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Biological School It is all about the body!!!!.

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Presentation on theme: "Biological School It is all about the body!!!!."— Presentation transcript:

1 Biological School It is all about the body!!!!

2 The Nervous System It starts with an individual nerve cell called a NEURON.

3 Neuroanatomy Synapse Synapse
Neurotransmitters (chemicals held in terminal buttons that travel through synaptic gap)

4 How does a Neuron fire? Threshold: level of stimulation needed to trigger a neural impulse Action Potential: electrical charge that travels down the axon All-or-none response: neuron either fires or it doesn’t, nothing in beteween! Neurotransmitters: chemical messengers that cross synaptic gap b/w neurons INFLUENCES EVERYTHING WE DO!!! Move, feel…everything! Reuptake: sending neuron reabsorbs some of the neurotransmitter

5 Types of Neurons Sensory Neurons (Afferent): carry sensory information to brain & spinal cord (central nervous system) Motor Neurons (Efferent): carry information from brain & spinal cord to muscles & glands Interneurons: in bran & spinal cord that communicate b/w sensory & motor

6 Types of Neurotransmitters

7 Acetylcholine (ACH) Deals with learning, memory, & muscle movement
At every junction b/w motor neurons & muscles When released to our muscles the muscle contracts When it is blocked muscles are paralyzed & cannot contract Anesthesia? Black widow spider? Is involved in autonomic nervous system Lack of has been linked to Alzheimer’s disease

8 Dopamine Involved in movement & posture, alertness, & leveling out mood Cocaine (and other drugs) blocks dopamine reuptake=high Lack of dopamine has been linked to Parkinson’s disease Too much has been linked to schizophrenia (overstimulated brain)

9 Serotonin Involved in mood, appetite, arousal
Low levels have been linked to clinical depression, suicide, loss of appetite (anorexia)

10 GABA (gamma amino-butyric acid)
In Central Nervous System Induces relaxation & sleep Balances the brain Too little = insomnia, anxiety, epilepsy

11 Glutamate Involved in memory & learning
Low levels = interferes with memory & learning, sluggish, difficulty concentrating High levels = must be “reuptook?” or it can destroy neurons

12 Endorphins Natural pain killers
Feeling of euphoria, pleasurable emotions Opiates (morphine, codeine…) bind to receptors Many of our most addictive drugs deal with endorphins Produced during exercise “gym rats”

13 Drugs can be….. Agonists- make neuron fire
Antagonists- stop neural firing Reuptake Inhibitors- block reuptake

14 The Nervous System

15 Central Nervous System
The Brain and spinal cord CNS

16 Peripheral Nervous System
Peripheral: sensory & motor neurons that connect the Central NS to the rest of the body It’s how the brain & spinal cord communicate w/ sensory receptors, muscles & glands Travel through nerves (bundled axon cables that connects cns to eveything) Is divided into two categories….somatic and autonomic

17 Somatic Nervous System
Controls voluntary muscle movement Uses motor neurons Let’s make a list!

18 Autonomic Nervous System
Controls the automatic functions of the body Glands, organs, heartbeat, digestion, etc… Think AUTOMATIC Divided into two categories…the sympathetic and the parasympathetic

19 Sympathetic Nervous System
When you are stressed: Automatically accelerates heart rate, breathing, raises blood sugar, sweat to cool you down… Fight or Flight Response! You body feels “sympathy” for you b/c it thinks you are about to die so it gets you ready to fight or run

20 Parasympathetic Nervous System
Automatically slows the body down after a stressful event Heart rate and breathing slow down, lowers blood sugar, etc… Think PARACHUTE

21 Reflexes Automatic response to stimuli
Normally, sensory neurons take info up through spine to the brain Some reactions occur when sensory neurons reach just the spinal cord (interneurons) Survival adaptation?

22 Brain Structures Some scientists divide the brain up into three parts.
Hindbrain Midbrain Forebrain Let’s talk first about the brainstem (hindbrain)

23 Medulla Oblongata “Central Office”=keeps your whole body working
Located where spinal cord enters the skull Controls heart rate, breathing & blood pressure

24 Pons Located above medulla
Communicates between cerebellum & other parts of brain Involved in sleep & arousal (awake) Some think involved in dreaming

25 SPINAL CORD (the nerves) interneurons that carry signals
protected by vertebrae & spinal fluid (cushions the nerves)

26 Thalamus Located in Forebrain “Brain’s Sensory Switchboard”
2 egg shaped structures receives information from all the senses (except smell) & routes it to the brain regions that deal with vision, hearing, taste & touch it’s the main traffic hub en route to other destinations

27 Reticular Formation (reticular activating system)
Located between your ears Finger-shaped network of neurons located between spinal cord & thalamus Sensory info travels from spinal cord to thalamus & some passes thru RF which filters info & relays it to other areas of the brain controls arousal (alert) Stimulate that cat! Or put in in a coma 

28 Cerebellum means “little brain” located in the back of our head
Coordinates muscle movements, balance, & emotions

29 Limbic System EMOTIONAL CONTROL CENTER of the brain
Linked to emotions (fear, anger…), memory & motivation (food, sex…) The 4 “F”s Feeding Fighting Fear F (sex ) Made up of: *Hypothalamus *Hippocampus *Amygdala *Cingulate Gyrus

30 Hypothalamus “the brain’s thermostat”
perform specific bodily maintenance duties (eating, drinking, body temperature, sex drive…), takes orders from the other parts of the brain “pleasure center” Orchestrates the sympathetic nervous & endocrine systems interplay b/w endocrine & nervous systems, both influence each other EX: thinking about sex can trigger your body to secrete hormones

31 Hippocampus and Amygdala
Hippocampus is involved in memory processing (creating new memories) Think lost on campus as a freshmen on first day Shaped like a seahorse Damage to this area will prevent you from forming new memories Amygdala is vital for our basic emotions Expressions of Fear & Aggression/Frustration

32 Cingulate Gyrus Latin for “belt” emotional responses to pain
regulates aggressive behavior Helps predict negative consequences

33 The Brain Made up of neurons and glial cells
Glial cells are the “housekeepers” that support & provide nutrition to neural cells My husband is my glial cell. He takes care of me (and cleans the house)!!!

34 Cerebral Cortex The wrinkled outer layer of our brain
Laid out it would be about the size of a large pizza (yum!) YOUR BODY’S ULTIMATE CONTROL & INFO PROCESSING CENTER Thinking, perceiving, speaking This part of our brain separates us from all other animals

35 Areas of the Cerebral Cortex
Divided into eight lobes, four in each hemisphere (frontal, parietal, occipital and temporal) Any area not dealing with our senses or muscle movements are called association areas Deal with higher mental functions like learning, remembering, thinking & speaking

36 Frontal Lobe Deals with higher level thought & reasoning
Making plans, forming judgments, performing movements Motor Cortex: controls voluntary movements Prefrontal Cortex: problem solving & emotion Broca’s Area: left hemisphere in frontal lobe, controls ability to speak (muscles) Broca’s Aphasia: damage to Broca’s area will impair speaking

37 Parietal Lobes Located at the top of our head
Receives sensory info about temperature, pressure, texture, & pain Somato-sensory cortex: registers and processes touch and movement sensations

38 Temporal Lobes Located above the ears Process sound sensed by ears
Wernicke’s area: processes the words we hear spoken Wernicke’s Aphasia: impairs your ability to understand words Angular Gyrus: responsible for understanding written language

39 Occipital Lobes Located in the back of our head
Handles visual input from eyes Right half of each retina goes to left occipital lobe and vice versa (seriously!!!)

40 Corpus Callosum & Basil Ganglia
Corpus Callosum: a large band of neural fibers that connect the 2 hemispheres of the brain (we’ll talk about what happens when you cut this this soon) Basil Ganglia: group of neurons that learns, remembers, & coordinates voluntary movement (Williams in Zumba!!!!)

41 Hemispheres Divided into a left and right hemisphere.
Contralateral controlled- left controls right side of body and vice versa. Brain Lateralization. Lefties are better at spatial and creative tasks. Righties are better at logic.

42 Split-Brain Patients Corpus Collosum attaches the two hemispheres of cerebral cortex. When removed you have a split-brain patient.

43 Brain Plasticity The ability for our brains to form new connections after the neurons are damaged. The younger you are, the more plastic your brain is.

44 Ways to study the Brain!!! Accidents: Phineas Gage.

45 Lesions Cutting into the brain and looking for change.
Brain tumors also lesion brain tissue.

46 Less Invasive ways to study the Brain
Electroencephalogram (EEG) Computerized Axial Tomography (CAT) Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) Positron Emission Tomography (PET) Functional MRI CHECK OUT LINK ON WEBSITE FOR MORE INFO!

47 Endocrine System System of glands that secrete hormones.
Controlled by the hypothalamus. Pituitary=“master gland” Ovaries and Testes. Adrenal Gland

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