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C HAPTER 18 O FFICE DESIGN Dr. Katie Cahill Science 295.

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Presentation on theme: "C HAPTER 18 O FFICE DESIGN Dr. Katie Cahill Science 295."— Presentation transcript:

1 C HAPTER 18 O FFICE DESIGN Dr. Katie Cahill Science 295

2 O FFICE R OOMS Office landscape versus individual offices Cubicles with partitions can provide needed privacy in the workplace Many office buildings house many different designs; some individual offices and other open space offices Office landscape landscaping a large office space to create the appearance or an irregular terrain Use of plants for appearance and to prevent noise Disadvantages of open designs: Lack of privacy Disruptive noise

3 O FFICE ROOMS Stepwise office design 1. Evaluate the needs of the people using the office 2. Identify a range of different design options to choose from 3. Evaluate the designs 4. Select the final design, implement it and put it to use Employees should be involved in all phases to ensure that all their needs are met

4 O FFICE R OOMS Evaluating different designs Construction cost Ability to expand Running costs Appeal to employees and clients Expected efficacy and effectiveness of use Time until new space is available Flexibility via new technology Yesterdays technology tied us to one office Now we can be flexible with location and work schedules

5 O FFICE ROOMS Looks good, feels good, makes for good work Pleasing office aesthetics create a good image for the organization, help attract and retain employees Job amenities create a home like appearance Coffee bars Fitness rooms Laundry and dry cleaning facilities Child care On site salons Increases emotional ties, and job satisfaction and enhances employee performance

6 O FFICE CLIMATE Affects the workers health, comfort and ability to perform The goal of office design is to provide the best possible conditions and minimize adverse factors Climate should not be too hot/cold, warm,/dry, fresh air without a draft Working in warm or cold Body maintains a constant temperature of 37 degrees The body generates heat and exchanges it with the environment To prevent heat loss we increase our amount of clothing; to prevent overheating we release heat from our skin

7 O FFICE C LIMATE Feeling comfortable Temperature difference between exposed skin and the environment is important Deviation of the core temp by 2 degrees from the norm decreases ability to perform Large temperature differences across different regions of the body Energy exchanges Energy exchange with the environment occurs in 4 ways: 1. Convection 2. Conduction 3. Evaporation 4. Radiation

8 O FFICE CLIMATE Heat balance Depends on: 1. Difference in temperature between the skins surface and the environment 2. Magnitude of heat exchanges depends on the surface area of skin exposed 3. Humidity Occurs when metabolic energy generated = heat exchanged with the environment Acclimatization Mostly by dress Continuous exposure brings about a gradual adjustment of body functions to better tolerate the climate Achieved in about 2 weeks

9 O FFICE CLIMATE Effects of heat on mental performance Mental performance decreases at room temps above 25 degrees Brain functions are especially susceptible to heat Good office climate First choice is AC; if not available, there are other options: Move air swiftly through the room Stay away from warm surfaces that radiate heat Sprinkle water on the hot surfaces to cool them Rest at the hottest times of the day Dress lightly If cold, dress warmly and sit close to heat radiating surfaces

10 O FFICE LIGHTING Natural light provides a homier feel to the office Disadvantages to natural lighting: Changes over time Spots near the window can be glaring Workplaces in the rear become too dark Artificial lighting overcomes these disadvantages Lighten the office ( figure 18-2) 3 main options: 1. Direct lighting – rays fall directly on the work area 2. Indirect lighting – rays reflect off the ceiling, even illumination but less efficient 3. Translucent bowl – scatters the light but can cause shadows and glare

11 O FFICE LIGHTING Glare-free lighting (figure 18.3) Glare – the experience of intense light that enters the eye and overpowers the ability of the rods and cones to distinguish shades of gray and colors Direct – light shining directly into your eyes Indirect – light rays are first reflected and then enter your eye Avoiding glare (figures 18.4 &5) Reposition the workplace so that the sources are at the workers side Placing lamps on the left and right avoid glare Placing lamps directly in front, overhead and behind may can glare (figure 18.6)

12 O FFICE LIGHTING We need light to see With increasing light, more rays reach the rods and cones and we can see objects more clearly Photometry Uses measurements of incoming light (illumination) to describe to lighting conditions Luminance, the light reflected off surfaces, is more relevant for vision Recommended office illumination Depends on objects to be seen and health of the eyes accommodating Generally lx Table 18-2 Steps to alleviate eye problems resulting from computer use

13 O FFICE FURNITURE AND EQUIPMENT Sitting at work – depends on culture Sitting still Tiresome, but difficult to move about when our work is tied to the computer Constantly shift positions Erect Standing and sitting 100 years ago, secretaries stood at their desks; the proper work posture eventually became erect sitting Physiologists studying posture in the late 1800s determined that upright posture was more balanced than curved positions Seats have been designed to support the upright body position

14 O FFICE FURNITURE AND EQUIPMENT Comfortable sitting End of the 20 th century it was accepted that people should sit whatever way was comfortable Sitting is more suitable than standing within a small workspace in which we use our hands Sitting: Keeps our body stable Helps us execute fine motor movements Requires less muscular effort Office furniture must accommodate for all shapes and sizes, postures and activities

15 O FFICE FURNITURE AND EQUIPMENT The human body is made for change Sitting erect for long periods can become fatiguing Figure 18.8 activation of muscles during upright and relaxed sitting Slumping is instinctive to take tension off of back muscles Sitting for long periods of time can: 1. Compress tissue 2. Decrease blood circulation 3. Lead to edema in the lower body Comfort and discomfort Subjective judgment based on physiology and emotions(table 18.3) Use the term annoyance rather than discomfort to avoid confusion

16 O FFICE FURNITURE AND EQUIPMENT Annoying seats Typical descriptors include stiff, strained, cramped, tingling, numbness, not supported, fatiguing. Etc. Circulatory, metabolic, mechanical or emotional events Improper design features include wrong size, too high/low, hard/sharp surfaces, no support Comfortable seats Typical descriptors include soft, plush, spacious, supported, relaxed, etc. Depends on the individual, their habits, environment Aesthetics plays a role

17 O FFICE FURNITURE AND EQUIPMENT Dynamic design (figure 18.9) Design should encourage free flowing movements Links between person and task 1. Visual interface – computer screen, keyboard 2. Manipulation – mouse, keys, pen, paper, phone 3. Body support – seat, backrest, armrest Design for vision Visual targets affect body position Object should be directly in front at about an arms length Tilting the head and neck can lead to eye strain and pain in the neck, back and shoulders

18 O FFICE FURNITURE AND EQUIPMENT Design for manipulation Our hands are usually engaged in many different movements Motion is desirable, but within our reach envelops Figure 18.2 convenient and extended reach envelops Design for body motion and support Primary ergonomic goal for laying out a workstation is to facilitate body movement Active sitting Chairs should be comfortable for relaxed and upright seating, leaning backward or forward and for getting in and out

19 O FFICE FURNITURE AND EQUIPMENT Design for variety Recognition that people are diverse has finished off the one size fits all model Major vertical anthropometrics are used for baseline Best to have adjustable furniture for the office Lumbar spine in relation to the pelvis Sitting and moving about the ischial tuberosities Ligaments, tendons and muscles connect the pelvic girdle to the spine as well as the legs to the spine Therefore the angle of the hip and knee affect the location of the pelvis and curvature of the lumbar spine

20 O FFICE FURNITURE AND EQUIPMENT Seat pan variations (figure 18.4) No single layout has found universal acceptance Pan should be short enough to not press against the back of the knees Should be well rounded Height should be adjustable Backrest necessary? Some orthopedists state that a backrest is not necessary because back muscles must act to stabilize the trunk without it Most believe it is desirable for many reasons: Carries weight of the upper body and reduces spinal compression Helps maintain lumbar lordosis Relaxation

21 O FFICE FURNITURE AND EQUIPMENT Backrest shapes Preferred backrest shapes follow the curve of the backside (figure 18.15) Concave at the bottom for the buttocks, convex for the lumbar spine straightening for the upper back Work surface and keyboard support Height depends on the activities Main reference points are elbow and eye height Work surface of a sit down workplace should be adjustable Keyboard trays can be useful for high workspaces

22 D ESIGNING THE HOME OFFICE Pick a chair that will provide comfort and support over long periods of time Incorporate standing throughout the day ( on the phone) Select a quality computer and keyboard Select a room with good lighting, temperature control and which is quiet Well being is worth the money and effort you spend setting up the home office Table 18.4 Ergonomic recommendations for workstation arrangement

23 S UMMARY Office designs can be open (lack of privacy and noisy) or closed; most offices incorporate a mix Proper illumination depends on tasks, objects to be seen and health of individuals eyes General illumination should be around 500lx No single seated position is considered proper Changing postures is important Furniture should allow for changes in body posture Adjustments in seat/monitor height and backrest/seat pan angle should be permitted Home office design allows for individual freedom for workplace arrangements


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