scaly skinAmphibians 1st stage of life- no lungs, eggs in water
17 16. How have animals’ body plans evolved over time?
18 17. What pattern or relationship exists between type of body symmetry and the evolution of animals? Sponges – asymmetrical (no symmetry)Cnidarians – radial symmetryMore advanced – bilateral symmetry (*Exception – echinoderms)
19 18. What is the single most important characteristic that separates birds from other living animals? Although birds have defining characteristics such as wings, beaks, four limbs, or ability to fly, these characteristics are also found in other animalsThe single characteristic separating birds from other animals is FEATHERSThis allows them to regulate their internal body temperature
20 19. Which two major groups of fishes evolved from the early jawless fish and still survive today? Early jawless fishes (Hagfish, lamprey)Chondrichthyes (Cartilaginous fish - Sharks)Osteichthyes (Bony fish)
21 20. The evolution of jaws and paired fins was an important development in the rise of which group of animals?Sharks(Cartilaginous fish)
22 21. List 2 ways that bony fish differ from the other two fish groups: 1. Have bone(Sharks don’t, jawlessfish don’t)2. Have jaws(Jawless fish don’t)
23 22. What adaptation enables birds to live in environments that are colder than those in which most reptiles live?EndothermyFeathers – can use toregulate body temperature
24 23. How do nonvertebrate chordates differ from other chordates? Nonvertebrate = no backboneChordates includes vertebratesand invertebratesTherefore, not all chordateshave a backbone
25 24. What evidence exists to indicate that annelids and mollusks are closely related? Levels of organization, bodysymmetry, 3 germ layers, truecoelom, protostomes, andcephalization
26 25. The only animal to have an asymmetrical body plan is: Sponges
27 26. Which of the worm groups has the characteristic of a segmented body? Annelids
28 28. List the 5 types of animals in Phylum Chordata FishAmphibiansReptilesBirdsMammals
29 29. What was the 1st group of animals to have cephalization? Arthropods
30 30. What are 2 general characteristics that ALL animals have? To be included in the Animal Kingdom, an animal must:Be multicellularBe heterotrophic (need food from others)Lack cell walls
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