4Incubation & Embryology Objectives To train educators about the science and techniques of hatching chicksTo increase knowledge and personal confidence and leadership ability through embryology projectsTo develop youth interest in the science of embryology
5Incubation & Embryology Objectives To provide opportunities to demonstrate skills mastered in embryologyIdentify necessary environmental conditions for survival of chick embryosTo observe and understand the growth and development of chick embryosLearn how to care for baby chicks
6Incubator Still Air (No Fan) Incubator Circulated Air Incubator Alternative – automatic turnerOrder incubator earlyAssemble and run 2 weeks before starting2 days prior to setting eggsWash (1 teaspoon Clorox to 1 gal water) or mild dishwater soap
7Incubator – Thermometer/Heating Calibrate or purchase more reliable (meat, oven, science classroom, digital)Thermostat waferExpand/contractPurchase additional wafer (spare) if incubator > 3 yrs. old
8Incubator – Set-Up 1- 2 days prior to setting eggs corner of room, non-draft, away from windows70-75°F roomSign – Experiment in ProgressAdjust temperature over 2 hr. periods
9Incubator Assembly Bottom – vent holes for circulation Grate Top (red light, arrows, wing nut)Heating ElementElectrical plug (sign, janitor)Vent Plugs
10Principles of Incubation Fertile eggsTemperatureHumidityVentilationTurning of eggs
11Fertile Eggs Have incubator up and running Set eggs (Tuesday if possible)If stored, keep at 55-60° F (veggie section)Do not wash eggs, if dirty clean with fine sand paperAllow eggs to warm to room temperature prior to setting
12Temperature 100° F – circulated air automatic and manual turn Too high – 103°F – 4 hrs –high mortalityToo low-- slows developmentTwo thermometers preferredDigital?
13Temperature Still Air (No Fan) Manual turn 100° F Automatic turn 100° F
14Temperature When first placing the eggs, expect a temperature drop Do not adjust heat upward first 48 hrsDo not overheat first hrsThis cooks the embryo
15HumidityUnless instructions say otherwise; Fill outside water channel – Days 1-18; fill both channels – Days 19-21Use turkey/meat baster to add warm water – don’t get water on eggs (end of day)Add sponges for days to increase humidityRelative Humidity - 60% Days 1-18; 65-70% R.H. Days 19-21
16HumidityCirculated air – add water to outer trough from Days 1-18; both troughs last three daysStill air (No fan) – add water to inner trough from Days 1-18; both troughs last three days
17Humidity How to check Make wet bulb thermometer Place cotton wick (tennis shoe lace) on bulb and stick in water channelDays 1-18 = 87° wet bulb = 60% R.H.Days = 90° wet bulb = 70% R.H.
18Ventilation/Humidity Vent holes bottom of incubatorAllows oxygen in - carbon dioxide outIncubators – 2 plugs (remove both after chicks have hatched)
19TurningLay eggs flatMark X on one side; O on other with PENCIL or wax crayonNumber on each large endTurn eggs odd number of times each day – 3 times a day (end of day)Turn eggs from Day 1 (once) to 18 or end of 17Do not turn eggs last 3 days!!!
20Reasons for Poor Hatch Infertile eggs Temperature Humidity Ventilation Turning
21First and Second Weekend Optional take eggs home or leave in classroomTake eggs home (1/2 hr trip)Think about classroom conditionsIf the incubator stays at the school, must visit classroom once each day
22Candling Commercially During Incubation Determine quality and grade See if there are cracksDuring IncubationSee growth of embryo
23CandlingCandle once; between days 6 and 10 Candle a few (3 – 4) different eggs each timeIf your primary goal is live chicks; candle 5-6 eggs onlyDon’t keep eggs out of incubator more than 5 minutesDon’t get eggs too close to heat sourceWash hands before/after handlingLets Candle Some EGGS!!
24Preparation for Hatch End of Day 18 or 17 Add 3 sponges for extra humidityAdd cheese cloth or handiwipes to top of grateHereafter, Do not turn eggs
25HatchingRemove chicks from incubator when they are dry and fluffy. If the chicks are not dry at the end of the school day leave the chicks in the incubator until the next morning.Plan on removing chicks from the incubator once a day.If incubator has good humidity levels, chicks may not dry. Place in brooder to dry.Remove and discard all unhatched eggs 60 hr after first chick hatchesClean and disinfect incubator when done
26Power Outage Place large cardboard box over top of incubator Extreme circumstances, place candles under boxEmbryos can survive at 70° F for short periodSome can survive at temp below 90° F for up to 18 hrDo not give up
27Brooder Container Litter source Feeder and feed Waterer and water Heat sourceChicken wire
28BrooderTemperaturePlace the thermometer from the incubator in brooder box. Temperature should be approximately degrees F. May have to adjust the height of the lamp (60 watt) to maintain temperature. Do not add a higher wattage bulb!
29Long-Term BroodingRequirements – heat, space, litter, feed, water, environmentTemperature – 92-95° F (1st week)85-90° F (2nd week)Leave heat lamp on 24 hr/dayFeed – chick starter – jar lids, egg cartons, tuna type cans
30Long-Term Brooding Water – fresh daily – marbles in dish Litter/Bedding – Use pinewood/cedar shavings – replace wet/dirty with dry/clean as needed (daily)Space – enough to move aroundEnvironment – no drafts, isolation, no direct light from outside
31Long Term Chick Care Illinois Humane Animal Act Proper facilities DeliverySurvival of the fittest
32Support Support Local University of Extension Office Questions Ken Koelkebeck, PhDQuestionsWeb sitesOther teachers