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Part 12: Linear Regression 12-1/27 Statistics and Data Analysis Professor William Greene Stern School of Business IOMS Department Department of Economics

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Part 12: Linear Regression 12-2/27 Statistics and Data Analysis Part 12 – Linear Regression

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Part 12: Linear Regression 12-3/27 Linear Regression Covariation (and vs. causality) Examining covariation Descriptive: Relationship between variables Predictive: Use values of one variable to predict another. Control: Should a firm increase R&D? Understanding: What is the elasticity of demand for our product? (Should we raise our price?) The regression relationship

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Part 12: Linear Regression 12-4/27 Covariation of Home Prices with Other Factors What explains the pattern? Is the distribution of average listing prices random?

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Part 12: Linear Regression 12-5/27

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Part 12: Linear Regression 12-6/27

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Part 12: Linear Regression 12-7/27 Regression Modeling and understanding covariation Change in y is associated with change in x How do we know this? What can we infer from the observation? Causality and covariation and see, esp. Probabilistic Causation about halfway down the article.

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Part 12: Linear Regression 12-8/27 Covariation – Education and Life Expectancy Causality? Covariation? Does more education make people live longer? A hidden driver of both? (GDPC) Graph Scatterplots With Groups/ Categorical variable is OECD.

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Part 12: Linear Regression 12-9/27 Useful Description(?) Scatter plot of box office revenues vs. number of Cant Wait To See It votes on Fandango for 62 movies. What do we learn from the figure? Is the relationship convincing? Valid? (Real?)

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Part 12: Linear Regression 12-10/27 More Movie Madness Did domestic box office success help to predict foreign box office success? 499 biggest movies up to biggest movies up to 2003 Note the influence of an outlier. Movies.mtp

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Part 12: Linear Regression 12-11/27 Average Box Office by Internet Buzz Index = Average Box Office for Buzz in Interval

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Part 12: Linear Regression 12-12/27 Covariation Is there a conditional expectation? The data suggest that the average of Box Office increases as Buzz increases. Average Box Office = f(Buzz) is the Regression of Box Office on Buzz

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Part 12: Linear Regression 12-13/27 Is There Really a Relationship? BoxOffice is obviously not equal to f(Buzz) for some function. But, they do appear to be related, perhaps statistically – that is, stochastically. There is a covariance. The linear regression summarizes it. A predictor would be Box Office = a + b Buzz. Is b really > 0? What would be implied by b > 0?

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Part 12: Linear Regression 12-14/27 Using Regression to Predict Predictor: Overseas = a + b Domestic. The prediction will not be perfect. We construct a range of uncertainty. Stat Regression Fitted Line Plot Options: Display Prediction Interval The equation would not predict Titanic.

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Part 12: Linear Regression 12-15/27 Effect of an Outlier is to Twist the Regression Line Without Titanic, slope = With Titanic, slope = 1.051

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Part 12: Linear Regression 12-16/27 Least Squares Regression

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Part 12: Linear Regression 12-17/27 a b How to compute the y intercept, a, and the slope, b, in y = a + bx.

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Part 12: Linear Regression 12-18/27 Fitting a Line to a Set of Points Choose a and b to minimize the sum of squared residuals Gausss method of least squares. Residuals YiYi XiXi Predictions a + bx i

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Part 12: Linear Regression 12-19/27 Computing the Least Squares Parameters a and b

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Part 12: Linear Regression 12-20/27 Least Squares Uses Calculus

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Part 12: Linear Regression 12-21/27 b Measures Covariation Predictor Box Office = a + b Buzz.

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Part 12: Linear Regression 12-22/27 Is There Really a Statistically Valid Relationship? We reframe the question. If b = 0, then there is no (linear) relationship. How can we find out if the regression relationship is just a fluke due to a particular observed set of points? To be studied later in the course. BoxOffice = a + b Cntwait3. Is b really > 0?

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Part 12: Linear Regression 12-23/27 Interpreting the Function a b a = the life expectancy associated with 0 years of education. No country has 0 average years of education. The regression only applies in the range of experience. b = the increase in life expectancy associated with each additional year of average education. The range of experience (education)

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Part 12: Linear Regression 12-24/27 Covariation and Causality Does more education make you live longer (on average)?

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Part 12: Linear Regression 12-25/27 Causality? Height (inches) and Income ($/mo.) in first post-MBA Job (men). WSJ, 12/30/86. Ht. Inc. Ht. Inc. Ht. Inc Estimated Income = Height Correlation = 0.84 (!)

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Part 12: Linear Regression 12-26/27 Using Regression to Predict

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Part 12: Linear Regression 12-27/27 Summary Using scatter plots to examine data The linear regression Description Predict Control Understand Linear regression computation Computation of slope and constant term Prediction Covariation vs. Causality Interpretation of the regression line as a conditional expectation

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