Presentation on theme: "Internal & External Fertilisation"— Presentation transcript:
1Internal & External Fertilisation D. Crowley, 2007
2Internal & External Fertilisation Sunday, April 02, 2017Internal & External FertilisationTo know the difference between internal and external fertilisation
3Identical?Look at the following - it shows two sequences how identical and non-identical twins are formedCan you tell which is which? Can you explain how you know?
4Identical?Identical twins can form because once a sperm has fertilised the egg, the ball of cells (embryo) can split into two. If this happens you get two identical twinsNon-identical twins can form, because sometimes a female can ovulate and produce two eggs in a month. These are then fertilised by a different sperm each, so you produce non-identical twinsUnique individuals are due to individual sperm and eggs fertilising one another
5Fertilisation Different organisms fertilise in different ways Can you think of any organisms which fertilise differently to humans (e.g. think about frogs and fish)For fertilisation to occur, the male sperm cells must get to the female egg cells.There are two main ways for this to occur - internal and external fertilisation
6External Fertilisation External fertilisation occurs outside the female - the male releases sperm cells onto the egg cells as the female lays themExternal fertilisation occurs in fish and most water dwelling animals (e.g. amphibians). These organisms usually produce a large number of sex cells which are released into the water.There are usually courtship rituals which make sure the male and female sex cells are released near each other.However, the chances of fertilisation are very low, so huge numbers of eggs and sperm are needed to ensure enough offspring are produced
7Internal Fertilisation Internal fertilisation occurs inside the femaleInternal fertilisation occurs in most land dwelling organisms (such as mammals) - this is necessary as sperm need fluid in order to be able to swim to the egg (the fluid comes from semen, ejaculated along with the sperm from the male).These organisms produce far fewer sex cells, as the chances of successful fertilisation are much higher (the sex cells are much closer together when they are released)
8How Many?Why is it that organisms which produce by external fertilisation produce so many more sex cells?The chances of fertilisation are much lower in externally fertilised organisms, as the sex cells are further apart from each other: -This means the sex cells are more likely to be predatedThey can also be separated from one another (due to currents)In external fertilisation there is also less parental care, so the offspring are more likely to be killed (hence producing lots of them)
9How Many?Why then are there so few sex cells produced in internal fertilisation?As the likelihood of successful fertilisation is higher in internally fertilised organisms, because the sex cells are so much closer together, producing a great many sex cells would cause problems because: -There is only a limited amount of space within the female’s uterus to accommodate a growing foetusIn internal fertilisation there is a greater deal of parental care, so the offspring are more likely to survive (hence there is no need to produce lots of them)
10UnderstandingTask - using exploring science book, read pages 18 and 19 and answer (in full sentences) questions 4, 5, 6, 7 and 8Questions: -In external fertilisation not all the egg cells are fertilised, and some are subjected to predation and being separated from one another.Offspring which develop inside the mother have the advantages of protection, warmth and by getting everything they need from the mother.A baby giraffe is extremely vulnerable as soon as it is born (from predators), so being able to get up and run quickly after it is born will reduce its risk of being predated upon.
11UnderstandingA bullfrog produces 20’000 eggs - because it reproduces externally, so needs many eggs as a great deal will be predated / may become separatedThe Lake Malawi mouthbrooder probably got its name because it cares for its young (after they have been fertilised) within its mouth, where they grow. Brood can mean to be anxious about something, as well as meaning the young that are all born and reared at a similar time. So the mouthbrooder is anxious for her young which have all been born at a similar time, and looks after them in her mouth!AnimalNumber of egg cellsFertilisation typeBat1InternalBullfrog20’000ExternalCat4Cod5’000’000Tiger2
12Internal & External Internal Fertilisation External Fertilisation etc… Look at the worksheet, and cut out all the cardsOrganise the cards into two groups - internal fertilisation and external fertilisationStick these into your bookInternalFertilisationExternalFertilisationetc…etc…
13Internal & External Internal Fertilisation Eggs produced in small numbersMethod usually by land animals (water is not available for the sperm to swim)Method has a better chance of the offspring surviving due to improved protectionHuman, butterfly, horseExternal FertilisationEggs produced in very large numbersUsed by fish because water is available for sperm to swim inSperm can get eaten by aquatic predatorsFish, frog