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Chapter 14 The Virtual Office MANAGEMENT INFORMATION SYSTEMS 8/E Raymond McLeod, Jr. and George Schell Copyright 2001 Prentice-Hall, Inc. 14-1.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 14 The Virtual Office MANAGEMENT INFORMATION SYSTEMS 8/E Raymond McLeod, Jr. and George Schell Copyright 2001 Prentice-Hall, Inc. 14-1."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 14 The Virtual Office MANAGEMENT INFORMATION SYSTEMS 8/E Raymond McLeod, Jr. and George Schell Copyright 2001 Prentice-Hall, Inc. 14-1

2 Introduction n Automation began in the factory –Numerical control (NC) –Direct numerical control (DNC) –CAD/CAM –Robotics n Office automation (OA) began with IBM in the 1960s –Word processing –Magnetic Tape/Selectric Typewriter n Office automation systems are characterized by communication 14-2

3 Office Automation (OA) n Formal and informal electronic systems n Communication of information n Persons inside and outside the firm are affected n Used by managers, professionals, secretaries, and clerical employees –managers and professionals are collectively known as knowledge workers 14-3

4 The Virtual Office n Office work can be done at virtually any geographic location n Must be linked by electronic communication n Impact –Emerged with the appearance of low cost microprocessors –Teleprocessing –Telecommuting 14-4

5 Advantages of the Virtual Office n Reduced facility costs n Reduced equipment cost n Formal communications network n Reduced work stoppages n Social contributions –Those unable to leave their homes can now work in new ways 14-5

6 Disadvantages of the Virtual Office n Sense of not belonging n Fear of job loss n Low morale n Family tension These are disadvantages to the employee! 14-6

7 Recommended Virtual Office Strategy n Provide computer resources n Provide access to information sources n Provide noncomputer supplies n Arrange to forward phone calls n Utilize conference calls n Schedule regular meetings n Follow a work routine 14-7

8 Virtual Organization n Extends idea of a virtual office to an entire organization n No ties to physical location n Three I Economy –Information –Ideas –Intelligence 14-8

9 OA Model n Information and communication –No data n Computer and noncomputer applications n "Other problem solvers" –Internal –Environmental 14-9

10 Environment The firm Problem Solver Other Problem Solvers Database Transform Noncomputer Apps Computer- Apps Input physical resources Output physical resources An OA Model Communications Information Office Automation System 14-10

11 Office Automation (OA) Applications n Word processing n Electronic and voice mail n Computer calendaring n Audio conferencing n Video conferencing n Computer conferencing n FAX n Videotex n Imaging n Desktop publishing 14-11

12 Word Processing n Use of a computer to perform automatically many of the tasks necessary to prepare typed or printed documents n Contribution to managers is the preparation of more effective communications 14-12

13 A Word Processing System Secretary or manager Document storage CPU Typed documents 14-13

14 Electronic Mail (E-mail) n Use of a computer network that allows users to send, store and retrieve messages using terminals and storage devices n Good when two-way conversation is not needed n Easy asynchronous communication n Eliminates phone tag 14-14

15 An Electronic Mail System Mail storage CPU Mail display and entry Mail display and entry Mail display and entry User 1 User 2 User n 14-15

16 Voice Mail n Like e-mail except messages are sent and received over telephone systems in audio form n Requires computers with an ability to store audio messages digitally and convert them back upon retrieval n Managers do not have to type n Less equipment and infrastructure than e-mail e-mail 14-16

17 Computer Message coding and decoding unit User 1User 2 Secondary storage AVoiceMailSystem 14-17

18 Electronic Calendaring n Use of a networked computer to store and retrieve a managers appointment calendar n Allows other managers calendars to be accessed n Facilitates scheduling n Does not communicate problem-solving information 14-18

19 An Electronic Calendaring System Calendar storage CPU Calendar display and entry Calendar display and entry Calendar display and entry Manager 1 Manager 2 Manager n 14-19

20 Audio Conferencing n Uses voice communications equipment to establish an audio link between geographically dispersed people n Conference call was first form of this system 14-20

21 Rules for Added Efficiency in Audio Conferencing n Have a moderator n Keep participants to a manageable size n Send an agenda first n Identify yourself when speaking n Keep a taped record n Distribute a hard copy transcript or meeting minutes 14-21

22 An Audio Conferencing System Audio Channel Location 1 Location n 14-22

23 Video Conferencing n Use of television equipment to link geographically dispersed conference participants n Three general configurations –One-way video and audio –One-way video and two-way audio –Two-way video and audio 14-23

24 Video channel Video channel Location 1 Location n A. One-way video transmission B. Two-way video transmission Video Conferencing 14-24

25 Desktop Video Conferencing n Video and audio equipment are attached to each workstation in the network enabling the two-way communication of picture and sound n Technical concerns –Many desktop computers are powerful enough already –Requires high-speed communications network –Cost is typically less that $1,000 for the additional equipment to make a standard PC a desktop video station 14-25

26 Computer Conferencing n Uses a networked computer that allows participants with some common characteristic to exchange information regarding a particular topic n One of the largest was an IBM PC computer conference –Over 4,000 topic areas –Over 40,000 members n Computers must be networked together 14-26

27 Teleconferencing + Incorporates all other conferencing techniques + Includes: audio video computer conferencing 14-27

28 FAX Original document Facsimile machine Analog channel Facsimile machine Document copy Uses special equipment that can read a document at one end of a communication channel and make a copy at the other end 14-28

29 Videotex n Uses a computer to store and display a stored narrative and graphic material on a CRT screen –Can be created in the firms own computer –Can be owned by a service and accessed by the firm (such as the Dow Jones News / Retrieval Service) –Can be owned by other firms 14-29

30 Imaging n Uses optical character recognition (OCR) to convert data on paper to a digital format for storage in a secondary storage device n Performed by a document management (DM) system n Conserves space since documents are not stored in paper form 14-30

31 A Document Management System OCR OCRReader Network server DBMS Workstation Workstation Workstation Workstation Laser Laserprinter printer Documents to be read to be read Optical disk storage unit 14-31

32 Desktop Publishing n Uses a computer to prepare output that is very close in quality to that produced by a typesetter n Requires high resolution monitor and printing devices n Three areas of applications –administrative –technical –corporate 14-32

33 Desk-Top Publishing System High-resolution screen Keyboard Microcomputer Laser printer output Document storage 14-33

34 OA and Virtual Office in Perspective n Aimed at the heart of business problem solving –Supplements interpersonal communications –Provides opportunity for better communications 14-34

35 Summary n Early OA was directed at secretarial staff and clerks n Communication needs of managers and knowledge workers were recognized n Virtual office concept emerged n Goal of OA is increased productivity 14-35

36 Summary [cont.] n Variety of applications –Word processing –E-mail –Voice mail –Electronic calendaring –Audio conferencing –Video conferencing –Computer conferencing –Fax –Videotex 14-36

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