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MARIA JOSE VARGAS 5A. On the west coast of the Italian peninsula is the mouth of the Tiber River. Fifteen miles upstream where the river is shallow stands.

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Presentation on theme: "MARIA JOSE VARGAS 5A. On the west coast of the Italian peninsula is the mouth of the Tiber River. Fifteen miles upstream where the river is shallow stands."— Presentation transcript:


2 On the west coast of the Italian peninsula is the mouth of the Tiber River. Fifteen miles upstream where the river is shallow stands a group of seven hills. On the hill known as Palatine, a settlement was founded that came to be known as Rome. According to the legend, Rome was founded by Romulus and Remus on the palatine Etruscans conquered Rome in 616 B.C and took control of northern Italy

3 The Romans learn many things of Etruscans, including the use of the arch in building, and a ritual for establishing cities. They were very religious and they believe in many gods so they were polytheist

4 the Romans took over the Etruscans power So in 509 B.C the Romans set up the Republic Under the form of government, people use their governments. The patricians members of the oldest and richest families they were the only ones who could hold a public office or perform and certain religious rituals. The poorer people was the plebeians, paid taxes and served in the army. Yet they could not married a patricians or hold a public office. If they felt into dept they could be sold into slavery Later years, Roman Republic make more democratic


6 consuls Judgesassembliestribunes Senate


8 Once the Romans set up the republic, they worked to protect it. They were afraid that the Etruscans would try to conquered them again and take the control. To prevent this, Romans crossed the Tiber river and conquered several cities of then the Romans finished conquered all cities of Etruscans including them. By the 290 B.C Rome was leading power in central Italy By the 275 B.C it ruled the whole peninsula By the 146 B.C Roma ruled almost all the Mediterranean world The Romans were able to gain territory because they had a strong army that was organized by legions each legion contained more that 5,000 soldiers called legionaries and was divided into 60 and 120 soldiers

9 FIRST PUNIC WAR In 264 B.C, the Romans and Carthagians clashed. The war brooked out and lasted 23 years they named Punic war…

10 Carthage had suffered immensely in the First Punic War, had lost not only Sicily but also lost its naval superiority over Rome The Second Punic War began when Carthage captured the Iberian city of Saguntum, a nominal ally of Rome. The famous general Hannibal was determined to annihilate Rome. A lack of naval power, Hannibal led a huge army including elephants through France and over the Alps into Italy. The arrival of Hannibal's army in Italy triggered numerous rebellions against Roman rule and Hannibal defeated Rome in a series of decisive battles. Rome came to use Fabian strategy: avoiding direct conflict with Hannibal in Italy, keeping busy, while the Romans were able to successfully conquer Iberia. Hannibal did not have enough baggage to lay siegeto Rome and could not call in reinforcements from Carthage for lack of naval power. Hannibal's brother Hasdrubal followed his brother through the Alps with a new army but was defeated before reaching Hannibal. Hannibal finally made a hasty retreat, returning to Carthage to meet African Scipio in North Africa in the battle of Zama. Here the Romans defeated Carthage, ending the Second Punic War. Carthage to Rome to ever challenge the hegemony of the Mediterranean, half a century later Carthage was eventually conquered by Rome in the Third Punic War, which was nothing more than a siege of the city.


12 The Third Punic War was the last of the wars between Rome and Carthage (149 a. BC - 146 BC) and culminated with the defeat and destruction of Carthage by the Romans led by Scipio Emiliano, grandson of Scipio the African ; historians say that the war was caused by the repeated statements of Cato the Elder in the Senate. Cato the Elder said that if left to recover Carthage, would wage war against Rome, and that for security reasons, Carthage must be destroyed



15 According to the roman mythology, the founders of Rome were Romulus and Remus. The twin-brothers were the supposed sons of the god Mars and the priestess Rhea Silvia. The story begins with the deposition of Numitor (their grandfather and king of the ancient Italian city of Alba Longa), by his brother Amulius. Numitor's daughter, Rhea Silvia, was made a Vestal Virgin by Amulius - which meant that she was made a priestess of the goddess Vesta and therefore forbidden to marry. However, the god Mars came to her in her temple and with him she conceived her two sons, Romulus and Remus.

16 Romulus and Remus were twin brothers. Their father was Mars, the God of War, their mother was Rhea Silvia, a vestal virgin and daughter of the King, Numitor. Numitor's brother, Amulius, had taken the throne from him and had forced Rhea Silvia to become a vestal virgin so that she would not have any children who might try to take back the throne. When the boys were born, Amulius seized them, put them into a basket and threw them into the river Tiber. He hoped that they would drown. However, the boys were rescued by a she-wolf who fed the babies with her own milk and cared for them. They grew up and were found by the shepherd Faustulus, who took them home and looked after them until they were grown up. The two young men discovered who they really were and decided to kill Amulius and Put their grandfather back on the throne. After doing this they decided to build a city of their own but could not agree where to build it. Remus favoured the Aventine Hill but Romulus wanted to use the Palatine Hill. They could not reach an agreement and so each began to build his own city enclosed with walls. One day, Remus visited Romulus and made fun of his wall by jumping over it and saying how easily it could be breached. Romulus was so annoyed that he killed Remus and said the he would kill anyone who mocked his city or tried to break through the walls of Rome. The legend says that Romulus became the first King of Rome in 753BC and populated his new city with runaway slaves and convicted criminals. He stole women from the Sabine tribe to provide wives for the slaves and criminals and to populate his new city. The Sabine tribe were not happy about this and declared war on Rome. The war went on for many years but eventually the Sabine tribe and Romulus reached an agreement and the Sabines became a part of Rome under the Kingship of Romulus. The legend ends by telling how Romulus was carried up to the heavens by his father, Mars, and was worshipped as the God Quirinus.

17 Lucius Tarquinius Superbus or Tarquin the Proud, who ruled from 534-510 B.C., was the last king the Romans would tolerate. One of the Etruscan kings of Rome, Tarquin the Proud was the son or grandson of Tarquinius Priscus and son-in-law of Servius Tullius, whom he is thought to have murdered. Tarquin's despotic reign earned him the title superbus (proud, haughty); however, it was Tarquin the Proud's son, Tarquinius Sextus, who raped Lucretia, the wife of his cousin, another Tarquin, Tarquinius Collatinus.murderedraped Lucretia

18 Hannibal (or Hannibal Barca) was the leader of the military forces of Carthage that fought against Rome in the Second Punic War. Hannibal, who almost overpowered Rome, was considered Rome's greatest enemy. did not die when he lost the war with Rome. Years later, he committed suicide by ingesting poison. He was at Bithynia, at the time, and in danger of being extradited to Rome.Bithynia....Finally [Hannibal] called for the poison which he had long kept in readiness for such an emergency. 'Let us,' he said, 'relieve the Romans from the anxiety they have so long experienced, since they think it tries their patience too much to wait for an old man's death....'" Livy

19 The Gracchi, Tiberius Gracchus and Gaius Gracchus, were Roman brothers who tried to reform Rome's social and political structure to help the lower classes, in the 2nd century B.C. Events surrounding the politics of the Gracchi led to the decline and eventual fall of the Roman Republic. From the Gracchi to the end of the Roman Republic, personalities dominated Roman politics; major battles were not with foreign powers, but civil. The period of the decline of the Roman Republic begins with the Gracchi meeting their bloody ends and ends with the assassination of Caesar. This was followed by the rise of the first Roman emperor, Augustus Caesar.assassination of Caesar Gracchi is the plural of Gracchus.

20 Gaius Julius Caesar was born on July 13, 100 B.C and was assassinated on March 15, 44 B.C. He was a statesman, general, and writer, considered by some to have been the greatest man of all time. Having been the nephew and companion of 7-time consul and army reformer Gaius Marius, Caesar shared his uncle's political sentiments. This put him at odds with the conservative faction of the aristocracy (Optimates). Caesar defied the murderous dictator Sulla successfully, was captured by pirates whom he crucified after his release, waged war against those people of Gaul (modern France and Belgium) who didn't side willingly with the Romans, and wrote about it in his third person account known as the Commentaries on Caesar's Gallic Wars.With Crassus and Pompey, Caesar formed the first Triumvirate. However, when Caesar crossed the Rubicon, he faced Pompey as an enemy. Crossing the Rubicon also made him a traitor to Rome. After defeating the senatorial forces led by Pompey, Caesar became the leader of Rome, soon taking the title of dictator. He was awarded divine posthumous honors, titles, statues, the status of dictator for life (dictator perpetuo).Crassus

21 After the death of Caesar, one man in particular stood in the best position to sieze control of unstable Rome. Antony proved a vital supporter in Caesar's rise to power and would establish himself as one of the leading men of the later Republic. Antony, however, despite being a brilliant general, lacked the necessary political tools hold onto his precarious position. Antony was born in Rome around 83 BC and was of a prominent family of some fame. His grandfather of the same name was a supporter of Sulla and was executed by Marius before Antony's birth; and his father, known for his campaigns against the eastern pirates died when Antony was quite young. Through his mother, Julia Caesaris, Antony was distantly related to Julius Caesar; and this carried considerable weight in his early career. Antony's mother remarried Publius Cornelius Lentulus, yet he was executed by Cicero in 63 BC as a result of the Cataline Conspiracy. This likely would be a key event marking Antony's personal enmity with Cicero in later years. In his youth, Antony was known to keep dubious company, revelling in n

22 Gaius Octavius was born on September 23, 63 BC, and though of distant relation to Caesar, his eventual rise to prominence was unexpected. He was the son of a 'new man' bearing the same name from Velitrae in Latium. His father had reached the rank of praetor before dying when Octavian was a boy of only 4 years old, just as Caesar was launching his war in Gaul. His father was married to Atia, the daughter of a somewhat obscure Senator, M. Atius Balbus and Julia, sister of Julius Caesar, making him the great nephew of the dictator. There were other first nephews, but Caesar didn't seem to hold them in as high regard as the young Octavian, though one, Q. Pedius, did serve Caesar as a legate. Despite his relation to Caesar, there was some questionable lineage throughout his family.

23 1. Screws. 2. Laws based on Roman system. 3. Language. 4. Christianity. 5. Concrete. The Romans built great buildings with this most modern of materials, the Pantheon among them. 6. Public bath/Pool. 7. Public buildings (libraries, forums, post offices, etc). 8. Roads. In the late 19th century the best roads in Italy were still the Roman roads. 9. Sewer systems (That are still in use in many cities today). 10. Shampoo 11. Columns 12. Mathematics 13. Democracy


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