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The Roots of the Rules Governing the Office of President of the United States.

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Presentation on theme: "The Roots of the Rules Governing the Office of President of the United States."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Roots of the Rules Governing the Office of President of the United States

2 The Royal Governor Executive branch and the Articles of Confederation

3 Qualifications and Terms Qualifications Fear of constitutional monarch Term limit under Article II 22 nd Amendment Office of V.P.

4 Impeachment Only president to resign Executive privilege U.S. v Nixon (1974)

5 Rules of Succession First president to die in office First president to be assassinated Constitutional line of succession Presidential Succession Act of 1947 Twenty-fifth Amendment

6 Gerald R. Ford Spiro T. Agnew Nelson A. Rockefeller President can voluntarily relinquish power (example)

7 The Constitutional Powers of The President

8 Article II First sentence of Article II The Appointment Power Appointment of ambassadors, federal judges, executive positions Cabinet

9 Power to Convene Congress The State of the Union Power to convene Congress only symbolic significance now (why?)

10 Power to Make Treaties Advise and consent of the Senate Historically, Senate ratified about this percentage of treaties submitted to it by the president Woodrow Wilson, Treaty of Versailles, and League of Nations

11 Jimmy Carter and Panama Canal Treaty fast track authority Executive agreement

12 Veto Power Veto power Madisons argument in Constitutional Convention Congressional override Line-item veto

13 1996 bill giving president line- item veto Clinton v. City of New York (1998)

14 Power to Preside over Military as Commander in Chief Commander in chief Gulf of Tonkin Resolution Pentagon Papers The War Powers Act of 1973

15 Pardoning Power Pardon Gerald Ford and Richard Nixon

16 The Development and Expansion of Presidential Power

17 Limits on presidential powers Factors influencing a presidents use of his powers Which president historians rank as best because of leadership

18 Washington, Adams, Jefferson: Establishing Presidents Authority Precedents set by presidency of George Washington 1) 2) 3) 4)

19 Inherent Powers Contributions of John Adams Contributions of Thomas Jefferson Louisiana Purchase of 1803

20 : Incremental Expansion of Presidential Powers Balance of power weighed heavily in favor of Congress Use of presidential power by most presidents from Jefferson to Franklin D. Roosevelt

21 Jacksonian democracy Lincolns questionable acts

22 FDR and the Growth of the Modern Presidency Before mass electronic communications, Congress closer to the people Public concern over governmental reaction to crisis

23 Four terms of Franklin D. Roosevelt Great Depression New Deal FDRs Fireside Chats FDR personalized the presidency Modern presidency

24 The Presidential Establishment

25 The Vice President John Adams on the vice presidency John Nance Garner Dick Cheney Walter Mondale

26 The Cabinet Cabinet No provision for Cabinet in Constitution Cabinet Departments Most recently created Cabinet office

27 The First Lady First Lady Hillary Rodham Clinton Abigail Adams Edith Bolling Galt Wilson Eleanor Roosevelt

28 Roselyn Carter Laura Bush

29 The Executive Office of the President (EOP) The Executive Office of the President National Security Council (NSC) Office of Faith-Based and Community Initiatives

30 The White House Staff Personal assistants to the president Size and growth of presidents White House staff Executive Office Building Importance of proximity to Oval Office

31 The President as Policy maker

32 FDR claims leadership role for presidency in the legislative process The Presidents Role in Proposing and Facilitation Legislation Contract with America and presumed reassertion of congressional power

33 Presidents most important power (in addition to the support of the public) Divided government Honeymoon period and its importance patronage

34 Tip ONeill and the Carter White House Presidents use of political party loyalty

35 The Budgetary Process and Legislative Implementation Importance of budget process for the president FDR and the Bureau of the Budget (1939) Office of Management and Budget (OMB)

36 Policy-Making Through Regulation Executive order Truman ended segregation in the military LBJ institutionalized affirmative action as a national policy

37 President Bush evisceration of the Presidential Records Act

38 Presidential Leadership and the Importance of Public Opinion

39 Presidential Leadership Examples of how great crises make great presidents FDR-The Depression Lincoln-The Civil War Bush- 9/11 Significance of a presidents ability to grasp the importance of leadership style Lincoln and FDR understood that the presidency was a seat of power from which decisions could flow to shape the national destiny

40 Going Public: Mobilizing Public Opinion Bully pulpit-using the presidency as a stage to alter public opinion going public-going over the heads of Congress to the people to gain their support on an issue Bill Clintons effective use of the media as candidate and president-spoke to public over 500 times per year through non-traditional venues such as talk shows and prime time news magazines

41 The Publics Perception of Presidential Performance Cyclical pattern of presidential popularity-president gets high ratings at beginning of term and low ratings at end Bill Clinton ended presidency with higher approval rating than any president in recent history because of admissions of guilt and impeachment trial

42 George W. Bush rallying point due to foreign events reflects common effect due to international events

43 The Executive Branch Chapter 9

44 Bureaucracy an agency or department that help the president do his job

45 Characteristics of model bureaucracies 1 a chain of command 2 a division of labor 3 clear lines of authority 4 goal orientation that determines rules 5 Impersonal application of rules 6 Productivity evaluated by rules

46 The number of civilian employees directly employed in the executive branch -1.8 million employees

47 The number of military employees in the Department of Defense 2 million The number of employees of the Postal Service 800,000 ( but less than Wal-Mart )

48 The three executive branch departments under George Washington Foreign Affairs, War and Treasury Spoils system- winners get the goodies

49 The Civil War and the Growth of Government Pension Office- organized to pay benefits to Civil War veterans Patronage- rewarding supporters with government jobs

50 From Spoils System to the Merit System Pendleton Act- changed spoils system to the merit system Civil service system- program bestowing benefits to government employees Merit system- system based on what you know and not who you know

51 Regulating Economy and Growth of Government in the 20th Century Interstate Commerce Commission created to oversee trade between states Independent regulatory commissions an agency outside a major executive deapartment

52 Sixteenth Amendment established the income tax to help pay for new government regulatory powers

53 Hatch Act outlawed political participation by federal employees Federal Employees Political Activities Act of overturned Hatch Act to an extent that donations could be made and fed employees could run for non-partisan offices Government Workers and Political Involvement

54 The Modern Bureaucracy

55 Ways in which the national government differs from private business government exists for public good, not to make $ and does not have profit motive. Govt gets its $ from taxpayers, not customers and often does not always know to whom they are responsible How public sector employees view risks and rewards- dont make mistakes

56 Federal bureaucrats career government employees who work for national government General Schedule (GS) ladder that determines pay of bureaucrats Competitive examinations tests that determine promotion Who Are Bureaucrats?

57 Types of federal government jobs – policy making appointees – independent commissioners – low level patronage positions Graying of the federal workforce 2/3rds eligible for retirement today Firing a bureacrat?? See chart at bottom of page 323

58 Departments- the Cabinet departments Cabinet secretaries Clientele agencies Government corporations Formal Organization

59 Independent executive agencies Independent regulator commission Selecting members of boards and commissions

60 How the Bureaucracy Works

61 Congressional delegation of Article I, section 8, powers Implementation Iron triangles Issue networks

62 Interagency councils Policy coordinating committees

63 Administrative discretion Rule-making Regulations 1964 Administrative Act three part rule-making procedures Making Policy

64 Administrative discretion Quasi-judicial

65 Making Agencies Accountable

66 President has what authority? (table 9.3) Executive order Executive Control

67 Congress has what authority? (table 9.3) Investigatory powers Police patrol oversight Congressional Control

68 Fire alarm oversight Power of the purse General Accounting Office (now General Accountability Office)

69 Federal judiciary has what authority? (table 9.3) Injunctions Specialized courts Judicial Control


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