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Presentation on theme: "GCSE REVISION NOTES AQA FOOD EXAM 2009."— Presentation transcript:


2 Food words Risk assessment COSHH
Controls and assessment – putting in place safety measures to limit injury or illness. Hazard Anything that could go wrong during buying/ storing/ making/ packaging/ transport of a product that is a hazard Risk The risk is the likelihood of it happening Risk assessment means thinking about: what could happen/ when it could happen and taking steps to prevent it happening. Food words COSHH Control of Substances Hazardous to Health Correct storage of chemicals including bleach, washing up liquids and cleaning fluids. Also DATA sheets saying how to deal with spills , swallowed and or chemicals in cuts or eyes. HACCP Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points How to store food, limit cross contamination and health and safety – i.e. Blue plasters and magnets to remove foreign bodies. Hazard A hazard is anything that will cause harm to the consumer Analysis Analysis is when you look in detail at something Critical Critical means it is very serious. Control points A control point is a step in the process where hazards or risks are likely to occur Cross-contamination This is wear food of different sorts touch each other and bacteria is able to move from one food to another. i.e. Raw meet dripping blood on to a salad in a refrigerator, this can cause food poisoning.

3 Key words Standard components
A bought in pre-made ingredient which can be used in the production of food. Benefits of a standard component. Produced to work the same each time Produced to taste the same each time Produced to weight the same each time. (with a tolerance level). Standard components include Stock cubes Marzipan Rolly icing sugar Roll out pastry. Etc. Key words Vegan People who eat no animal products including meat, dairy (from animals milk) eggs and fish. Many vegans avoid wearing animal products also. Vegetarian / vegetarianism. People who chose for a moral, religious or health reason to exclude meat from their diets. (this can include fish, shellfish, animal meats and poultry) . Lactose Intolerance Is an allergy towards milk it can cause suffers to suffer from allergic reactions and in some cases this can cause convulsions. Gluten Is found in grass related grains, wheat, maize, rice ,rye and barley. People who have an allergy towards gluten should avoid these foods and or eat alternatives. Peanut allergy This often effects small children and as a health warning children under 3 years due to the effects the allergy can cause.

4 Key words Genetically Modified Foods
Foods that have been altered genetically to contain one trait or other. Normally to be resilience against bacteria or pests. GM foods first went on sale in 1990’s. If a field has been used for GM crops it must be left for 7 years before it can be used for organic food crops. Key words Smart products Smart foods are foods that have been developed using new and improved processes, and often human intervention. Examples of smart foods are instant desserts. Genetically modified foods are examples of smart foods. Smart foods can be: foods with new molecular structures, such as modified starches and sweeteners functional foods e.g. probiotic yoghurts, cholesterol-lowering spreads and fortified eggs meat analogues e.g. tofu, textured vegetable protein, mycoprotein modern biotechnology e.g. soya bean, tomato plant, particular enzymes Smart foods could: have a special function other than providing the consumer with nutrients and energy. perform a function that cannot be done by normal foods. have been invented with other uses in mind before being made available to the general public. The British Nutrition Foundation has a powerpoint presentation on Smart Foods.

5 Food plate Alternative proteins.
For people who don’t eat meat or animal products. TVP Textured vegetable protein (made from soya bean) Quorn A mycoroprotein which is related to the mushroom. Tivall Made from wheat and vegetable protein. Its texture is similar to meat. Tofu and bean curd Made from soya beans. Food plate The recommended guidelines say you should not exceed 6g of salt per day 3 a day Dairy portions. 5 a day bread, cereals and potatoes portions. 5 a day fruit and veg. A portion of fruit or veg is about the size of your clenched fist. Meat, fish and alternatives. 2 or 3 portions a day Sugary and fatty foods small amounts only.

6 Organic Organic foods are made according to certain production standards. The use of conventional non-organic pesticides, insecticides and herbicides is greatly restricted and avoided as a last resort. However, contrary to popular belief, certain non-organic fertilisers are still used. If livestock are involved, they must be reared without the routine use of antibiotics and without the use of growth hormones, and generally fed a healthy diet. In most countries, organic produce may not be genetically modified. Historically, organic farms have been relatively small family-run farms[1] — which is why organic food was once only available in small stores or farmers' markets. However, since the early 1990s organic food production has had growth rates of around 20% a year, far ahead of the rest of the food industry, in both developed and developing nations. As of April 2008, organic food accounts for 1-2% of food sales worldwide. Recycling symbol Fair trade Is an organized social movement and market-based approach that aims to help producers in developing countries earn a liveable wage. Allowing farmers to educate their children and improve their standard of living.

7 Cutting boards As used in professional kitchens, this set of differently coloured chopping boards ensures ideal food hygiene and avoids transfer of flavours between foods. Use the following for the following red board for raw meat, blue for fish, green for vegetables, yellow for cooked food. Impregnated with an anti-bacterial agent, the polypropylene surface is also kind to knives. Dishwasher Safe. L:34cm, W:25cm.

8 Parts of the egg % COMPOSITION OF A WHOLE EGG:  65.5% Water 11.8% Protein 11.0% Fat 11.7% Ash Egg yolk’s structure ½ water 1/6 protein 1/3 fat Emulsifiers (lecithin) All of the eggs vitamins A, D and E are in the yolk. Egg yolks are one of the few foods naturally containing vitamin D. The yolk also contains more phosphorus, manganese, iron, iodine, copper, and calcium than the white, and it contains all of the zinc. Egg white’s structure. 7/8 water 1/8 protein 0 fat Niacin, riboflavin, chlorine, magnesium, potassium, sodium and sulphur.

9 Egg facts Contains vitamins and minerals. Easy to prepare.
Good source of vitamins D, A , B2 and iodine. Good choice as part of a healthy balanced diet. Need to be handled with care to avoid food poisoning. Good source of protein. Eggs contain cholesterol – high levels of cholesterol in the blood can cause heart attacks. High risk food for pregnant, very young children and elderly people. There is no recommended daily amount. The yellow part of the egg is the yolk, the white part is named albumin. To limit exposure to salmonella use pasteurised eggs. Eating raw eggs, runny yolks or food which includes this such as mayonnaise and peppermint creams can cause a food poisoning known as salmonella Store eggs in a cool place such as the refrigerator. Always wash your hands after touching egg shells. Egg shells are often unwashed and are more likely to carry salmonella than the egg yolk or whites. Eggs are in the meet and nuts section of the food plate, and should make up about 12% of your daily diet.

10 Bacteria can spread very easily from eggs to other foods, hands, worktops, etc. There can be bacteria on the shell, as well as inside the egg, so you need to be careful how you handle eggs, when they are still in the shell and after you have cracked them Egg facts Each egg is about Kcals. Wash hands before and after handling eggs. So remember to: Keep eggs away from other foods, when they are still in the shell and after you have cracked them. Be careful not to splash egg onto other foods, worktops or dishes. Always wash and dry your hands thoroughly after touching eggs or working with them. Clean surfaces, dishes and utensils thoroughly, using warm soapy water, after working with eggs. Never re-use left –over egg dishes Bacteria can also spread onto worktops, dishes and utensils that are touched by eggs, and then the bacteria can spread to other foods that touch the worktops, dishes or utensils. Never use dirty, cracked or broken eggs .

11 Cooking eggs properly If you cook eggs until both the white and yolk are solid this will kill any bacteria. If you are cooking a dish containing eggs, make sure you cook it until the food is steaming hot all the way through. Foods that are made with raw eggs and then not cooked, or only lightly cooked, can cause food poisoning. This is because any bacteria in the eggs won't be killed. Egg facts All the following might contain raw eggs: home-made mayonnaise Béarnaise and hollandaise sauces some salad dressings ice cream icing mousse tiramisu and other desserts For the safest choice, you could use pasteurised egg instead (available from some supermarkets), because pasteurisation kills bacteria. If you're concerned, when you're eating out or buying food that isn't labelled and you're not sure whether a food contains raw egg, ask the person serving you. If you buy commercially produced mayonnaise, salad dressings, sauces, ice cream, desserts, or ready-made icing, these will almost always have been made using pasteurised egg. Check the label but ask if you're not sure.

12 Storing eggs safely Here are some tips to help you store your eggs safely: Do store eggs in a cool, dry place, ideally in the fridge. Do store eggs away from other foods. It's a good idea to use your fridge's egg tray, if you have one, because this helps to keep eggs separate. Do eat dishes containing eggs as soon as possible after you've prepared them, but if you're not planning to eat them straight away, cool them quickly and then keep them in the fridge. Don't use eggs after their 'best before' date for the safest choice. Don't use eggs with damaged shells, because dirt or bacteria might have got inside them. Storage Store eggs away from strong smelling foods. Store eggs away from raw meats. Store eggs at a constant temperature below 20*c preferably in a refrigerator.

13 Food that contain eggs Coddled egg Boiled egg Poached Scrambled
Fried eggs Dinner / evening meal Micro waved Snack Quiche Breakfast Salad Lunch Flan Buffet Lemon curd Spanish omelette Brunch Cakes Omelette Yorkshire pudding Biscuits Scotch egg’s meringue Pasties Soup Meat balls Pies (crust) Meat loaf Pan cakes Ice cream Peppermint creams

14 Eggs can bind ingredients as in meatloaves or croquettes
Eggs can bind ingredients as in meatloaves or croquettes. They can also leaven such baked high rises as souffles and sponge cakes. Their thickening talent is seen in custards and sauces. They emulsify mayonnaise, salad dressings and Hollandaise sauce and are, frequently used to coat or glaze breads and cookies. They clarify soups and coffee, in boiled candies and frostings, they retard crystallization. As a finishing touch, they can be hard cooked and used as a garnish. Egg facts functions Coat or glaze To add shine and crispness to the surface or to brown the surface as in pastries. Clarify Raw egg whites coagulate around foreign particles in a hot liquid. Retard crystallization Egg thickens and causes crystals which stick together to produce a whole. Bind (stick together) To hold a variety of parts together. Egg binds breadcrumbs and meat in a meat loaf. Garnish To add decoration to food such as salads. Leaven An agent that works subtly to lighten or modify a whole. Aeration Egg whites increase six to eight times in volume . As egg white foam is heated, the air bubbles become stable, enabling foods to rise during the cooking process. Thickening Eggs coagulate and thicken mixtures such as custards.

15 What is salmonella ? Salmonella is a type of bacteria. It is usually found in poultry, eggs, unprocessed milk and in meat and water. It may also be carried by pets like turtles and birds. The salmonella bacteria attacks the stomach and intestines. In more serious cases, the bacteria may enter the lymph tracts, which carry water and protein to the blood, and the blood itself. The bacteria attack all age groups and both sexes. Children, the elderly and people who are already ill are much more likely to get a serious infection. What are the symptoms of salmonella poisoning? Diarrhoea or constipation. Headaches. stomach cramps. Nausea and vomiting. Fever. Possibly, blood in the faeces.

16 Test for freshness You can test an egg to see how old it is and if its still fresh enough to use. Mix 2 tablespoons of salt in about 2 cups of water. Drop the egg gently in to the bowl of the water solution . If the egg sinks to the bottom and stays there, its about 3 to 6 days old. Sinks, but floats at an angle, its more than a week old. Sinks, but then stands on end, its about two weeks old. Floats , its too old and should be discarded. Eggs act this way in water because of the air sac present in all eggs. As the egg ages, the air sac gets larger because the egg shell is a semi-permeable membrane ( allowing air to pass in to the egg over time). The air sac, when large enough, makes the egg float. Eggs are generally good for about three weeks after you buy them.

17 Best before dates 'Best before' dates appear on a wide range of frozen, dried, tinned and other foods. The 'best before' dates are more about quality than safety, except for eggs. So when the date runs out it doesn't mean that the food will be harmful, but it might begin to lose its flavour and texture. About a third of the food we buy ends up being thrown away and most of this could have been eaten. So think carefully before throwing away food that is past its 'best before' date. However, you shouldn't eat eggs after the 'best before' date. This is because eggs can contain salmonella bacteria, which could start to multiply after this date. And remember, the 'best before' date will only be accurate if the food is stored according to the instructions on the label, such as 'store in a cool dry place' or 'keep in the fridge once opened'. So, if you want to enjoy the food at its best, use it by its 'best before' date and make sure you follow any instructions.

18 Eggs The Lion Quality mark on egg shells and boxes means that the eggs have been produced to the highest standards of food safety. The Lion Quality mark, which is a registered trademark, can only be used by subscribers to the BEIC (British Egg Industry Council) on eggs which have been produced in accordance with UK and EU law and the Lion Quality Code of Practice. Look for the Lion Quality mark on the egg shell and egg box - it shows that the eggs have been produced to the highest standards of food safety Buy eggs from a reputable retailer where they will have been transported and stored at the correct temperature (below 20°C) Keep eggs refrigerated after purchase Store eggs in their box and, as eggs are porous, away from strong-smelling foods Make sure you use eggs by the 'best before' date shown on the egg or box - for Lion Quality eggs, this guarantees that they are fresher than required by law Wash hands before and after handling eggs Discard dirty or cracked eggs Eat cooked egg dishes as soon as possible after cooking or store in a fridge

19 Lion code of practice Key requirements of the Lion Code of Practice
The Lion mark was re-introduced on egg boxes in November 1998 to denote eggs produced to a stringent new Code of Practice incorporating the latest research and advice on Salmonella and eggs from scientists and vets. Latest controls in the Lion Code of Practice, which are additional to current legislation, include: All hens producing Lion Quality eggs must have been vaccinated against Salmonella Enteritidis. A registration and ‘passport’ system ensures complete traceability of Lion Quality eggs, hens and feed. There are increased hygiene controls and Salmonella testing right through the production system. The Lion Code of Practice also incorporates higher standards of animal welfare than required by law. The Lion Code of Practice includes stringent feed controls, including production of feed to Universal Feed Assurance Scheme (UFAS) standards and the banning of growth promoters, canthaxanthin and lasalocid in laying birds. A best-before date and Lion logo must be printed on the shell of Lion Quality eggs as well as on the egg box. The Lion Quality mark is a registered trademark and can only be used by BEIC subscribers on egg shells and egg boxes which have been produced in accordance with the Lion Code of Practice and UK and EU law. The Lion Code of Practice is monitored by an independent agency in accordance with the EN standard. Farms and packing stations are regularly audited including unannounced audits.

20 Egg labelling Producer identity
A unique code denoting where the egg was produced. E.g. UK54321, UK 543SCO or UK5-432 Egg labelling Method of production 0= Organic 1= Free Range 2= Barn 3= Caged British Lion Quality Mark Only found on eggs that have been produced in accordance with UK and EU law and the British Lion Quality code of practice. Best-before date All British Lion Quality eggs must include a ‘best-before’ date printed on the shell of the egg

21 Egg recipes Pouring batter mix (Yorkshire puddings/pancakes/toad in
the hole) 100g (4oz) plain flour Pinch of salt 1 medium egg 300ml (1/2 pint) milk (or milk and water mix) Mix flour and salt in a basin, make a hollow in the centre and drop in egg. Stir with a wooden spoon and add liquid gradually, until all the flour is worked in. Beat well and add remaining liquid. N.B. The consistency should be like single cream . Meringue 4 egg whites 115g (4 ½ oz) icing sugar 115g (4 ½ oz) caster sugar Heat oven to 100*c, 110*F gas mark ½ . Tip the egg whites in to clean glass bowl Beat eggs with an electric whisk until the mixture resembles a fluffy cloud and stands up stiff. Gradually add the caster sugar a spoonful. Sift a 1/3 of the icing sugar over the mix and fold in with a metal spoon. Repeat till all icing sugar is added, mixture should look like snow drift. (Hold the bowl over your head and the mixture should stay put). Spoon on to baking sheet and cook. Sponge cake (fairy cakes- Victoria sponge, swiss roll) 100g (4oz) margarine 100g (4oz) Self rising flour 100g (4oz) caster sugar 2 eggs Heat oven to 180*c, 350*F gas mark 4. Cream margarine and sugar. Beat egg. Gradually add egg to mixture and mix well. Gently fold in flour. Mix until even. Place in baking tray or cake cases.

22 Egg recipes Vanilla Ice Cream (4-6servings) Ingredients
1 vanilla pod or reel vanilla extract 1 1/4 pints (700ml) milk 6 egg yolks 10 oz (275g) caster sugar a pinch of salt Preparation Method for Vanilla Ice Cream If using a vanilla pod, halve it lengthways and put it into a heavy saucepan with the milk.  Heat gently to near boiling point, then remove from the heat and set it aside for 30 minutes  If using vanilla extract, no need to heat the milk.  Add vanilla extract to taste once the custard has cooled Combine the egg yolks, sugar and salt in a bowl.  Whisk until the mixture is very pale and falls back leaving a trail when the beaters are lifted.   Strain the milk and gradually whisk it in.  Return the mixture to the pan and cook it over a very low heat, or in the top of a double boiler, string constantly until the custard is thick enough to coat the back of a wooden spoon. Remove the custard from the heat and set it aside to cool, stirring it time to time to prevent a skin formation.  Vanilla extract should be added at this point nothing that the flavour will fade with freezing. Freeze in a sorbetière following the manufacturer's instructions.  Or still-freeze (refer to home), vigorously whisking the partially frozen ice at least once during the freezing process. Omelette Ingredients 1 tsp olive oil 2 large eggs 5g/¼oz fresh herbs, chopped e.g. chives and flat-leaf parsley salt and freshly ground black pepper Method 1. Heat the oil in a small omelette/frying pan. 2. In a small bowl, beat the eggs then stir in the herbs and season. 3. Pour the egg mixture into the hot pan. 4. Using a fork, frequently drag the cooked egg mixture from the edges of the pan into the centre of the pan to ensure an evenly cook omelette. 5. Once the egg is completely set, turn out and serve.

23 Egg recipes Boiled egg 166 calories per portion Serves: 2
Ingredients 2 Large Lion Quality eggs Water for boiling Pinch of salt Buttered toast cut into soldiers to serve (optional) Method 1. Place egg in a small pan. Cover with at least 2.5cm (1") of cold water, add a pinch of salt and place the pan on a high heat. 2. When the water is almost boiling, gently stir the egg and set a kitchen timer for one of the timings below: 3 minutes for really soft boiled yolk and set white 4 minutes for slightly set yolk and set white 5 minutes for firmer yolk and white 6 minutes for hard boiled with lightly soft yolk 7 minutes for firmly hard boiled 3. Reduce heat slightly to keep water bubbling but not fast boiling and stir the egg once more. 4. Once cooking time is complete, remove the egg from the pan with slotted spoon, place into egg cup and serve immediately with hot buttered toast soldiers. Cooking Tip Quiche Ingredients 1 tsp olive oil 2 large eggs 5g/¼oz fresh herbs, chopped e.g. chives and flat-leaf parsley salt and freshly ground black pepper Method 1. Heat the oil in a small omelette/frying pan. 2. In a small bowl, beat the eggs then stir in the herbs and season. 3. Pour the egg mixture into the hot pan. 4. Using a fork, frequently drag the cooked egg mixture from the edges of the pan into the centre of the pan to ensure an evenly cook omelette. 5. Once the egg is completely set, turn out and serve.

24 Buffet A buffet is a meal laid out on a table or sideboard so that guests may serve themselves. Business regulations state food should be kept at or above 63*c Business regulations state that food should be chilled at or below 8*c. High risk foods which include chicken, fish and mayo should not be left as room temperature for long as this can increase bacteria in the food. The temperature can not drop below 63*c for more than 2 hours The server should know how long the food has been standing, if in doubt don’t eat it. Hot Cold Rice, fish, chicken and other high risk food should not be reheated. A ban-Marie can be used to keep hot food hot during a serving. Iced slabs can be used to keep the food cold during a serving . The temperature can not rise above 8*c for more than 4 hours. Should be kept in a fridge for as long as possible

25 Buffet High risk foods which include chicken, fish and mayo should not be left as room temperature for long as this can increase bacteria in the food. Different cultures use buffets for celebrations as well as a method of serving food. Pella is served at Spanish festivals. Spit roast pork can be served during summer solutes by many religious groups. BBQ traditional in Australia and American out door eating. Buffet eating is an alternative to formal dinning: Allowing people to pick and choose their own food. Reduces the number of servers required for a party. Allows party goes to mingle during selecting food .

26 High street buffet’s Many high street have buffet restaurants offering hot and cold food at a set price per person. High street chains inc. Big Luke’s Buffet king Toby Panda

27 Cold buffet food Prawn cocktail Flan Pies Fish Tapas Jam tarts Scones
Fairy cakes Cream cakes Salad Punch somas' Stuffed eggs Sausage on stick Crisps Mayo dips Breads Cold buffet food Fresh cream dips Cheese and pineapples Carrots and peppers Pickled onions Cold chicken legs Fruit salad Cold meats Potato salad Preserves and sauces Sandwiches Liver pate Stuffed Veg Rice Quiche Onion bhaji Open sandwiches Spring rolls mousse jelly Pizzas Peanuts Pasties Scotch eggs

28 Hot buffet food Egg fried rice Soups Chips Pies Flans Scones
Stuffed peppers Boiled rice Carvery Egg noodles Pizza Gravy Egg Foo yung vegetables Peking duck Pasta Hot buffet food Honey ham Roast meat Tea smoked duck Paella Asian lamb hotpot Omelettes Apple pie Spare ribs Custard King prawns Sauces Beef curry Stuffed Veg potatoes Beef in black bean sauce Hot sandwiches Tandoori Mussels Tikka Masala Bhuna Nan Burgers

29 Regulations for buffets
Any company serving a buffet should follow all HACCP and food safety legislation. Staff should have completed basic food hygiene certificate. Food should be prepared in an hygienic environment . Hair should be tired up – hats or hair nets should be worn. All cuts should be covered with blue plasters. CHILLED at or below a maximum temperature of 8 Degrees C (ideally below 5*c) HOT at or above a minimum temperature of 63 Degrees C (having first meet a core temp of 70*c for at least 2 mins) The danger zone for both hot and cold foods is between 8*c and 63*c . At this temperature bacteria is able to multiply Correct chopping boards should be used for different food types. Hands and work surfaces should be washed with warm soapy water. Clean aprons should be worn to prepare food. Regulations for buffets Food should be stored in the correct setting for the food. All utensils used in preparing the food should be clean. Staff should check best before dates and regularly rotate stock to cut down on wastages.

30 Regulations for buffets
The Food Hygiene (England) Regulations 2006 apply to all types of food business - from a hot dog van to a five star restaurant, from a village hall, where food is prepared, to a vending machine.  If you are a caterer or retailer, or if you manufacture products which are not of animal origin, you will need to follow this advice, whether the food is sold publicly or privately, for profit or for fund raising. The Regulations do not apply to food cooked at home for private consumption. Regulations for buffets All these areas should be temperature controlled to offer the safest food to dinners. Preparation  handling processing packaging manufacturing storage transporting selling distribution supplying High risk foods (food that are the most likely to cause food poisoning and or illness) Dairy foods. Foods containing milk / cream Soft cheeses Fresh ice cream Cooked produce Meat Fish Eggs Poultry Rice dishes, pulses mayonnaise Food exempt from the temperature control. These are food which offer no risk if left at room temperature for long periods of time. (normally stored at room temperature foods) Crisps Peanuts (and other nuts) Dried fruits Breads – bread sticks Pretzels Bombay mix Or any food with these ingredients in.

31 Do ask servers advice about the length of time food has been standing.
Dos and don'ts. Do ask servers advice about the length of time food has been standing. Don’t reheat high risk food If in doubt don’t eat it Do dispose of food if it has been left out beyond the recommend timing . Don’t eat food that has started to go dry around the edges, this has been standing to long. Store spare or additional food in suitable temperature controlled storage units. Dairy products may start to smell as they start to curdle, if it smells wrong don’t touch it. Ask how the food was made. Never take food from a buffet home to eat the next day. Ensure meats and vegetarian dishes are separated to reduce cross- contamination.

32 Religion and food Food is an important part of religious observance and spiritual ritual for many faiths including Christianity, Judaism, Islam, Hinduism and Buddhism. The role of food in cultural practices and religious beliefs is complex and varies among individuals and communities. Any introduction to such a diverse and complex topic will not be able to include everything. Instead, here is a sample of some ways in which various religious groups include food as a vital part of their faith. Understanding the role of food in cultural and religious practice is an important part of showing respect and responding to the needs of people from a range of religious communities. However, it is important to avoid assumptions about a person’s culture and beliefs. If in doubt, ask. Islam (Muslim) Halal food’s Prohibited foods Haram Ramadan Pork and any food not slaughtered Halal style can not be eaten. Pork, alcohol, animal fats, margarines, Bread which contains yeast, caffeinated drinks, A fast which takes place around October time in which adults fast during day light hours (when the sun shines) and the fast is broken each night after prayers.

33 Some Catholics and orthodox Christians.
Buddhism The dietary rules of Buddhism, which is more of a life philosophy than a religious doctrine, depend on which branch of Buddhism is practiced and in what country. In his multiple lives on Earth, Buddha cycled through various animal forms before attaining the form of a human being. Most Buddhists choose to become vegetarian to avoid killing animals. Similarly to the Hindu concept of Karma, Buddhism proposes that violence or pain inflicted on others will rebound on you, hence the need for a vegetarian lifestyle. Some Buddhists believe that a contributing cause of human aggression is violence against animals. Some Buddhists avoid meat and dairy products, while others only shun beef. This is affected by cultural, geographical and dietary influences. Religious dates vary from one region to the next. Mahayana Buddhism, for example, celebrates three festivals for the birth, enlightenment and death of Buddha, while Theravada Buddhists observe all three events on a single day. Buddhist monks tend to fast in the afternoon. Buddhist monks and nuns are not allowed to cultivate, store or cook their own food; instead, they must rely on ‘alms’, which are donations from believers. This sometimes includes meats, as monks and nuns aren’t allowed to ask for specific foods. Christianity Some Catholics and orthodox Christians. Observe feast and fast days during the year. Avoid meat on Fridays. Friday fish day Holy communion (by most Christian groups) Eating bread and drinking wine Seventh Day Adventists Avoid caffeine and don’t eat meat or dairy The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints (Mormons). Avoid alcohol, caffeine and regally follow fasting days Salvation Army Avoid alcohol

34 Hinduism Hindus believe in the interdependence of life. People who practice the Hindu religion don’t eat meat from animals or any food that has involved the taking of life. They also avoid foods that may have caused pain to animals during manufacture. ‘Karma’ is believed to be the spiritual load we accumulate or relieve ourselves of during our lifetime. If a Hindu consumes animal flesh, they accumulate the Karma of that act, which will then need to be balanced through good actions and learning in this life or the next. Many Hindus are vegetarian but this is not compulsory. In many cases beef is forbidden while pork is sometimes restricted or avoided. Prohibited animal products tend to vary from one country or region to the next. For example, duck and crab may be forbidden in one geographical location while fish may be part of the staple food for people living in other areas. Most Hindus do not eat beef or beef products, because the cow is held to be sacred. Dairy products including milk, butter and yoghurt may be eaten. Foodstuffs such as alcohol, onions and garlic are thought to inhibit the Hindu’s quest for spiritual enlightenment. They are therefore avoided or restricted. Fasting depends on the person’s caste (or social standing) and on the occasion; for example, rules regarding fasting depend on whether the day has religious or personal significance. Judaism Kosher – foods Orthodox – Jews Kosher food must be slaughtered in a correct manor. Mother and child must not be served together- for example milk and beef. Separate cooking and preparation areas must be available in the kitchen areas- this inc. Sinks, plates and pre areas.


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